Mixed method
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Mixed method

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EDUCATION

EDUCATION

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Mixed method Mixed method Presentation Transcript

  • Lecturer: Dr. Johan Presented by :Huwaida binti Tajudin 2013422458 Hanafi bin Hasbullah 2013401686 Saiful Nizam bin Mat Saat 2013416388 Mohd Faizal Ridha 2013426796
  • MIXED-METHODS RESEARCH What does it mean? - Involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study. - Those who engage in such research argues that the use of both methods provides a more complete understanding of research problems than does the use of either one.
  • What does it mean? • Started in the early 1950s. • Only has achieved a significant place in educational research. • The first journal devoted to it began publication in 2005. • There are different views to what a MIXED METHOD RESEARCH is.
  • Examples of the kinds of mixed-methods studies “Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in Research on Teachers’ Lives, Work, and Effectiveness.” “Closed and Open-Ended Question Tools in a Telephone Survey About ‘The Good Teacher’.” “Emotions and Change During Professional Development for Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study’.” “Telling It All: A Story of Women’s Social Capital Using a Mixed Methods Approach’.”
  • There are different views to what a MIXED METHOD RESEARCH is :Numerical and statistical analysis. In-depth information, often in narrative form, frequently obtained through the analysis of written communication.
  • What does it mean? - Qualitative – Developing a holistic picture and analysis of the phenomenon being studied with an emphasis on ‘thick’ rather than ‘selective’ description. - Quantitative – Observation and interviewing, prominent instruments used in qualitative research, are also commonly found in quantitative studies.
  • Why do mixed-methods research IT HAS SEVERAL STRENGTHS: 1. Clarify and explain relationships found to exist between variables. 2. Explore relationships between variables IN DEPTH. 3. Mixed method studies can help to confirm or cross-validate relationships discovered between variables, as when quantitative and qualitative methods are compared to see if they converge on a single interpretation of a phenomenon.
  • Drawbacks of Mixed-Method Studies. • You might ask “Why all research problems are not addressed using mixed methods designs?” 1. Extremely time-consuming and expensive to carry out. 2. Many researchers are only experienced in only one type of research.
  • Avoiding the drawbacks 1. Multiple researchers with differing areas of expertise work as a team. 2. Better off doing a purely quantitative or qualitative study and doing it well.
  • 1) THE EXPLORATORY DESIGN  Viewing the study as a two-phase project. (analyze data separately)  QUALITATIVE data collection precedes quantitative data collection.  Greater emphasis is placed on the QUALITATIVE data in the study.  Example: You first conduct interviews and then follow up with a few individuals who answered positively to the questions by giving out survey forms.
  • SEQUENTIAL OF EXPLORATORY DESIGN QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE QUAL DATA COLLECTION QUAL DATA ANALYSIS QUAN DATA COLLECTION QUAN DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION
  • 2) THE EXPLANATORY DESIGN • Viewing the study as a two-phase project. (analyze data separately) • Collecting QUAN data first followed by collecting QUAL data second • Greater emphasis is placed on the QUAN data in the study • Example: You first conduct a survey and then follow up with a few individuals who answered positively to the questions through interviews.
  • SEQUENTIAL OF EXPLORATORY DESIGN QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE QUAL DATA COLLECTION QUAL DATA ANALYSIS QUAN DATA COLLECTION QUAN DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION
  • 3) THE TRIANGULATION DESIGN • Collecting both QUAN and QUAL data • Collecting these data at the same time in the research procedure • Analyzing the QUAN and QUAL data separately • Comparing or combining the results of the QUAN and QUAL analysis • Example: collect survey data (quantitative) and collect individual interviews (qualitative) and then compare the results
  • SEQUENTIAL OF TRIANGULATION DESIGN QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE QUAN DATA COLLECTION QUAL DATA COLLECTION QUAN DATA ANALYZE QUAL DATA ANALYZE DATA RESULTS ARE COMPARED/COMBINED
  • Advocacy lenses • Presence or absence of an ‘advocacy lens’ – a factor used to categorized the mixed-method designs. • Occurs when – the researcher’s worldview implies that the purpose of the research is to recommend the improved treatment to participants in the world outside the research. • ‘Worldview’ is a comprehensive view of the world and human life. – (including everything) • Example of worldview that involve advocacy lens are: – feminist theory, race-based theory and critical theory
  •  Example of research:  A research wanted to triangulating(dividing) quantitative and qualitative methods.  A research on the student academic performance.  Between white suburban school with primarily black inner-city (poorer central section of city) school.  Purposes of research might be: Improve condition and academic school black inner-city student
  • SAMPLING • Qualitative researchers - use purposive sampling. – Researchers select participants who have experience with central concept being investigate. – Small sample size (to get considerable amount of details) • Quantitative researchers - choose individual who are representative of a larger population. – to get generalize result • Generally random sampling strategies are preferred, however, it is often not suitable in educational research. • Thus, convenience, systematic or purposive sampling must be used. • Sample sizes are much larger than qualitative studies.
  • • Example of the research • A researcher might randomly select two high schools for the study on drug. (suburban schools) • Survey the 800 graduating. • Then conduct six focus group using purposive sample of students. • Finally conclude by randomly selecting 40 students as subjects. • *researcher must make a number of decisions with regard to sampling before beginning a mixed-methods study.
  • MIXED MODEL STUDIES  Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) defined  Mixed model studies as those that ‘combine qualitative and quantitative aproches within several different phases of the research proses.  Single study- involve an experimental study, then qualitative data collection after it has been converted to numbers. Mixed-model study- qualitative and quantitative study ma be addressed in three phases. (refer book page 563) Complicated system for classifying research design.  Because the three phases occur very rarely in practice.
  • STEPS IN CONDUCTING A MIXED-METHODS STUDY
  • EVALUATING A MIXED-METHODS STUDY
  • EVALUATING A MIXED-METHODS STUDY
  • ETHICS IN MIXED-METHODS RESEARCH Three ethical concern Protecting participant identity privacy Treating participants with respect sensitivity Protecting participants from both physical and psychological harm Injury and pressure
  • SUMMARY • Mixed method studies becoming popular and common in educational research. • The values lies in combining qualitative and quantitative methods (complement each other) • Requires time, energy and resources in both quantitative and qualitative methods.
  • Thank You For your attention..