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Gamification Workshop 2010

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Think Like a Game Designer

Gamification Workshop 2010

  1. Amy Jo Kim, Ph.D. © 2010 All Rights Reserved Gamification Workshop
  2. Products/Brands I’ve worked on • Trained in Psychology, Neuroscience, CompSci • Designed Social Games, Metagames, Communities
  3. Gamification is…
  4. A Loyalty Program on Steroids
  5. Using Game Techniques to turbo-charge products & services
  6. Using Rewards & Status to drive behavior
  7. Turning real-world issues & activities into games
  8. … currently experiencing a Hype cycle 
  9. Let’s Cut Through the Hype
  10. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun
  11. Game Techniques ≠ Core Experience
  12. Need both Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivators work for clear-cut mechanical tasks Autonomy Group Identity Fun Meaning Mastery Power Love Rewards Points Levels Leaderboards Punishments Badges Learning
  13. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Gamification Glossary
  14. Get to Know Your Players & Their Social Style
  15. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Gamification Glossary
  16. Good games balance Skill & Challenge
  17. Player Journey = Lifecycle + Progression
  18. Player Journey = Lifecycle + Progression Good games takes the player on a journey towards mastery Novice Expert Master
  19. Dynamics Mechanics Aesthetics Player Journey Use game techniques to guide and motivate the players journey Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics
  20. Think Like a Game Designer
  21. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Gamification Glossary
  22. Progressive Unlocks Appointments Dynamics Game Dynamics = patterns over time Dynamic Systems Reward Schedules Pacing
  23. Patterns are programmed into game systems Reward Schedules  Habits, Surprise, Addiction
  24. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Gamification Glossary
  25. Game Mechanics make progress visible Levels Player Journey Points Leaderboards Badges Missions Mechanics Virtual Goods
  26. Mechanics “light the way” in a player’s journey
  27. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Aesthetics the overall experience that yields emotional engagement Gamification Glossary
  28. Fun Delight Envy Pride Aesthetics Game Aesthetics evoke emotion Surprise Satisfaction Trust Connection Curiosity
  29. Emotion drives action & engagement A good game takes the player on an emotional journey over time
  30. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Aesthetics the overall experience that yields emotional engagement Social Actions how players engage with each other in your game Gamification Glossary
  31. Player Journey Social Actions  Building Blocks of Social Engagement WHO am I playing with? HOW are we engaging? WHAT are we engaging around?
  32. Design In Context Know Your Players – Design for their PlayStyle
  33. Why are they playing? What problem are they solving? Who’s playing? What’s their style?
  34. What Game Are They Already Playing? Where’s the Fun?
  35. What are your business/revenue goals? Who’s funding this project? Why? What’s the payoff?
  36. What are your personal goals? What’s driving you? What are your hopes & fears for this project?
  37. Elevator PitchGoal: create a short, compelling elevator pitch Purpose: clarify and articulate your project vision #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Rules: Fill in the boxes below, with these caveats: 1) this pitch is directed at people who can greenlight & join your project 2) your secret sauce CANNOT reference game mechanics My company (company name) is developing (a defined offering) to help (target player) (solve a problem) using (secret sauce / unique differentiator)
  38. As they progress, Players have different needs Design Over Time
  39. Novice needs onboarding (welcome + goals + progress)
  40. Expert needs fresh content/activities/people
  41. Master needs exclusive activities/access/unlocks
  42. Your Community has a Lifecycle, too Build social systems that identify & leverage high-value players
  43. Case Study: GetGlue “the easiest way to find your next favorite thing”
  44. Rate content to build your taste profile
  45. Explore content & other people
  46. Like/comment/review content to earn points
  47. Earn Stickers for exploring, rating, socializing
  48. Discover “neighbors” who share your tastes
  49. Lightweight quests suggest what to do next
  50. Become a Guru by interacting with content
  51. (Some folks have lots of time on their hands…)
  52. Leaderboards showcase active, engaged players
  53. Share content you like via status updates
  54. Player JourneyGoal: describe key stages of your player’s lifecycle / journey Purpose: design a game that will attract and support Newbies, Regulars AND Enthusiasts Novice Expert Master Step 1: create a Persona (AKA Player Story) for a canonical early-adopter Player Description can include gender, age, socio-economic status, gaming experience, aspirations, fears, daily technology or shopping habits – whatever is most relevant for your product Step 2: fill in the boxes with “day in the life” scenarios for each key stage
  55. Design for Social Friends Groups Crowds Families
  56. What’s the preferred social style of your players?
  57. Competition Bragging, Taunting, Challenging
  58. Cooperation Sharing, Helping, Gifting, Greeting
  59. Self-Expression customizing, selecting, designing, creating
  60. Canonical Player Types (Bartle’s Four 1996) Killers Achievers Socializers Explorers
  61. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare
  62. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet
  63. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet Explorers Explore Rate View Review Vote Curate
  64. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Taunt Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet Explorers Explore Rate View Review Vote Curate Killers Heckle Hack Cheat Harass Tease
  65. Social ActionsGoal: identify and rank the top 3-5 social actions in your game Purpose: understand the social style of your players & community #Players: 1-8 Duration: 10 min Express Show Off Compete Compare Curate Comment Like Vote Rate Explore View Read Help Give Share Greet Harass Step 1: Choose Top 5 Social Actions Step 2: Rank-order & Customize
  66. Achievers Socializers Explorers Killers Social Actions IIStep 3: Place your Social Actions on the graph. What do you notice?
  67. Newbie Enthusiast Regular Annotate the Journey Novice Expert Master Now add these SOCIAL ACTIONS to your player journey
  68. Design for Progress Progress Mechanics “light the way” along a player’s journey
  69. Keeping Score Points & Progression in the Player’s Journey Anytime you make numbers visible, you’ve enabled a game
  70. How will you track & define progress? Experience Points (XP) earned directly via players’ actions - used to track & reward certain activities uni-directional metric – only goes UP (reflects persistence + skill) Redeemable Points (credits, coins) earned directly via player actions – used to track & reward certain activities bi-directional metric - can “cash in” points to purchase goods or services Currency (bucks, $$) bi-directional metric - purchased with real money to acquire (often exclusive) goods & services Skill Points (Score, Rank) earned via interacting with the game or system – reflects mastery of the activity or game Social Points (Social XP, Reputation, Ratings) earned via the actions of OTHER players – can be a proxy for quality/reputation/influence lets you track & reward socially valuable contributions & actions
  71. Experience Points (XP)Experience Points (WOW)
  72. Redeemable PointsRedeemable Points (Stardoll)
  73. Redeemable PointsSkill Points (Brain Buddies)
  74. Social Points (eBay reputation)Social Points (eBay reputation)
  75. Social Points (Amazon reviews)Social Points (Amazon reviews)
  76. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”)Social Points (Flickr interestingness)
  77. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”)Social Points (Stack Overflow Reputation)
  78. Game Pacing  Flow The better you get, the harder you need to work to earn rewards
  79. Levels give you Pacing, Status, Unlocks
  80. Global Leaderboards showcase your most skilled and devoted players
  81. Social Leaderboards enable Social Actions
  82. Social Leaderboards enable Social Actions
  83. Daily Puzzle percentage ranking percentile rankings enable comparison
  84. How to Play Rules, Hints, Missions, Tutorial
  85. Missions Guide & Motivate the Player
  86. Tutorial == Newbie Onboarding Guide players through actions that will advance their progress
  87. What to Collect Badges, Collectibles, Decorations, Items
  88. Badges = goals + progression + collecting
  89. Collections = goals + completion + surprise
  90. Case Study: Ravenwood Fair clear the scary forest, build a beautiful fair
  91. Tutorial introduces key elements & goals
  92. Basic actions framed as quests
  93. Progressive Quests drive the action…
  94. … and create an emotional arc
  95. New quests unlocked when player is ready
  96. Levels punctuate the action and unlock buying opportunities
  97. Story adds interest, motivation
  98. … and context for new quests & items
  99. Items are “collected” as a side-effect of clearing the forest
  100. Collections add interest & surprise to the main activity
  101. Progress Bar drives desired behaviors
  102. Progress Mechanics Goal: choose and rank-order your top-5 Progress Mechanics Purpose: identify the core system and features to guide and support your player journey #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Step 1: Choose Top 5 Progress Mechanics Step 2: Rank-order & Customize Levels Global Leaderboards Social Leaderboards Badges Collections Progress Bar Missions Hints Tutorial Personal Stats Population Stats Virtual Goods Reputation Ratings
  103. Novices need clear, easy-to-earn rewards
  104. Experts need powertools, status, customization
  105. Masters need exclusive access, activities, unlocks
  106. Newbie Enthusiast Regular Annotate the Journey Novice Expert Master Step 2: Add PROGRESS MECHANICS
  107. Virtual Goods let players customize their experience & payments Design for Customization
  108. Virtual Goods = Digital Items w/Contextual Meaning
  109. Virtual Goods evoke real emotions
  110. Virtual Economies drive ongoing use..
  111. … and require ongoing production & service
  112. What can players Customize?
  113. Customize Your Page/Dashboard
  114. Customize Your Avatar
  115. Customize Your Location
  116. Case Study: Pogo
  117. Play games, earn tokens, win prizes
  118. Purchase gems to buy games & virtual goods
  119. Customize your avatar’s outfit, background, etc.
  120. Enter a weekly contest for best avatar
  121. Premium items add status, visual interest
  122. Locked items upsell players to premium service
  123. Subscription service offers badges & more
  124. Badge album shows off your collection
  125. Rich profile includes stats, badges, guestbook
  126. In-game chat facilitates meeting new people
  127. Prize winners made visible (to motivate entries)
  128. What to Customize? Goal: define the core Social Object that your players will customize Purpose: focus your Customization/Virtual Goods strategy Duration: 5-10 min Profile Dashboard Home Page Blog Avatar Location (specify) Other Step 1: Choose 1-3 Social Object(s) to Customize (fewer is better) Step 2: Briefly describe how Customization will work at key stages of the Journey Novice Expert Master
  129. Design for Engagement Player Journey + Social Actions = Social Engagement Loops
  130. Player Journey Social Actions drive Social Engagement WHO am I playing with? HOW are we playing together? WHAT are we playing with?
  131. Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Taunt Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet Explorers Explore Rate View Review Vote Curate Killers Heckle Hack Cheat Harass Tease Social Actions drive Social Engagement
  132. Case Study: Foursquare
  133. Core activity: the checkin
  134. Checkin to venues to earn Points & Stats
  135. Badges mark progress and suggest goals
  136. Badges have personality, attitude, humour
  137. Mayorship rewards loyalty, recency – drives competition
  138. Sharing checkins and badges promotes social engagement
  139. Why does Foursquare work? 1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value 2. Progress mechanics light the way badges guide players towards action & completion + have element of surprise mayorships mirror real-world dynamics, stimulate loyalty & competition 3. Social Actions are aligned with Social Needs explore, showoff, share, compare, compete
  140. Social Engagement Loop Motivating Emotion Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious (social) Call to Action Customize / Share / Help / Compete Player Re-engagement Task / Mission / Game / Quiz Visible Progress / Reward Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages
  141. Foursquare Engagement Loop: Novice Curiousity / Competition Checkin Earn Pts, Compare w/friends Checkin Again to explore & discover
  142. Foursquare Engagement Loop: Expert Pride / Surprise / Delight Share with friends/followersCheckin Earn Badge
  143. Foursquare Engagement Loop: Master Pride / Competition Get Special PrivilegesCheckin Defend Mayorship
  144. Engagement Loop 1 Goal: fill in the boxesup your core engagement loop Purpose: identify key systems & actions that drive repeat play #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Step 1: Fill in the boxes with actions specific to your game Motivating Emotion Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious Newbie Onboarding (social) Call to Action Customize / Share / Help / Compete Player Re-engagement Task / Mission / Game / Quiz Visible Progress / Reward Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages
  145. Newbie Enthusiast Regular Engagement Loop 2 Novice Expert Master Step 2: create a Social Engagement Loop for each Stage of the Player’s Journey
  146. Gamification Idol Step 1: Prepare your Game Pitch Goal: Define and communicate your project’s value prop and player journey Purpose: Design a game that will attract/support newbies AND Enthusiasts #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min + + Step 2: Pitch Your Game to the Judges & Audience – get feedback
  147. Gamification Idol Step 1: Prepare your Game Pitch Goal: Define and communicate your project’s value prop and player journey Purpose: Design a game that will attract/support newbies AND Enthusiasts #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min + + Step 2: Pitch Your Game to the Judges & Audience – get feedback
  148. Gamification Idol: Questions 1) Project Intro / Elevator Pitch What’s are you building? Why? For who? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun? 2) Player Journey What’s the core experience / system in your game? What journey are you taking players on? What does it mean to “play well”? What’s the intrinsic motivation? 3) Preferred PlayStyle and Social Actions How do players want to engage? Who are they playing with? What’s their social style? What key social actions will engage them? 4) Visible Progress How will your game “light the way” along the player’s journey? How will players know what to do? What techniques will you use to track and visualize progress? 5) Engagement Loops What is engaging about your game? What will pull players back into the game at different stages of their journey?
  149. Further Resources
  150. Daniel Pink TWITTER SUMMARY Carrots & sticks are so last century. For 21st century work, we need to upgrade to autonomy, mastery & purpose. COCKTAIL PARTY SUMMARY When it comes to motivation, there’s a gap between what science knows and what business does. Our current business operating system–which is built around external, carrot-and-stick motivators–doesn’t work and often does harm. We need an upgrade. And the science shows the way. This new approach has three essential elements: 1. Autonomy – the desire to direct our own lives. 2. Mastery — the urge to get better and better at something that matters. 3. Purpose — the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves.
  151. Tom Chatfield 7 Lessons Learned From Games 1) Progress: Bars, Levels, Points, Badges, Customization – we like to see our progress 2) Missions: Provide multiple long-and-short-term aims for players to tackle 3) Credit: track & reward effort, not just achievement 4) Feedback: tangibly link actions to consequences 5) Surprise: add the Element of Uncertainty to drive and sustain interest 6) People: we're most engaged by people – esp collaborating in groups 7) Engagement: games are perfectly tuned to dole out rewards that engage the brain and keep us questing for more
  152. Jesse Schell
  153. In practice, good game design (like all design) = vision + iteration. Start with a good idea, then iterate, experiment, learn & evolve. * Throw Sh*t in, Take Sh*t Out Brian Reynolds Keynote - GDCOnine 2010 TSI, TSO* http://www.gdcvault.com/play/1013798/Bears-and-Snakes-The-Wild
  154. Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDs Richard Bartle, 1996 http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm MDA Framework + 8 Kinds of Fun Marc LeBlanc, Robin Hunicke, Robert Zubeck http://algorithmancy.8kindsoffun.com/ Punished by Rewards Alfie Kohn Web Reputation Systems Randy Farmer
  155. amyjokim@gmail.com amyjokim Twitter, Facebook, Slideshare Thank You!

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