RESEARCH PROPOSAL

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RESEARCH PROPOSAL

  1. 1. Contents CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 2 1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 2 1.2 Problem Statement .................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Research Objectives ................................................................................................................... 4 1.4 Research Questions .................................................................................................................... 4 1.5 Operational definitions............................................................................................................... 5 1.6 The Limitation of The Study ...................................................................................................... 6 1.7 The Significance of the Study .................................................................................................... 7 1.8 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 7 CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................. 8 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 8 2.2 Ellis’s Model For Multimedia Effectiveness ............................................................................. 9 2.3 Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning ................................................................................ 9 2.4 Conceptual Framework ............................................................................................................ 10 CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGHY.............................................................................. 11 3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 11 3.2 Research Design...................................................................................................................... 11 3.3 Population and sample ............................................................................................................ 12 3.4 Instrumentation ........................................................................................................................ 12 3.5 Data collection ......................................................................................................................... 13 3.6 Data analysis ............................................................................................................................ 14 3.7 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 14 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... 15 Appendices........................................................................................................................................... 16
  2. 2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING MULTIMEDIA IN TEACHING VISUAL ART EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The presence of multimedia technology opens a new era in the development of teaching and learning visual arts. The ability of multimedia technology in combining various kinds of media like text, audio, picture, numeric, animation, and video in the form of digital software, and its interactive capacity make it an interesting alternative of learning aids. Multimedia is considered as an impressive learning medium because of its capability in activating our perception such as our sight, our hearing, and our tactile. “With the arts, children learn to see,” said Eisner, Professor Emeritus of Child Education at Stanford University. “We want our children to have basic skills. But they also will need sophisticated cognition, and they can learn that through the visual arts.” For this reason researchers tried to apply other methods of teaching that can increase the effectiveness of teaching visual arts education. The findings by (Junaidu, 2008) for five year’s offerings show that students consistently perform much better in questions requiring application of material taught in carefully animated algorithms. These results should carry over to other educational environments.
  3. 3. 1.2 Problem Statement Most of the secondary school students are looking for more of the visual art education. Visual art education is considered as second-class subject and not as important as Mathematics, Science and other subjects. Many parents do not encourage their children to choose visual arts education subject. Students are not interest to study visual arts education because for them, visual arts education is nothing more than drawing and coloring, tedious, requires a high skill, requires a lot of money and take a long time to complete the work. Among parents also see the visual art education as not contributing to the future of their children. Teachers of visual arts education are also considered to be the cause of students not interested in studying visual arts education. The teaching methods used and the teacher, who is non-optionist to teach visual arts education, has limited ability to develop the talents of students in producing quality artwork. The traditional method used has reduced students' interest to learn visual arts education. “Effective teaching requires a substantial amount of expertise. It requires teaching by a skilled and experienced professional with extensive arts content background, a range of pedagogical approaches, and the patience and persistence to turn small advantages and unexpected events into major breakthroughs in learning…”(NAEA, 2009)
  4. 4. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives of this study are : i) to determine the effectiveness of teaching visual art education using multimedia ii) iii) 1.4 to identify appropriate teaching methods to teach visual arts education to identify problems that arise in the teaching of visual art education Research Questions The research questions for this study are : i) What is the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching visual art education? ii) What is the special method in teaching visual art education among art students? iii) What is the problem encountered during teaching visual art education ?
  5. 5. 1.5 Operational definitions 1.5.1 Visual Art Education : Visual arts education comprises of interrelated activities in making art and in looking at and responding to art. It presents a range of activities in perceiving, exploring, responding to an appreciation of the visual world. Perceiving involves looking with awareness and understanding of the visual elements and their interplay in the environment and in art works. Visual arts education provides creative and aesthetic experiences through exploring, investigating, experimenting, inventing, designing and making in a range of media. It promotes observation and ways of seeing and helps the child to acquire sensitivity to the visual, spatial and tactile world and to aesthetic experience (Ireland, 1999). In this study, visual arts education is defined as the subject offered by the school to form four students in certain schools. As one of the subjects in the school curriculum, students will learn the skills that have been designated as drawings, paintings, history paintings and learning about local or international artists who are involved in the visual arts. 1.5.2 Multimedia Multimedia is the integration of multiple forms of media. According to Shavinina and Loarer (1999) (Gertner, 2011), a common multimedia application consists of at least 3 of these 7 components: 1. Text (including notes, captions, subtitles, and other resources such as tables of content, indices, dictionaries, and help facilities) 2. Data (such as tables, charts, graphs, spreadsheets, statistics, and raw data of various kinds) 3. Audio (including speech, music, atmospheric background noise, and sound effects)
  6. 6. 4. Graphics (often ranging from traditional media such as drawings, prints, maps, and posters to images processed or created entirely within a computer) 5. Photographic images, from negatives, slides, prints, or even digital cameras (which record photographic images directly as computer graphics) 6. Animation (whether recorded on film or video, or created with a computer) 7. Moving pictures (specifically digital video, either converted from analogue film and video, or created entirely within a computer). In this study, multimedia is a courseware which is specially built for the purpose of teaching visual arts education, which also contains all the multimedia elements described above. 1.6 The Limitation of The Study This study is to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching visual art education using multimedia among Form 4 students. The number of respondents involved in this study is only Form 4 students taking the subjects of visual art education. This study is also to identify appropriate teaching methods to teach visual arts education. The comparison of the teaching methods between the traditional approach to using multimedia for teaching visual art education is also made.
  7. 7. 1.7 The Significance of the Study To ensure that our curriculum in an educational setting is beneficial to students, teachers and the nation at large, systematic and effective evaluation, long term monitoring as well as frequent observation are carried out. The findings of the study would provide information to determine the effectiveness of teaching visual art education using multimedia. They also can be used as a guide for teachers to manage their teaching and learning in class among secondary students. Arts teachers also have an alternative approach to teach students and can get more participation from students. This is crucial for preparing future teachers to be ready to teach their students in this new era of technologies. The study would therefore, tries to provide some feedbacks from students concerning the using of multimedia in teaching and learning at school. The findings of the study are expected to contribute to the further improvement of the teaching method or towards the implementation of strategies on how to motivate students to learn visual art education. 1.8 Conclusion This chapter has covered the background of the study, the statement of the research problem, the research objectives, the research problem, the research questions, the significance of the research, the operational definition of terms used in this study, and the limitation of this study. The literature review of the topics related to this study will be presented in the next chapter.
  8. 8. CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction In this study, the researcher examines the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching visual art education. Computer-based learning materials, especially interactive multimedia courseware are widely used in higher education today. These technologies allow learners to experience among others, virtual simulation environments, which are similar to real world situations. Interactive multimedia courseware was an effective and useful learning material and had complemented the print modules provided to the learners (Zoraini Wati Abas, Rosliza Osman, P.Rajesh Kumar & Santhanadass Thangapragasam). Multimedia courseware is one of the solutions in dealing with students’ differences in learning styles and knowledge background since it integrates media elements that can engage human information retrieval methods which are visual, auditory, reading and kinesthetic (Syazwan Nordin, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad,Yew Kwang Hooi, 2011) The influence of information technology in the education setting and specifically the capability of multimedia technology increase the students' interest in learning. Multimedia technology is able to motivate children to learn due to the fact that such a technology can touch various modalities of the children. The use of Motivate Literacy (MEL) is more effective in motivating children towards literacy than conventional literacy materials. (Munir). Due to the rapid expansiveness of the technology and its wide array of uses, the incorporation of technology in learning has become a viable and inexpensive option. As a result, it is becoming increasingly clear that traditional textbooks will be cast aside and the adoption of the e-book will result (Gertner, 2011).
  9. 9. Multimedia technology is somewhat similar to a traditional textbook in terms of holding information. However, the ability to manipulate the text itself through an electronic device holds the potential for students to work with the media thereby allowing a more exciting method compared to standard note taking. Multimedia technology has the potential and functionality to hold enjoyment for users compared to that of a standard textbook (Gertner, 2011). Multimedia-assisted teaching and learning have become standard forms of education (Roland Laser, Arnold Baca, Johannes Uhlig, 2011). 2.2 Ellis’s Model For Multimedia Effectiveness According to this model, any study of the effectiveness of multimedia as a tool to enhance learning must specify: learning in a manner that is consistent with accepted learning theory the student population under consideration the subject matter being studied which media elements are being studied, at what level of interactivity, and toward what end 2.3 Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning According to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML), the visual information processing channel may become overloaded when students must process on-screen graphics and on-screen text at the same time. However, when words are presented as narration, words can be processed in the verbal channel, thereby reducing the cognitive load in the visual channel (Mayer, 2001).
  10. 10. In several studies testing this theory, both non-interactive multimedia environments and interactive media environments were used. The results show students who learn from interactive (graphics and narration) learn more deeply and perform better on problem-solving transfer tests than students who learn from non-interactive (graphics and on-screen text). (Richard E. Mayer, Roxana Moreno, 1999). 2.4 Conceptual Framework MULTIMEDIA Visual Art Education The Effectiveness Of Teaching The Special Method In Teaching The Problem Visual Art Education Visual Art Education During Teaching Using Multimedia Visual Art Education With Student Not Interested In the figure above, it shows what will be used in this study. The study will involve three main factors, which are the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching visual art education, the special method in teaching visual art education among art students and the problem encountered during teaching visual art education with students who are not interested to learn visual art education.
  11. 11. CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGHY 3.1 Introduction The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching visual art education using multimedia among secondary school students. There will be five sub-topics that will be discussed in this chapter. There are research design, population and sample, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis procedure. For first sub-topic, I will explain the method that can be selected in this study that is appropriate to the topic research. This sub-topic refers to the plan specifying the procedure to be used in answering research questions. Thus, in population and sample, I will be discussing about the instrument that will be chosen in this research. While, in instrumentation sub-topic, I will be explaining about the instrument chosen following the data collection and finishing with the procedure that will be used to analyze the data. 3.2 Research Design The research design used in this study is experimental research which includes the pretest. In this stage, teacher will use traditional methods for teaching visual art education among 30 students in a classroom. A control group receives no treatment. After the pretest, the teacher carries out the observation among a control group by using a set of questionnaires to determine the level of motivation for learning visual art education among students. Then, the teacher will teach students from an experimental group. An experimental group will receive treatment, which is a different method of teaching. Teacher will use multimedia for teaching visual art education among 30 students in a classroom. After that, the class teacher makes an observation by using a set of questionnaires to determine the effectiveness
  12. 12. of teaching visual art education using multimedia. After that, the researcher will conduct an interview session among both groups to identify appropriate teaching methods to teach visual arts education and to identify problems that arise in the teaching of visual art education. The sample will be selected randomly. 3.3 Population and sample The target population of this study is the students in secondary school from Visual Art Education (PSV) class. There are two different groups for this study. The first is control group and the second is an experimental group. The number of the total samples is 60 students. An interview session is carried out among randomly selected samples from both groups. The number of samples is 10 students. An interview session will also be carried out among a randomly selected samples of arts teachers in that school. The total samples is 5 teachers. 3.4 Instrumentation 3.4.1 Questionnaire The instrumentation that will be used in this study is the set of questionnaires which consists of respondent demography in Section A and 8 research questions using a Likert scale in Section B for the control group and 12 research questions in the experimental group. The questionnaire is aimed to determine the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching. The questionnaire is included in the Appendix section.
  13. 13. 3.4.2 Unstructured interview The second instrument that will be used in this study is unstructured interview. The purpose of interviewing the samples is to identify appropriate teaching methods to teach visual arts education and to identify problems that arise in the teaching of visual art education. An interviewing session will be conducted for samples of teachers and students. Even though the unstructured interview does not require predetermined questions, it is suggested that researcher should prepare a set of questions in order to guide conversation. The interview questions are included in the Appendix section In short, the instrumentation must consider the limits of the study to make the study completed successfully. 3.5 Data collection The questionnaires will be contributed to the samples in their classroom after teachers has done teaching and learning with a control group. The samples are given ten to twenty minutes to answer the questionnaire and after they have completed the questionnaire, the researcher will collect the questionnaire. This way is chosen in order to avoid unreturned questionnaire. For the experimental group, the same method is used. Teacher will use multimedia courseware for teaching and learning visual art education. The interview session will be conducted through visual art education students from both groups. The respondent will be selected randomly for an interview session.
  14. 14. 3.6 Data analysis The data analysis is done after the data are collected. There are two types of data acquired in this study: a. quantitative data: after the completed questionnaires have been collected, the resulting data will be tabulated and entered into a spreadsheet in the SPSS program. Then, the data will be summarized using descriptive statistic. b. qualitative data : the interview transcripts will be read and memos will be written. The interview transcripts will be classified into several categories according to its theme. Research Question What is the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching visual art education? What is the special method in teaching visual art education Method of analysis - Likert scale -average - among art student? What is the problem encountered during teaching visual art education ? 3.7 Questionnaire Interview Content analysis - Interview Content analysis Conclusion As the conclusion for this chapter, this chapter is important in developing, generating and completing this research. Each of the subtopic is already successfully explained clearly in accomplishing the goal of this study. So, I hope this study will be developed smoothly with the cooperation from the lecturer, students, teachers and others.
  15. 15. Bibliography Farlex. (n.d.). The Free Dictionary . Retrieved December 12, 2013, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/visual+art Gertner, R. T. (2011). The Effects of Multimedia Technology on Learning. 56. Ireland, G. o. (1999). Retrieved 2013, from National Council for Curriculum and Assessment: http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/Curriculum/VisArt_Curr.pdf Junaidu, S. (2008). EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTIMEDIA IN LEARNING AND TEACHING DATA STRUCTURES ONLINE. 11. Mayer, R. E. (2001). Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Cambridge Universiti Press. Munir. (n.d.). THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTIMEDIA IN EDUCATION PACKAGE TO MOTIVATE LITERACY(MEL) AMONGST PRESCHOOL STUDENT. 13. Richard E. Mayer, Roxana Moreno. (1999). Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning. Educational Psychologist , 52. Richard Holmes, Hazadiah Mohammad Dahan, Habibah Asri. (2006). A Guide to Research in the Social Sciences. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Prentice Hall. Roland Laser, Arnold Baca, Johannes Uhlig. (2011). Effectiveness of Multimedia -SUPPORTED EDUCATION IN PRACTICAL SPORTS COURSES. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine . Syazwan Nordin, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad,Yew Kwang Hooi. (2011). Study of Effectiveness and Usability of Multimedia Courseware Integrated With 3 Dimensional Model as a Teaching Aid . International Journal of Computer Applications , 27. Zoraini Wati Abas, Rosliza Osman, P.Rajesh Kumar & Santhanadass Thangapragasam. (n.d.). Effectiveness of Multimedia Courseware Design: Towards Quality Learning of ODL. 13.
  16. 16. Appendices MARA University of Technology FACULTY OF EDUCATION RESEARCH INSTRUMENT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING MULTIMEDIA IN TEACHING VISUAL ART EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT I am very pleased to inform that you have been selected to participate in this research. I appreciate it if you could spend a few minutes of your time to fill in the questionnaire. Please be assured that response will strictly be used for academic purpose only. Thank you for your effort, time and cooperation. Researchers : Master of Education (Visual Art Education) Faculty of education, Universiti Teknologi MARA This research will be used for academic purpose only. Please read the entire question carefully and answer them honestly and sincerely. All details that have been given are CONFIDENTIAL. Thank you for your commitment and cooperation.
  17. 17. Questionnaire for Experimental Group Section A : Please answer the following question completely. ( / ) in the box / boxes or fill in the blank. Respondent Demography 1. Gender : Male Female 2. Race : Malay Others 3. Interested subject : ______________________________________ Section B : Content Analysis of Multimedia Courseware Please respond to each statement on the scale provided. 1= strongly disagree 2=disagree 3=neutral 4= agree No. Questions 1. The content was reliable 2 6 The content is structured in a clear and understandable manner The content is present in creative way and motivate students to explore The presentation of information can captivate the attention of students Images uses are relevant to the information included in the text The presentation of information can stimulate recall 7 The video enhances the presentation of information 8 The sound is an alternative means of presenting information The sound can enhances the presentation of information Multimedia are suitable and usable. 3 4 5 9 10 11 12 Using multimedia increase my interest to learn visual arts education I better understand the topic that are taught through multimedia courseware 1 5= strongly agree 2 3 4 5
  18. 18. Questionnaire for Control Group Section A : Please answer the following question completely. ( / ) in the box / boxes or fill in the blank. Respondent Demography 1. Gender : Male Female 2. Race : Malay Others 3. Interested subject : ______________________________________ Section B : Content Analysis of Multimedia Courseware Please respond to each statement on the scale provided. 1= strongly disagree 2=disagree 3=neutral 4= agree No. Questions 1. The content was reliable 2 Teachers explain clearly and students can understand 3 6 The content is present in creative way and motivate students to explore The presentation of information can captivate the attention of students Images uses are relevant to the information included in the text The presentation of information can stimulate recall 7 Teaching method that using are suitable and usable. 8 Teaching method increase my interest to learn visual arts education I better understand the topic that are taught through teaching method 4 5 8 1 5= strongly agree 2 3 4 5
  19. 19. Questionnaire for Interview Session (For Students) The appropriate method for teaching visual art education. 1. Are you interested in visual arts education subjects? Give your reason. 2. Do you prefer to learn visual art education using traditional method or multimedia? 3. Which method will increase your motivation to learn visual art education? 4. What do you think of using of multimedia in teaching visual arts education? Questionnaire for Interview Session (For teachers) The problem encountered during teaching visual art education among students who are not interested in art. 1. The experience of teaching visual art education in school : _______________ 2. Which method that you prefer to use while teaching visual art education? 3. Did you have any problem (during teaching) with the students who are not interested to learn visual art education? 4. What will you do to the students who are not interested to learn visual art education?

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