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Basic first aid & cpr


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Basic first aid & cpr

  2. 2. First Aid? <ul><li>Is the immediate assistance or treatment </li></ul><ul><li>given to someone before the arrival of </li></ul><ul><li>medical staff/ ambulance </li></ul>
  3. 3. First Aid? <ul><li>~ Calm </li></ul><ul><li>~ Confident </li></ul><ul><li>~ Willing to offer assistance whenever necessary </li></ul><ul><li>~ Patience </li></ul>Qualities of a first aide:
  4. 4. First A <ul><li>Essential to protect yourself from injury and </li></ul><ul><li>infection </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure surroundings are safe </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from infection </li></ul><ul><li>- to prevent “cross infection” </li></ul><ul><li>( transmitting germs to a casualty or contracting </li></ul><ul><li>an infection yourself) </li></ul><ul><li>- wear gloves or wash hands before doing a dressing. </li></ul>Protecting yourself as a first aide
  5. 5. Aims of a first aide: <ul><li>3 Ps: </li></ul><ul><li>3Ps </li></ul>Preserve life Prevent injuries/condition from worsening Promote recovery
  6. 6. Preserving life: <ul><li>Control bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Treat probable cause of shock </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain airway in correct position </li></ul><ul><li>Perform CPR when needed </li></ul><ul><li>(no breathing or pulse) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prevent condition from worsening: 3 Ps: 3Ps 3 Ps: 3Ps 3 Ps: 3Ps <ul><li>Dress wound to prevent infection </li></ul><ul><li>Provide comfort to casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Place casualty in a comfortable position </li></ul>
  8. 8. Promote recovery : <ul><li>Relieve casualty from anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage confidence and trust </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to relieve pain and discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Handle casualty gently </li></ul><ul><li>Protect casualty from cold and wet </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ambulance: </li></ul><ul><li>Police number: </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Brigade: </li></ul>Emergency Hotlines 999 998 997
  10. 10. Dubai Ambulance Centre Emergency First Aid and CPR
  11. 11. This presentation is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care or the Basic Life Support Training - First Aid and CPR. All employees must meet the training requirements set forth from Dubai Ambulance Centre. NOTICE
  12. 12. EMERGENCY FIRST AID <ul><li>If you are the first on the scene of accident that results in an injury or serious illness, you may be the only link between a victim and emergency medical care. Your role is to take action , whether by providing first aid, seeking medical help or calling 999 . Your actions may improve the victims chance of recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>The following slides will provide specific information from The American Safety & Health Institute (ASHI) on basic first aid procedures. </li></ul>
  13. 13. BLEEDING <ul><li>Apply direct pressure to the wound (at this time a direct pressure bandage may be used) </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate (do not further harm) </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Point additional pressure may be applied to a pressure point to help reduce bleeding. </li></ul>
  14. 14. FIRST AID FOR SPRAINS AND STRAINS I-C-E <ul><li>I - Ice , apply a cold pack. Do not apply ice directly to skin. </li></ul><ul><li>C - Compress , use an elastic or conforming wrap - not too tight . </li></ul><ul><li>E - Elevate , above heart level to control internal bleeding. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CARE FOR DISLOCATIONS AND FRACTURES I-A-C-T <ul><li>I - Immobilize area. Use pillows, jackets, blankets, etc. Stop any movement by supporting injured area. </li></ul><ul><li>A - Activate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), call 999. </li></ul><ul><li>C - Care for shock. See “Care for Shock” slide. </li></ul><ul><li>T - Treat any additional secondary injuries. </li></ul>
  16. 16. POISONING <ul><li>Assess the scene for clues and safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Get victim away from poison if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide care for any life threatening conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Check Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). </li></ul><ul><li>Notify medical staff or on-call Doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>Call the Poison Control Center and 999 when necessary. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Heat Exhaustion & Heatstroke <ul><li>Seek emergency medical assistance immediately </li></ul><ul><li>If casualty is unconscious, place them in the recovery position </li></ul><ul><li>Remove most of the casualties clothing and sponge down the body with a cool and wet cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Ice packs to the head, neck, armpits, and groin to reduce the casualties temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide them with cool water to sip if conscious and able. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Burns and Scalds
  19. 19. <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>burns – dry heat </li></ul><ul><li>- fire </li></ul><ul><li>- hot objects </li></ul><ul><li>- electricity </li></ul>Burns and scalds <ul><li>scalds – wet heat </li></ul><ul><li>- hot liquids </li></ul><ul><li>- steam </li></ul>
  20. 20. Burns and scalds <ul><li>What you will see: </li></ul><ul><li>redness </li></ul><ul><li>swelling </li></ul><ul><li>blisters </li></ul><ul><li>charred skin. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>remove any jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>apply a sterile dressing or cling film </li></ul><ul><li>treat the casualty for shock if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>seek medical help if necessary. </li></ul>Burns and scalds Cold running water 10 minutes minimum. What you should do:
  22. 22. Burns and scalds
  23. 26. Hypothermia Warm affected areas (warm water) only as long as there is no possibility of refreezing Remove affected areas from water when return to normal color Do not rub frostbite or warm with direct heat (fires) Place gauze between the frostbite fingers or toes, and bandage the affected areas loosely Seek medical help.
  24. 28. Some of the more common symptoms or problems that one might experience due to allergies include: Runny nose Burning, watery eyes Sinus congestion Postnasal drip Sore throat Skin rash (Nutritional Programs for Allergies, E.M. Haas, M.D., Ear infections Chest congestion Coughing Headaches Fatigue Asthma Runny nose Burning, watery eyes Sinus congestion Postnasal drip Sore throat Skin rash
  25. 29. There are approaches to handling allergy problems. The first is to avoid contact with substances that you are allergic to, if you know what they are.
  26. 30. When you are exposed to an allergen (something that you are allergic to), one of the symptoms is an increase in heart rate. (Allergy Testing with the Caveman Diet & Pulse Test, P. Bate, PhD,
  27. 31. The way to do this test is to take your pulse, at rest, for one minute. That is your “base” pulse. (Allergy Testing with the Caveman Diet & Pulse Test, P. Bate, PhD,
  28. 32. When you eat a food that is suspect or are exposed to a substance that is suspect, check your pulse again in 15, 30 and 60 minutes. If your heart rate accelerates more than 10 beats per minute over your base pulse, it indicates that you may be allergic to that particular substance. (Allergy Testing with the Caveman Diet & Pulse Test, P. Bate, PhD,
  29. 33. Another method for handling allergy problems is to take medications to suppress your allergy symptoms.
  30. 34. Bites and Stings
  31. 35. Bee, Wasps, Scorpion & Ant Stings Remove the sting by scraping sideways using blunt knife or edge of card. Place icepack on affected area to reduce pain. Apply pressure immobilisation and seek urgent medical help.
  32. 36. Fish Spine (Stonefish, Stingray) Control severe bleeding Immerse wound in hot water around 45° to reduce pain for around 30-39 minutes. Repeat if need be. Apply ice pack if hot water doesn’t relieve pain. Treat for shock Clean wound by scrubbing with soap Apply local antiseptics Get medical advice.
  33. 37. Common Sea Creatures (Jellyfish and fish) Immobilise and reassure casualty and monitor closely. Do not rub sting area If casualties breathing or conscious is impaired, pains develop or if sting area increases, seek urgent medical help. Apply cold pack to reduce pain. Don’t wash sting area with water - Pour vinegar over sting area.
  34. 38. CARE FOR SHOCK <ul><li>Keep the victim laying down (if possible) . </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate legs 10-12 inches… unless you suspect a spinal injury or broken bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the victim to maintain body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the victim with plenty of fresh air. </li></ul><ul><li>If victim begins to vomit - place them on their left side. </li></ul><ul><li>Call 999. </li></ul>
  35. 39. CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION CPR ABC’s <ul><li>A IRWAY - Open the airway with the tilt-chin method. </li></ul><ul><li>B reath - give two breaths. </li></ul><ul><li>C heck circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no pulse or breathing…..(next slide) </li></ul>
  36. 40. CPR Continued <ul><li>… Perform chest compressions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 compressions and two breaths. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Count = 1&2&3&4&5…&30 </li></ul><ul><li>Call 999. </li></ul>
  37. 41. RESCUE BREATHING <ul><li>1 breath every 5 seconds - 12 per minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Compressions : ventilations = 30:2 </li></ul>
  38. 42. REMEMBER!!! UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS: <ul><li>The routine use of appropriate barrier precautions to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposure when contact with blood or other body fluids of any individual may occur or is anticipated. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Precautions apply to blood and to all other body fluids with potential for spreading any infections. </li></ul>
  39. 43. THE END Division of Youth Corrections Office of Quality Assurance