The Seven Years War


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The Seven Years War

  1. 1. The Seven Years War
  2. 2. The War of Austrian Succession ended in 1748 with the Peace of Aix-La-Chapelle.
  3. 3. An uneasy peace held for almost eight years. Frederick the Great wanted to hold onto Silesia. Maria Theresa was determined to gain her province back.
  4. 4. The Seven Years War began in America- British troops tried to take French Fort Duquesne in the Ohio Valley and were repulsed.
  5. 5. I could hear the bullets whizzing close by. . .and believe me when I tell you that there is something sweet in that sound. --George Washington
  6. 6. When hostilities broke out in North America, Great Britain sought to protect their interests on the Continent. Prussia was persuaded to guarantee the neutrality of Hanover, an area vulnerable to the French.
  7. 7. This treaty prompted Austria and France to form an alliance— engineered by Count Kaunitz, the Austrian foreign minister. Louis, Grandson of King Louis XV Marie Antoinette, Daughter of Empress Maria Theresa
  8. 8. In France, King Louis XV and his mistress, Madame de Pompadour, also agreed to the alliance.
  9. 9. This is called the diplomatic revolution, or the reversal of the alliances. Aligned with Austria Austrian Empire France Holy Roman Empire Russia Saxony Spain Sweden
  10. 10. The Diplomatic Revolution Aligned with Prussia  Hanover  Great Britain  Portugal
  11. 11. Russia allied itself with Austria, to prevent Prussia from expanding to the east.
  12. 12. Frederick the Great’s only useful ally was Britain—already quite busy in its territories in the New World.
  13. 13. The war began in Europe with Frederick’s invasion of Bohemia—when he was pushed back, he attacked Saxony.
  14. 14. At first, Frederick was stunningly successful. Battle of Leuthen Battle of Rossbach
  15. 15. In the new world, the French were successful in seeking the alliance of the Indian leaders—hence, this war is called the French and Indian War in North America.
  16. 16. In 1758, Louisburg, the great fort that had been captured and returned by the British during the War of Austrian Succession, was captured once again.
  17. 17. And in 1759, French Canada fell to the British in the Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham.
  18. 18. Both British General Wolfe and French General Montcalm were killed in the Battle of Quebec.
  19. 19. Britain also captured the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique and the French slave forts in Africa.
  20. 20. Both these islands were highly prized because of their sugar cane plantations.
  21. 21. Meanwhile, on the continent…
  22. 22. Frederick the Great’s fortunes begin to change.
  23. 23. In November of 1759, an entire Prussian Army was captured by the Austrians, with Russian help. 13,000 men surrendered.
  24. 24. In October, 1760, the Russians took Berlin.
  25. 25. Frederick’s situation became critical when British Foreign Minister William Pitt was replaced. Britain’s Parliament would no longer send money to help the Prussian cause.
  26. 26. Frederick was rescued when the Russian Tsarina Elizabeth died. Her heir, Peter, was a fanatical admirer of Frederick and the Prussian military.
  27. 27. Peter immediately stopped fighting, made a separate peace with Frederick, and formed an alliance with Prussia.
  28. 28. With Russia now allied with Prussia--it was left to Austria and France to fight on.
  29. 29. Meanwhile, in India…
  30. 30. The coastal towns had been easy pickings for the Portuguese, French, and British.
  31. 31. Forts were built to protect trading interests. Local soldiers called sepoys were often used to provide manpower.
  32. 32. Robert Clive, working for the British East India Company, moved on the French forts in the Bengal area of India.
  33. 33. The French were favored by the Muslim leader Suraja Dowla, who shut 145 British citizens in a small room overnight without windows. This was the infamous Black Hole of Calcutta.
  34. 34. Clive defeated the French and their Indian allies at the Battle of Plassey.
  35. 35. The British won a decisive victory in America.
  36. 36. The Treaty of Paris The British were the big winners. They received: • • • Canada the Ohio Valley Eastern half of the Mississippi Valley.
  37. 37. The Treaty of Paris The French were the big losers.    Their American colonial empire was lost except for a few small Caribbean islands. Valuable trade connections in India were lost. As a nation, they fell deeply into debt.
  38. 38. The Treaty of Paris    The Prussians permanently wrested Silesia away from Austria. The Austrians became more dependent upon its Hungarian domains. The Holy Roman Empire was turned into an irrelevant, empty shell.
  39. 39. Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa went back home and ruled their countries for the next two decades.
  40. 40. French defeat and failure to reform its political and economic system will lead to Revolution in 1789.
  41. 41. Rivalry between Austria and Prussia for leadership within the German States will continue into the 19th century.