SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 46
Qualitative & Mixed-MethodsResearch SohailBajammal, MBChB, MSc, FRCS(C), PhD(c) Umm Al-Qura University ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa
Quantitative Qualitative Mixed-Methods Numbers Words Actions Reactions
Not everything that can be counted counts, and  not everythingthat counts can be counted. Albert Einstein
EBM Research Evidence Patients’ Preferences Clinical Expertise Clinical Context Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350
Everyday New Patient QUALITATIVE  quantitative Follow-up Patient QUANTITATIVE  qualitative
Questions How do trauma patients with quadriplegia in the Western region – Saudi Arabia rehabilitate? What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients? What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?
Learning Outcomes By the end of the lecture, you will be able to: Identify: What is qualitative research? characteristics? When to use it? Identify: What is mixed-methods research? types? When to use it?
Qualitative Research
Types of Research Questions Quantitative: (cause, determine, relate, influence) Does A cause/correlate with B? Which is better A or B in terms of diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis? Qualitative: (discover, understand, explore, describe) What? How? Why?
Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
Characteristics of Qualitative Natural settings Researcher as key instrument Multiple sources of data: interviews, observations, documents Inductive data analysis Participants’ meanings Emergent design Theoretical lens: sampling, saturation, integrating Interpretive Holistic account Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
When to use qualitative? Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem Gain insights into potential causal mechanisms Develop quantitative measurement instruments Study special populations (those traditionally underrepresented in research,  low literacy) Curry et al, Circulation 2009
Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively
Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem
Common Strategies (Approaches) of Qualitative Research Culture-sharing behavior of groups Ethnography Phenomenology Narrative research Case studies Grounded theory Individuals Explore processes, activities, events
Data Collection Methods Observation  field notes Interviews  transcripts One-on-one: in-depth, open-ended Focus group Documents content analysis Audio-visual materials  analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis Data Collection Data Analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis Raw Data (transcripts, field notes, images) Organizing data for analysis Reading through all data Coding the data  Themes Integrating themes, diagramming  Interpreting
Data
Computer-Aided Qualitative Analysis ATLAS.ti NVivo MAXqda
NVivo
NVivo
www.researchsupport.com.au
“Validity” Strategies Rationale for choosing an approach Triangulation of methods Interviewers training Member checking Rich, thick description Reflectivity Peer debriefing  Cross-coding Documentation External auditor
Mixed-Methods
What is mixed-methods research? Combining  qualitative & quantitative research 1960s
Aspects in Mixed-Methods Timing: sequentially or concurrently Emphasis:qualitative, quantitative, or both Mixing:integrating, connecting, or embedding
1. Sequential Explanatory QUAN qual Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
2. Sequential Exploratory QUAL quan Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
3. Concurrent Triangulation QUAL QUAN QUAN Data Collection QUAL Data Collection QUAN Data Analysis QUAL Data Analysis Data Results Compared Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
4. Concurrent Embedded QUAN qual Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
Lewin et al, BMJ 2009
Publishing
Resources
Books Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. John Creswell. 3rd Edition. 2009. SAGE Publications.
Articles
People Look around in your university: Nursing Medical Educationalist Psychology Sociology Medical Geography
Questions How do Saudi patients with quadriplegia in the Western region rehabilitate? What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients? What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?
Summary Patients talk, act & react  not numbers Qualitative is helpful when nothing or little is known about a condition or environment GOOD qualitative research needs lots of work Be pragmatic ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa

More Related Content

What's hot

Introduction to quantitative and qualitative research
Introduction to quantitative and qualitative researchIntroduction to quantitative and qualitative research
Introduction to quantitative and qualitative researchLiz FitzGerald
 
Mixed research-methods (1)
Mixed research-methods (1)Mixed research-methods (1)
Mixed research-methods (1)Rakibul islam
 
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of dataQuantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of dataNisha M S
 
Thematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with Example
Thematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with ExampleThematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with Example
Thematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with ExampleSufi Nouman Riaz
 
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative Research MethodsQualitative Research Methods
Qualitative Research MethodsJukka Peltokoski
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative researchJamal Taha
 
Data collection and analysis
Data collection and analysisData collection and analysis
Data collection and analysisAndres Baravalle
 
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research shani
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research shaniDifference between qualitative and quantitative research shani
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research shaniShani Jyothis
 
Chapter 7 (research design)
Chapter 7 (research design)Chapter 7 (research design)
Chapter 7 (research design)BoreyThai1
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisjagannath Dange
 
Qualitative and quantitative methods of research
Qualitative and quantitative methods of researchQualitative and quantitative methods of research
Qualitative and quantitative methods of researchJordan Cruz
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to researchReshma Reddy
 

What's hot (20)

Research question
Research questionResearch question
Research question
 
Introduction to quantitative and qualitative research
Introduction to quantitative and qualitative researchIntroduction to quantitative and qualitative research
Introduction to quantitative and qualitative research
 
Qualitative Research
Qualitative ResearchQualitative Research
Qualitative Research
 
Qualitative Research methods
Qualitative Research methodsQualitative Research methods
Qualitative Research methods
 
Mixed research-methods (1)
Mixed research-methods (1)Mixed research-methods (1)
Mixed research-methods (1)
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Ppt on research design
Ppt on research designPpt on research design
Ppt on research design
 
Types of research
Types of research   Types of research
Types of research
 
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of dataQuantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data
 
Thematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with Example
Thematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with ExampleThematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with Example
Thematic analysis in qualitative research Explained with Example
 
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative Research MethodsQualitative Research Methods
Qualitative Research Methods
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Mixed method research
Mixed method researchMixed method research
Mixed method research
 
Data collection and analysis
Data collection and analysisData collection and analysis
Data collection and analysis
 
Research methodology
Research methodologyResearch methodology
Research methodology
 
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research shani
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research shaniDifference between qualitative and quantitative research shani
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research shani
 
Chapter 7 (research design)
Chapter 7 (research design)Chapter 7 (research design)
Chapter 7 (research design)
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis
 
Qualitative and quantitative methods of research
Qualitative and quantitative methods of researchQualitative and quantitative methods of research
Qualitative and quantitative methods of research
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to research
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (7)

Eveskcige 3.24.13
Eveskcige   3.24.13Eveskcige   3.24.13
Eveskcige 3.24.13
 
Literature Reviews
Literature ReviewsLiterature Reviews
Literature Reviews
 
Cummings Quantitative Research Methods
Cummings Quantitative Research MethodsCummings Quantitative Research Methods
Cummings Quantitative Research Methods
 
Mills Chapter 08
Mills Chapter 08Mills Chapter 08
Mills Chapter 08
 
Mills Chapter 09
Mills Chapter 09Mills Chapter 09
Mills Chapter 09
 
Mixed methods research
Mixed methods researchMixed methods research
Mixed methods research
 
Quantitative And Qualitative Research
Quantitative And Qualitative ResearchQuantitative And Qualitative Research
Quantitative And Qualitative Research
 

Similar to Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research

Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesAlexandra Howson MA, PhD, CHCP
 
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesAlexandra Howson MA, PhD, CHCP
 
Qualitative and quantitative research.pdf
Qualitative and quantitative research.pdfQualitative and quantitative research.pdf
Qualitative and quantitative research.pdftorotoro11
 
Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...
Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...
Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...NHSNWRD
 
ppt research method 1.ppt
ppt research method 1.pptppt research method 1.ppt
ppt research method 1.pptnovasyahminan
 
Introduction to Systematic Reviews
Introduction to Systematic ReviewsIntroduction to Systematic Reviews
Introduction to Systematic ReviewsLaura Koltutsky
 
Primary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
Primary-Care-Research-2017.pptPrimary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
Primary-Care-Research-2017.pptMurali Krishna
 
Mixed methods-research -design-and-procedures
Mixed methods-research -design-and-proceduresMixed methods-research -design-and-procedures
Mixed methods-research -design-and-proceduresABCComputers
 
Living evidence 3
Living evidence 3Living evidence 3
Living evidence 3stanbridge
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative researchdhinnar
 
Validity in Research
Validity in ResearchValidity in Research
Validity in ResearchEcem Ekinci
 
CRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptx
CRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptxCRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptx
CRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptxDelphyVarghese
 
qualitative research for MPH sts.ppt
qualitative research for MPH sts.pptqualitative research for MPH sts.ppt
qualitative research for MPH sts.pptGadisaFitala
 
Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)
Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)
Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)NajMah Usman
 

Similar to Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research (20)

Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
 
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slidesQualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
Qualitative analysis boot camp final presentation slides
 
Qualitative and quantitative research.pdf
Qualitative and quantitative research.pdfQualitative and quantitative research.pdf
Qualitative and quantitative research.pdf
 
Methodology
MethodologyMethodology
Methodology
 
Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...
Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...
Let's Talk Research Annual Conference - 24th-25th September 2014 (Professor R...
 
ppt research method 1.ppt
ppt research method 1.pptppt research method 1.ppt
ppt research method 1.ppt
 
Introduction to Systematic Reviews
Introduction to Systematic ReviewsIntroduction to Systematic Reviews
Introduction to Systematic Reviews
 
Primary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
Primary-Care-Research-2017.pptPrimary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
Primary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
 
Primary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
Primary-Care-Research-2017.pptPrimary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
Primary-Care-Research-2017.ppt
 
Care research
Care researchCare research
Care research
 
Mixed methods-research -design-and-procedures
Mixed methods-research -design-and-proceduresMixed methods-research -design-and-procedures
Mixed methods-research -design-and-procedures
 
Living evidence 3
Living evidence 3Living evidence 3
Living evidence 3
 
Nursing research today & tomorrow
Nursing research today & tomorrowNursing research today & tomorrow
Nursing research today & tomorrow
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Validity in Research
Validity in ResearchValidity in Research
Validity in Research
 
The Goal Of Qualitative Research Essay
The Goal Of Qualitative Research EssayThe Goal Of Qualitative Research Essay
The Goal Of Qualitative Research Essay
 
Systematic Reviews, Tech Mining, and Other Knowledge Synthesis Beasts of Burden
Systematic Reviews, Tech Mining, and Other Knowledge Synthesis Beasts of BurdenSystematic Reviews, Tech Mining, and Other Knowledge Synthesis Beasts of Burden
Systematic Reviews, Tech Mining, and Other Knowledge Synthesis Beasts of Burden
 
CRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptx
CRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptxCRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptx
CRITIQUE OF NURSING RESEARCH STUDIES by delphy.pptx
 
qualitative research for MPH sts.ppt
qualitative research for MPH sts.pptqualitative research for MPH sts.ppt
qualitative research for MPH sts.ppt
 
Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)
Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)
Analisa Tematik (Thematic analytic)
 

More from Sohail Bajammal

Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?
Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?
Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?Sohail Bajammal
 
The Future of Research at KAMC
The Future of Research at KAMCThe Future of Research at KAMC
The Future of Research at KAMCSohail Bajammal
 
Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & Statistics
Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & StatisticsDiagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & Statistics
Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & StatisticsSohail Bajammal
 
UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 Update
UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 UpdateUQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 Update
UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 UpdateSohail Bajammal
 
UQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 Updated
UQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 UpdatedUQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 Updated
UQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 UpdatedSohail Bajammal
 
UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012
UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012
UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012Sohail Bajammal
 
Mindmapping for Medical Students
Mindmapping for Medical StudentsMindmapping for Medical Students
Mindmapping for Medical StudentsSohail Bajammal
 
Consultant experience in residency research
Consultant experience in residency researchConsultant experience in residency research
Consultant experience in residency researchSohail Bajammal
 
Postoperative Spinal Infection
Postoperative Spinal InfectionPostoperative Spinal Infection
Postoperative Spinal InfectionSohail Bajammal
 
Timing of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine Tumors
Timing of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine TumorsTiming of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine Tumors
Timing of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine TumorsSohail Bajammal
 
Spine clearance in trauma
Spine clearance in traumaSpine clearance in trauma
Spine clearance in traumaSohail Bajammal
 
Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008
Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008
Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008Sohail Bajammal
 
Bajammal 2006 Upper Cervical Trauma
Bajammal 2006 Upper Cervical TraumaBajammal 2006 Upper Cervical Trauma
Bajammal 2006 Upper Cervical TraumaSohail Bajammal
 
Complications In Spine Surgery 2009
Complications In  Spine  Surgery 2009Complications In  Spine  Surgery 2009
Complications In Spine Surgery 2009Sohail Bajammal
 
Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)
Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)
Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)Sohail Bajammal
 

More from Sohail Bajammal (19)

Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?
Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?
Research for Medical Students: Luxury or Necessity?
 
The Future of Research at KAMC
The Future of Research at KAMCThe Future of Research at KAMC
The Future of Research at KAMC
 
Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & Statistics
Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & StatisticsDiagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & Statistics
Diagrammatic Summary of Research Methodology, Ethics & Statistics
 
UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 Update
UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 UpdateUQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 Update
UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 Update
 
UQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 Updated
UQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 UpdatedUQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 Updated
UQUMRC KAMC Research Bioethics 2012 Updated
 
UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012
UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012
UQUMRC KAMC Biostatistics for your Research Proposal 2012
 
Mindmapping for Medical Students
Mindmapping for Medical StudentsMindmapping for Medical Students
Mindmapping for Medical Students
 
#UQU2020
#UQU2020#UQU2020
#UQU2020
 
Consultant experience in residency research
Consultant experience in residency researchConsultant experience in residency research
Consultant experience in residency research
 
Postoperative Spinal Infection
Postoperative Spinal InfectionPostoperative Spinal Infection
Postoperative Spinal Infection
 
Timing of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine Tumors
Timing of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine TumorsTiming of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine Tumors
Timing of Surgery in Relation to Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spine Tumors
 
Spine clearance in trauma
Spine clearance in traumaSpine clearance in trauma
Spine clearance in trauma
 
Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008
Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008
Adult Degenerative Scoliosis 2008
 
Bajammal 2006 Upper Cervical Trauma
Bajammal 2006 Upper Cervical TraumaBajammal 2006 Upper Cervical Trauma
Bajammal 2006 Upper Cervical Trauma
 
Complications In Spine Surgery 2009
Complications In  Spine  Surgery 2009Complications In  Spine  Surgery 2009
Complications In Spine Surgery 2009
 
Research Ethics
Research EthicsResearch Ethics
Research Ethics
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)
Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)
Evidence-based Back Pain Management (EBM in general)
 
Spinal Metastases
Spinal MetastasesSpinal Metastases
Spinal Metastases
 

Recently uploaded

Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdfDermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdfniloofarbarzegari76
 
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptxFailure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptxclaviclebrown44
 
5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materials
5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materials5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materials
5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materialsSherrylee83
 
Overview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifierOverview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifierNidhi Joshi
 
Evidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapy
Evidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapyEvidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapy
Evidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapyNehaa Dubey
 
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in IndiaDR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in IndiaNehamehta128467
 
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1DR SETH JOTHAM
 
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...marcuskenyatta275
 
Creating Accessible Public Health Communications
Creating Accessible Public Health CommunicationsCreating Accessible Public Health Communications
Creating Accessible Public Health Communicationskatiequigley33
 
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...Health Kinesiology Natural Bioenergetics
 
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best supplerCas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best supplerSherrylee83
 
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)Anjali Parmar
 
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...ocean4396
 
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptxIs Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptxSamar Tharwat
 
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report  المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالةGallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report  المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالةMohamad محمد Al-Gailani الكيلاني
 
In-service education (Nursing Mangement)
In-service education (Nursing Mangement)In-service education (Nursing Mangement)
In-service education (Nursing Mangement)Monika Kanwar
 
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptxDIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptxSabbu Khatoon
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadNephroTube - Dr.Gawad
 
CT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic trauma
CT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic traumaCT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic trauma
CT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic traumassuser144901
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdfDermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
 
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptxFailure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
 
5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materials
5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materials5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materials
5Cladba ADBB 5cladba buy 6cl adbb powder 5cl ADBB precursor materials
 
Overview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifierOverview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifier
 
Evidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapy
Evidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapyEvidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapy
Evidence-based practiceEBP) in physiotherapy
 
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in IndiaDR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
 
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
THORACOTOMY . SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES VOL 1
 
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
 
Creating Accessible Public Health Communications
Creating Accessible Public Health CommunicationsCreating Accessible Public Health Communications
Creating Accessible Public Health Communications
 
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
 
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best supplerCas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
Cas 28578-16-7 PMK ethyl glycidate ( new PMK powder) best suppler
 
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
 
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
 
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptxIs Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
 
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report  المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالةGallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report  المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
 
Scleroderma: Treatment Options and a Look to the Future - Dr. Macklin
Scleroderma: Treatment Options and a Look to the Future - Dr. MacklinScleroderma: Treatment Options and a Look to the Future - Dr. Macklin
Scleroderma: Treatment Options and a Look to the Future - Dr. Macklin
 
In-service education (Nursing Mangement)
In-service education (Nursing Mangement)In-service education (Nursing Mangement)
In-service education (Nursing Mangement)
 
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptxDIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON  .pptx
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY-SABBU KHATOON .pptx
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
 
CT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic trauma
CT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic traumaCT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic trauma
CT scan of penetrating abdominopelvic trauma
 

Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research

  • 1. Qualitative & Mixed-MethodsResearch SohailBajammal, MBChB, MSc, FRCS(C), PhD(c) Umm Al-Qura University ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa
  • 2. Quantitative Qualitative Mixed-Methods Numbers Words Actions Reactions
  • 3. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everythingthat counts can be counted. Albert Einstein
  • 4. EBM Research Evidence Patients’ Preferences Clinical Expertise Clinical Context Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350
  • 5. Everyday New Patient QUALITATIVE  quantitative Follow-up Patient QUANTITATIVE  qualitative
  • 6. Questions How do trauma patients with quadriplegia in the Western region – Saudi Arabia rehabilitate? What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients? What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?
  • 7. Learning Outcomes By the end of the lecture, you will be able to: Identify: What is qualitative research? characteristics? When to use it? Identify: What is mixed-methods research? types? When to use it?
  • 9. Types of Research Questions Quantitative: (cause, determine, relate, influence) Does A cause/correlate with B? Which is better A or B in terms of diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis? Qualitative: (discover, understand, explore, describe) What? How? Why?
  • 10. Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 11. Characteristics of Qualitative Natural settings Researcher as key instrument Multiple sources of data: interviews, observations, documents Inductive data analysis Participants’ meanings Emergent design Theoretical lens: sampling, saturation, integrating Interpretive Holistic account Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 12. When to use qualitative? Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem Gain insights into potential causal mechanisms Develop quantitative measurement instruments Study special populations (those traditionally underrepresented in research, low literacy) Curry et al, Circulation 2009
  • 13. Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively
  • 14.
  • 15. Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Common Strategies (Approaches) of Qualitative Research Culture-sharing behavior of groups Ethnography Phenomenology Narrative research Case studies Grounded theory Individuals Explore processes, activities, events
  • 19. Data Collection Methods Observation  field notes Interviews  transcripts One-on-one: in-depth, open-ended Focus group Documents content analysis Audio-visual materials  analysis
  • 20. Qualitative Data Analysis Data Collection Data Analysis
  • 21. Qualitative Data Analysis Raw Data (transcripts, field notes, images) Organizing data for analysis Reading through all data Coding the data  Themes Integrating themes, diagramming  Interpreting
  • 22. Data
  • 23. Computer-Aided Qualitative Analysis ATLAS.ti NVivo MAXqda
  • 24. NVivo
  • 25. NVivo
  • 27. “Validity” Strategies Rationale for choosing an approach Triangulation of methods Interviewers training Member checking Rich, thick description Reflectivity Peer debriefing  Cross-coding Documentation External auditor
  • 29. What is mixed-methods research? Combining qualitative & quantitative research 1960s
  • 30. Aspects in Mixed-Methods Timing: sequentially or concurrently Emphasis:qualitative, quantitative, or both Mixing:integrating, connecting, or embedding
  • 31. 1. Sequential Explanatory QUAN qual Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 32. 2. Sequential Exploratory QUAL quan Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 33. 3. Concurrent Triangulation QUAL QUAN QUAN Data Collection QUAL Data Collection QUAN Data Analysis QUAL Data Analysis Data Results Compared Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 34. 4. Concurrent Embedded QUAN qual Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 35. Lewin et al, BMJ 2009
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 40. Books Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. John Creswell. 3rd Edition. 2009. SAGE Publications.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. People Look around in your university: Nursing Medical Educationalist Psychology Sociology Medical Geography
  • 45. Questions How do Saudi patients with quadriplegia in the Western region rehabilitate? What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients? What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?
  • 46. Summary Patients talk, act & react  not numbers Qualitative is helpful when nothing or little is known about a condition or environment GOOD qualitative research needs lots of work Be pragmatic ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa

Editor's Notes

  1. Ethnography: study a group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of timePhenomenology: identify the essence of human experiences about a phenomenon as described by participants.studying a small number of participants through extensive & prolonged engagementCase studies: The researcher explores in depth a program, event, activity, process, or one or more individualsNarrative research:The researcher studies the lives of individuals and asks one or more individuals to provide stories about their lives