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Geetanjali Institute of Technical
Studies, Udaipur
Department of Civil Engineering
Academic Session = 2023-24
Year/ Semester- I / II
Subject- Basic Civil Engineering (BCE)
Subject code- 2FY3-09
Chapter- 5
Transportation
By
Denis Jangeed
Denis Jangeed
1
Transportation
Denis Jangeed
2
Definition:-
Transport (British English) or Transportation (American English)
is the movement of people and goods from one place to another.
The term is derived from the Latin Trans ("across") and Porto ("to
carry").
Definition:-
▪ Transport (British English) or Transportation (American
English) is the movement of people and goods from one
place to another. The term is derived from the Latin Trans
("across") and Porto ("to carry").
▪ Transport is the movement of product from one node in the
distribution channel to another.
▪ A closely associated need is the transport of raw materials to
a manufacturing unit or finished goods for consumption.
▪ From the beginning of history, human sensitivity has
revealed an urge for mobility leading to a measure of
Society's progress.
▪ Transportation fulfils basic needs of humanity.
Transportation plays a major role in the development of the
human civilization.
Denis Jangeed
3
Importance of Transportation
Followings are the points of importance of
Transport:
A. Makes available raw materials to manufacturers
or producers
B. Makes available goods to customers
C. Enhances standard of living
D. Helps during emergencies and natural calamities
(Disaster)
E. Helps in creation of employment
F. Helps in labour mobility
G. Helps in bringing nations together
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A. Makes available raw materials to manufacturers or
producers:
Transport makes it possible to carry raw materials from
places where they are available, to places where they can
be processed and assembled into finished goods.
B. Makes available goods to customers:
Transport makes possible movement of goods from one
place to another with great ease and speed. Thus, consumers
spread in different parts of the country have the benefit of
consuming goods produced at distant places.
C. Enhances standard of living:
Easy means of transport facilitates large-scale production at
low costs. It gives consumers the choice to make use of
different quantities of goods at different prices. So it raises
the standard of living of the people.
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D. Helps during emergencies and natural calamities:
In times of national crisis, due to war or internal
disturbance, transport helps in quick movement of troops
and the supplies needed in the operation.
E. Helps in creation of employment:
▪ Transport provides employment opportunity to
individuals as drivers, conductors, pilots, cabin crew,
captain of the ship, etc. who are directly engaged in
transport business.
▪ It also provides employment to people indirectly in the
industries producing various means of transport and
other transport equipments.
▪ People can also provide repairing and maintenance
services by opening service centres at convenient
locations.
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F. Helps in labour mobility:
▪ Transport helps a lot in providing mobility to workers. You
may be aware that people from our country go to foreign
countries to work in different industries and factories.
Foreigners also come India to work.
▪ In India, people also move from one part to another in search
of work. Similarly, it is not always possible to have workers
near the factory. Most industries have their own transport
system to bring the workers from where they reside to the
place of work.
G. Helps in bringing nations together:
▪ Transport facilitates movement of people from one country to
another. It helps in exchange of cultures, views and practices
between the people of different countries. This brings about
greater understanding among people and awareness about
different countries. Thus, it helps to promote a feeling of
international brotherhood.
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❑Mode of Transportation
Transportation has developed along three basic Mode (Media):-
1. Land Transportation (way)–
(a) Road Transportation (b) Rail Transportation
2. Water Transportation
3. Air Transportation
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1. Land Transport
▪ Land transport refers to
activities of physical
movement of goods
and passengers on land.
▪ This movement takes place
on road, rail, rope or pipe. So
land transport may further be
divided into Road transport,
Rail transport, Ropeway
transport, pipeline transport.
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Road Transport
▪ Roads are the means that connect one place to another
on the surface of the land. You must have seen roads
in your village, in towns and cities.
▪ Different vehicles plying on roads like bullock carts,
cycles, motorcycles, cars, truck, buses, etc. All of these
constitute different means of road transport.
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▪ The types of motor vehicles used to carry goods
and passengers include auto-rickshaws, scooters,
vans, buses and trucks, etc. In Kolkata, tramway
also forms part of road transport for carrying
passengers.
Tramway
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Advantages of Road transport:-
Road transport has the following advantages
• It is a relatively cheaper mode of transport as compared to other
modes.
• Perishable goods can be transported at a faster speed by road
carriers over a short distance.
• It is a flexible mode of transport as loading and unloading is possible
at any destination. It provides door-to-door service.
• It helps people to travel and carry goods from one place to another, in
places which are not connected by other means of transport like hilly
areas.
Limitations of Road transport:-
It has the following limitations.
• Due to limited carrying capacity road transport is not economical for
long distance transportation of goods.
• Transportation of heavy goods or goods in bulk by road involves
high cost.
• It is affected by adverse weather conditions. Floods, rain,
landslide, etc., sometimes create obstructions to road transport 13
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Rail transport
▪ Transportation of goods and passengers on rail lines through trains
is called rail transport. It occupies an important place in land
transport system of our country and is the most dependable mode
of transport to carry goods and passengers over a long distance.
▪ local transport of passengers is also provided by local trains or
metro-rail in some metropolitan cities.
Advantages of Rail transport:-
(i) It is a convenient mode of transport for travelling long
distances.
(ii) It is relatively faster than road transport.
(iii) It is suitable for carrying heavy goods in large quantities
over long distances.
(iv) Its operation is less affected by adverse weathers conditions
like rain, floods, fog, etc. 14
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Goods Train and Passenger Train
In India two types of trains are found mostly.
One is passenger train and other is goods train. While passenger trains
carry both human beings and a limited quantity of goods, the goods
trains are exclusively used for carrying goods from one place to
another. These trains are driven by rail engines and they use steam,
diesel or electric power to move.
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Limitations of Railway transport:-
(i) It is relatively expensive for carrying goods
and passengers over short distances.
(ii) It is not available in remote parts of the
country.
(iii) It provides service according to fixed time
schedule and is not flexible for loading or
unloading of goods at any place.
(iv) It involves heavy losses of life as well as
goods in case of accident.
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(a). Inland water transport
▪ Inland water transport use boats, launches, barges,
streamers, etc., to carry goods and passengers on river and
canal routes. These routes are called inland waterways and
are used in domestic or home trade to carry bulky goods.
▪ Passenger transport through waterways is not so popular in
our country. Inland water transport system exists only in
few states like. West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam,
Tamil Nadu, etc.
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Ocean transport
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(b). Ocean transport
▪ Ocean transport refers to movement of goods and
passengers with the help of ships through sea or
ocean waterways.
▪ It plays an important role in the development of
international trade. It is also used for transporting
goods and passengers in the coastal areas.
▪ Ocean transport has its fixed route, which links
almost all the countries of the world.
▪ Sea transport may be of the following two types.
i. Coastal Shipping
ii. Overseas shipping
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(i). Coastal Shipping–
▪ In this transport, ships ply between the main
ports of a country. This helps in home trade, and
also in carrying passengers within the country.
(ii). Overseas shipping–
▪ In this transport, ships ply between different
countries separated by sea or ocean. It is mainly
used for promotion and development of
international trade.
▪ It is economical means of transport to carry
heavy machines and goods in bulk.
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▪ Overseas transport is carried out on fixed routes, which connect
almost all the countries.
▪ In ocean transport, different types of ships are used to carry
passengers and goods.
These may be classified as under:
(a). Liners
(b). Tramps
(a) Liners –
A liner is a passenger or cargo vessel, which belongs to a regular
shipping company. These ships ply over a fixed route according
to a prescribed schedule or timetable.
(b) Tramps –
A tramp is a cargo ship, which does not make regular trips but plies
whenever cargo is offered to it. It does not follow a fixed route or a
prescribed timetable like that of liners.
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Advantages of water transport:-
Water Transport has the following advantages:
▪ It is a relatively economical mode of transport for bulky
and heavy goods.
▪ It is a safe mode of transport with respect to occurrence of
accidents.
▪ The cost of maintaining and constructing routes is very low
as most of them are naturally made.
▪ It promotes international trade.
Limitations of water transport
Water transport has the following limitations.
▪ The depth and navigability of rivers and canals vary and
thus, affect operations of different transport vessels.
▪ It is a slow moving mode of transport and therefore not
suitable for transport of perishable goods
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Air Transport
Figure- Layout airport runway design
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Precision Approach Path Indicator
3. Air transport
▪ This is the fastest mode of transport.
▪ It carries goods and passengers through airways by
using different aircrafts like passenger aircraft,
cargo aircraft, helicopters, etc.
▪ Besides passengers it generally carries goods that
are less bulky or of high value. In hilly and
mountainous areas where other mode of transport is
not accessible, air transport is an important as well
as convenient mode. It is mostly used for
transporting goods and passengers during natural
calamities like earthquake and floods, etc. During
war, air transport plays an important role in
carrying soldiers as well as supplies to the required
areas.
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▪ Air transport may be classified as :-
1. Domestic
2. International
▪ Domestic air transport mainly facilitates movement
within the country, international air transport is used
for carrying goods and passengers between different
countries.
▪ Air transport is carried out in fixed air routes, which
connect almost all the countries.
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Advantages of Air transport
It has the following advantages.
▪ It is the fastest mode of transport.
▪ It is very useful in transporting goods and passengers to the
area, which are not accessible by any other means.
▪ It is the most convenient mode of transport during natural
calamities.
▪ It provides vital support to the national security and defence.
Limitations of air transport
It has the following limitations.
▪ It is relatively more expensive mode of transport.
▪ It is not suitable for transporting heavy and bulky goods.
▪ It is affected by adverse weather conditions.
▪ It is not suitable for short distance travel.
▪ In case of accidents, it results in heavy losses of goods, property
and life.
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TRAFFIC SIGNS:-
⮚Traffic signs control traffic flow, making streets and highways
safe for drivers, bicyclists and pedestrians.
⮚These signs, which are posted by the Department of
Transportation and local governments, use colours, shapes,
written messages, and symbols to help drivers quickly
understand the information.
Purpose:-
(1) For Smooth Traffic Flow
(2) Reduce Accident Rate
(3) Safety for Road User
(4) Give information to road user to road condition
(5) Share information to road user about facilities provide on road
distance.
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TRAFFIC SIGNS:-
⮚In 1686, the first known Traffic Regulation Act in Europe was
established by King Peter II of Portugal.
⮚Indian Motor Vehicles Act, 1939,1988,2019
⮚The first road signs were milestones used in ancient Rome.
⮚ The first modern road sign system was developed by the Italian
Touring Club in 1895.
IRC 067: Code of Practice for Road Signs (Third
Revision)
https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/irc/irc.gov.in.067.2
012.pdf
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Types of Traffic Signs:
1. Mandatory/Regulatory Signs
2. Cautionary/Warning Signs
3. Informatory/Guide Signs
1. Mandatory/Regulatory Signs:
▪ These signs are also called mandatory signs because it is
mandatory that the drivers must obey these signs.
▪ If the driver fails to obey them, the control agency has the right to
take legal action against the driver. These signs are primarily
meant for the safety of other road users.
▪ These signs have generally black legend on a white background.
They are circular in shape with red borders
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STOP:-This is one of the most important and prominent
Road Sign. This sign indicates that Driver should
immediately stop. Usually Police, traffic and toll
authorities use this signs at check posts.
Give way:- In road transport, a yield or give
way sign indicates that merging drivers must prepare to stop
if necessary to let a driver on another approach proceed. A
driver who stops or slows down to let another vehicle
through has yielded the right of way to that vehicle.
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STOP
Size, shape and colour
The sign (shown in Fig. 14.01) shall be octagonal in shape and shall have
red background and white border. The word "STOP" written in white
(in English or local language) with 150 mm height letters, centrally
positioned.
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GIVE WAY
Size, shape and colour
The sign shall be an equilateral triangle with the apex downwards. It
shall have red border and white background.
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No Entry:- Certain pockets of an area or road are
demarcated as no entry areas for traffic. This could be
entry to a restricted area or no traffic zone. So the
driver should obey it and divert his route.
One way:- This indicates that the traffic flow is allowed
in only one direction. The way beyond this sign
restricts entry of the traffic however, the oncoming
traffic flow remains normal.
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Vehicles Prohibited In Both Directions
This sign directs that the demarcated area beyond it is
prohibited for traffic flow from both sides. There
could be number of reasons for installing this sign
such as pedestrian area only, area under repair,
security reasons etc.
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Cautionary/Warning Signs:
▪ Cautionary/Warning signs are triangular in shape with red border
and black symbol in white Background used to caution and alert
the road users to potential danger or existence of certain hazardous
conditions either on or adjacent to the roadway so that they take
the desired action.
▪ These signs indicate a need for special caution by road users and
may require a reduction in speed or some other manoeuvre.
▪ Some examples of these signs are Hairpin Bend, Narrow Bridge,
Gap in Median, School Ahead etc.
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Informative signs:
▪ Informative signs also called guide signs are provided to assist
the drivers to reach their desired destinations.
▪ These are predominantly meant for the drivers who are
unfamiliar to the place.
▪ The guide signs are redundant for the users who are accustomed
to the location.
▪ Some of the examples for these type of signs are route
markers, destination signs, mileposts, service in-formation,
recreational and cultural interest area signing etc.
▪ Mostly they are colour coded as white letters with green
background.
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Informative Sign
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Road Accidents: Causes and Safety measures
▪ The problem of accident is a very acute in highway
transportation due to complex flow pattern of vehicular
traffic, presence of mixed traffic along with pedestrians.
Mixed Traffic Flow
Homogeneous flow
Vs Mixed traffic flow
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▪ Traffic accident leads to loss of life and
property. Thus the traffic engineers have to
undertake a big responsibility of providing
safe traffic movements to the road users and
ensure their safety.
▪ Road accidents cannot be totally prevented
but by suitable traffic engineering and
management the accident rate can be reduced
to a certain extent. For this reason systematic
study of traffic accidents are required to be
carried out.
▪ Proper investigation of the causes of accident
will help to propose preventive measures in
terms of design and control.
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Road
Accidents
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Causes of road accidents
The various causes of road accidents are:
1.Road Users- Excessive speed and rash driving, violation of
traffic rules, failure to perceive traffic situation or sign or
signal in adequate time, carelessness, fatigue, alcohol, sleep etc.
2.Vehicle- Defects such as failure of brakes, steering system, tyre
burst, lighting system
3. Road Condition - Skidding road surface, potholes, ruts.
4. Road design- Defective geometric design like inadequate sight
distance, inadequate width of shoulders, improper curve design,
improper traffic control devices and improper lighting,.
5. Environmental factors- Unfavourable weather conditions like
mist, snow, smoke and heavy rainfall which restrict normal visibility
and makes driving unsafe.
6. Other causes- Improper location of advertisement boards, gate
of level crossing not closed when required etc..
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Road Condition
Road Design Using Mobile during
Driving
Causes of
Road
Accidents
Potholes Ruts
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ROAD SAFETY MEASURES
⮚The various measures to decrease the accident rates
may be divided into three groups:
⮚These three measures are generally termed as‘3-Es’.
(1.) Engineering
(2.) Enforcement
(3.) Education
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(1) Engineering measures:
⮚This aspect aims to improve the existing
transportation infrastructure and factor of safety
when designing new transportation
infrastructure.
⮚ Engineering measures include:-
a) Road design
b) Preventive maintenance of vehicles
c) Before and after studies
d) Road lighting
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a) Road design
▪ The geometric design features of the road such as
sight distance, width of pavement, width of
shoulders, horizontal and vertical alignment
design details are checked and corrected if
necessary.
.
Shoulder
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b) Preventive maintenance of vehicles
▪ The braking system, steering, indicators, lighting
system and condition of tyres of vehicles plying
on the roads are to be checked at suitable
intervals and heavy penalties levied on defective
vehicles
c) Before and after studies
The record of accidents and their patterns for
different locations are maintained by means of
collision and condition diagrams.
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Before & After Study
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d) Road lighting
▪ Proper road lighting can decrease the rate of accidents
due to poor visibility during night.
▪ Lighting is particularly desirable at intersections, bridge
sites and at places where there are restrictions to traffic
movements.
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(2) Enforcement measures:
a) Speed control
b) Traffic control device
c) Training and supervision
d) Medical check
e) Observation of law and regulation
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a) Speed control
▪ Installation of speed limit and warning sign at all
critical locations of the roads.
▪ Checking over speeding of vehicles by conducting
surprise speed checks and leying of fines and
taking legal action on drivers who violate speed
limits.
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▪ Introduction of ‘Speed breakers’ for control of
vehicular speeds at the intersection of minor roads
with major roads.
Speed Breaker
Speed Breaker Sign 59
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b) Traffic control device
▪ Traffic control device like speed limit signs,
warning signs, marking or channelizing island may
be installed whenever necessary.
Speed Limit
Sign
Warning
Sign
Traffic Signal
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Road Marking
Channelizing
Island
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c) Training and supervision
▪ The transport authorities should be strict in testing
and issuing license to drivers of public service
vehicles and taxis.
▪ The drivers who passed the requisite test should be
kept under proper supervision and be trained in
proper defensive driving.
d) Medical check
The drivers should be tested for vision, glare recovery
time and reaction time at prescribed intervals.
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e) Observation of law and regulation
Traffic or Transport authorities should send
study groups of trained personnel, assisted by
police to different locations to check whether
the traffic regulations are being followed by
the road users and also to enforce the essential
regulations.
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(3) Educational measures:
a) Education to road user
b) Safety drive
a) Education to road user
✔ It is very essential to educate the road users for the
various precautionary measures to use roadway
facilities with safety.
✔ It may be possible by introducing necessary
instructions in the schools for the children.
✔ The IRC (Indian roads congress) has published
highway safety Code (IRC:SP-44).
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b) Safety drive
✔ Organising traffic Safety week
❑The Road Safety Week is a national event that is
celebrated from the 11th to the 17th of January,
❑ Which is aimed at raising public awareness
about traffic rules and to reduce the number
of road accidents that occur on a daily basis.
✔ Various institute/ organisations/ departments have
been organising Highway safety workshop in
different regions of the country.
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Thank you…@
67
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Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transport & TRAFFIC SIGNS

  • 1. Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Udaipur Department of Civil Engineering Academic Session = 2023-24 Year/ Semester- I / II Subject- Basic Civil Engineering (BCE) Subject code- 2FY3-09 Chapter- 5 Transportation By Denis Jangeed Denis Jangeed 1
  • 2. Transportation Denis Jangeed 2 Definition:- Transport (British English) or Transportation (American English) is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin Trans ("across") and Porto ("to carry").
  • 3. Definition:- ▪ Transport (British English) or Transportation (American English) is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin Trans ("across") and Porto ("to carry"). ▪ Transport is the movement of product from one node in the distribution channel to another. ▪ A closely associated need is the transport of raw materials to a manufacturing unit or finished goods for consumption. ▪ From the beginning of history, human sensitivity has revealed an urge for mobility leading to a measure of Society's progress. ▪ Transportation fulfils basic needs of humanity. Transportation plays a major role in the development of the human civilization. Denis Jangeed 3
  • 4. Importance of Transportation Followings are the points of importance of Transport: A. Makes available raw materials to manufacturers or producers B. Makes available goods to customers C. Enhances standard of living D. Helps during emergencies and natural calamities (Disaster) E. Helps in creation of employment F. Helps in labour mobility G. Helps in bringing nations together 4 Denis Jangeed
  • 5. A. Makes available raw materials to manufacturers or producers: Transport makes it possible to carry raw materials from places where they are available, to places where they can be processed and assembled into finished goods. B. Makes available goods to customers: Transport makes possible movement of goods from one place to another with great ease and speed. Thus, consumers spread in different parts of the country have the benefit of consuming goods produced at distant places. C. Enhances standard of living: Easy means of transport facilitates large-scale production at low costs. It gives consumers the choice to make use of different quantities of goods at different prices. So it raises the standard of living of the people. 5 Denis Jangeed
  • 6. D. Helps during emergencies and natural calamities: In times of national crisis, due to war or internal disturbance, transport helps in quick movement of troops and the supplies needed in the operation. E. Helps in creation of employment: ▪ Transport provides employment opportunity to individuals as drivers, conductors, pilots, cabin crew, captain of the ship, etc. who are directly engaged in transport business. ▪ It also provides employment to people indirectly in the industries producing various means of transport and other transport equipments. ▪ People can also provide repairing and maintenance services by opening service centres at convenient locations. 6 Denis Jangeed
  • 7. F. Helps in labour mobility: ▪ Transport helps a lot in providing mobility to workers. You may be aware that people from our country go to foreign countries to work in different industries and factories. Foreigners also come India to work. ▪ In India, people also move from one part to another in search of work. Similarly, it is not always possible to have workers near the factory. Most industries have their own transport system to bring the workers from where they reside to the place of work. G. Helps in bringing nations together: ▪ Transport facilitates movement of people from one country to another. It helps in exchange of cultures, views and practices between the people of different countries. This brings about greater understanding among people and awareness about different countries. Thus, it helps to promote a feeling of international brotherhood. 7 Denis Jangeed
  • 8. ❑Mode of Transportation Transportation has developed along three basic Mode (Media):- 1. Land Transportation (way)– (a) Road Transportation (b) Rail Transportation 2. Water Transportation 3. Air Transportation 8 Denis Jangeed
  • 10. 1. Land Transport ▪ Land transport refers to activities of physical movement of goods and passengers on land. ▪ This movement takes place on road, rail, rope or pipe. So land transport may further be divided into Road transport, Rail transport, Ropeway transport, pipeline transport. 10 Denis Jangeed
  • 11. Road Transport ▪ Roads are the means that connect one place to another on the surface of the land. You must have seen roads in your village, in towns and cities. ▪ Different vehicles plying on roads like bullock carts, cycles, motorcycles, cars, truck, buses, etc. All of these constitute different means of road transport. 11 Denis Jangeed
  • 12. ▪ The types of motor vehicles used to carry goods and passengers include auto-rickshaws, scooters, vans, buses and trucks, etc. In Kolkata, tramway also forms part of road transport for carrying passengers. Tramway 12 Denis Jangeed
  • 13. Advantages of Road transport:- Road transport has the following advantages • It is a relatively cheaper mode of transport as compared to other modes. • Perishable goods can be transported at a faster speed by road carriers over a short distance. • It is a flexible mode of transport as loading and unloading is possible at any destination. It provides door-to-door service. • It helps people to travel and carry goods from one place to another, in places which are not connected by other means of transport like hilly areas. Limitations of Road transport:- It has the following limitations. • Due to limited carrying capacity road transport is not economical for long distance transportation of goods. • Transportation of heavy goods or goods in bulk by road involves high cost. • It is affected by adverse weather conditions. Floods, rain, landslide, etc., sometimes create obstructions to road transport 13 Denis Jangeed
  • 14. Rail transport ▪ Transportation of goods and passengers on rail lines through trains is called rail transport. It occupies an important place in land transport system of our country and is the most dependable mode of transport to carry goods and passengers over a long distance. ▪ local transport of passengers is also provided by local trains or metro-rail in some metropolitan cities. Advantages of Rail transport:- (i) It is a convenient mode of transport for travelling long distances. (ii) It is relatively faster than road transport. (iii) It is suitable for carrying heavy goods in large quantities over long distances. (iv) Its operation is less affected by adverse weathers conditions like rain, floods, fog, etc. 14 Denis Jangeed
  • 15. Goods Train and Passenger Train In India two types of trains are found mostly. One is passenger train and other is goods train. While passenger trains carry both human beings and a limited quantity of goods, the goods trains are exclusively used for carrying goods from one place to another. These trains are driven by rail engines and they use steam, diesel or electric power to move. 15 Denis Jangeed
  • 16. Limitations of Railway transport:- (i) It is relatively expensive for carrying goods and passengers over short distances. (ii) It is not available in remote parts of the country. (iii) It provides service according to fixed time schedule and is not flexible for loading or unloading of goods at any place. (iv) It involves heavy losses of life as well as goods in case of accident. 16 Denis Jangeed
  • 18. (a). Inland water transport ▪ Inland water transport use boats, launches, barges, streamers, etc., to carry goods and passengers on river and canal routes. These routes are called inland waterways and are used in domestic or home trade to carry bulky goods. ▪ Passenger transport through waterways is not so popular in our country. Inland water transport system exists only in few states like. West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Tamil Nadu, etc. 18 Denis Jangeed
  • 20. (b). Ocean transport ▪ Ocean transport refers to movement of goods and passengers with the help of ships through sea or ocean waterways. ▪ It plays an important role in the development of international trade. It is also used for transporting goods and passengers in the coastal areas. ▪ Ocean transport has its fixed route, which links almost all the countries of the world. ▪ Sea transport may be of the following two types. i. Coastal Shipping ii. Overseas shipping 20 Denis Jangeed
  • 21. (i). Coastal Shipping– ▪ In this transport, ships ply between the main ports of a country. This helps in home trade, and also in carrying passengers within the country. (ii). Overseas shipping– ▪ In this transport, ships ply between different countries separated by sea or ocean. It is mainly used for promotion and development of international trade. ▪ It is economical means of transport to carry heavy machines and goods in bulk. 21 Denis Jangeed
  • 22. ▪ Overseas transport is carried out on fixed routes, which connect almost all the countries. ▪ In ocean transport, different types of ships are used to carry passengers and goods. These may be classified as under: (a). Liners (b). Tramps (a) Liners – A liner is a passenger or cargo vessel, which belongs to a regular shipping company. These ships ply over a fixed route according to a prescribed schedule or timetable. (b) Tramps – A tramp is a cargo ship, which does not make regular trips but plies whenever cargo is offered to it. It does not follow a fixed route or a prescribed timetable like that of liners. 22 Denis Jangeed
  • 24. Advantages of water transport:- Water Transport has the following advantages: ▪ It is a relatively economical mode of transport for bulky and heavy goods. ▪ It is a safe mode of transport with respect to occurrence of accidents. ▪ The cost of maintaining and constructing routes is very low as most of them are naturally made. ▪ It promotes international trade. Limitations of water transport Water transport has the following limitations. ▪ The depth and navigability of rivers and canals vary and thus, affect operations of different transport vessels. ▪ It is a slow moving mode of transport and therefore not suitable for transport of perishable goods 24 Denis Jangeed
  • 25. Air Transport Figure- Layout airport runway design 25 Denis Jangeed Precision Approach Path Indicator
  • 26. 3. Air transport ▪ This is the fastest mode of transport. ▪ It carries goods and passengers through airways by using different aircrafts like passenger aircraft, cargo aircraft, helicopters, etc. ▪ Besides passengers it generally carries goods that are less bulky or of high value. In hilly and mountainous areas where other mode of transport is not accessible, air transport is an important as well as convenient mode. It is mostly used for transporting goods and passengers during natural calamities like earthquake and floods, etc. During war, air transport plays an important role in carrying soldiers as well as supplies to the required areas. 26 Denis Jangeed
  • 27. ▪ Air transport may be classified as :- 1. Domestic 2. International ▪ Domestic air transport mainly facilitates movement within the country, international air transport is used for carrying goods and passengers between different countries. ▪ Air transport is carried out in fixed air routes, which connect almost all the countries. 27 Denis Jangeed
  • 28. Advantages of Air transport It has the following advantages. ▪ It is the fastest mode of transport. ▪ It is very useful in transporting goods and passengers to the area, which are not accessible by any other means. ▪ It is the most convenient mode of transport during natural calamities. ▪ It provides vital support to the national security and defence. Limitations of air transport It has the following limitations. ▪ It is relatively more expensive mode of transport. ▪ It is not suitable for transporting heavy and bulky goods. ▪ It is affected by adverse weather conditions. ▪ It is not suitable for short distance travel. ▪ In case of accidents, it results in heavy losses of goods, property and life. 28 Denis Jangeed
  • 29. TRAFFIC SIGNS:- ⮚Traffic signs control traffic flow, making streets and highways safe for drivers, bicyclists and pedestrians. ⮚These signs, which are posted by the Department of Transportation and local governments, use colours, shapes, written messages, and symbols to help drivers quickly understand the information. Purpose:- (1) For Smooth Traffic Flow (2) Reduce Accident Rate (3) Safety for Road User (4) Give information to road user to road condition (5) Share information to road user about facilities provide on road distance. 29 Denis Jangeed
  • 30. TRAFFIC SIGNS:- ⮚In 1686, the first known Traffic Regulation Act in Europe was established by King Peter II of Portugal. ⮚Indian Motor Vehicles Act, 1939,1988,2019 ⮚The first road signs were milestones used in ancient Rome. ⮚ The first modern road sign system was developed by the Italian Touring Club in 1895. IRC 067: Code of Practice for Road Signs (Third Revision) https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/irc/irc.gov.in.067.2 012.pdf 30 Denis Jangeed
  • 31. Types of Traffic Signs: 1. Mandatory/Regulatory Signs 2. Cautionary/Warning Signs 3. Informatory/Guide Signs 1. Mandatory/Regulatory Signs: ▪ These signs are also called mandatory signs because it is mandatory that the drivers must obey these signs. ▪ If the driver fails to obey them, the control agency has the right to take legal action against the driver. These signs are primarily meant for the safety of other road users. ▪ These signs have generally black legend on a white background. They are circular in shape with red borders 31 Denis Jangeed
  • 33. STOP:-This is one of the most important and prominent Road Sign. This sign indicates that Driver should immediately stop. Usually Police, traffic and toll authorities use this signs at check posts. Give way:- In road transport, a yield or give way sign indicates that merging drivers must prepare to stop if necessary to let a driver on another approach proceed. A driver who stops or slows down to let another vehicle through has yielded the right of way to that vehicle. 33 Denis Jangeed
  • 34. STOP Size, shape and colour The sign (shown in Fig. 14.01) shall be octagonal in shape and shall have red background and white border. The word "STOP" written in white (in English or local language) with 150 mm height letters, centrally positioned. 34 Denis Jangeed
  • 35. GIVE WAY Size, shape and colour The sign shall be an equilateral triangle with the apex downwards. It shall have red border and white background. 35 Denis Jangeed
  • 36. No Entry:- Certain pockets of an area or road are demarcated as no entry areas for traffic. This could be entry to a restricted area or no traffic zone. So the driver should obey it and divert his route. One way:- This indicates that the traffic flow is allowed in only one direction. The way beyond this sign restricts entry of the traffic however, the oncoming traffic flow remains normal. 36 Denis Jangeed
  • 37. Vehicles Prohibited In Both Directions This sign directs that the demarcated area beyond it is prohibited for traffic flow from both sides. There could be number of reasons for installing this sign such as pedestrian area only, area under repair, security reasons etc. 37 Denis Jangeed
  • 38. Cautionary/Warning Signs: ▪ Cautionary/Warning signs are triangular in shape with red border and black symbol in white Background used to caution and alert the road users to potential danger or existence of certain hazardous conditions either on or adjacent to the roadway so that they take the desired action. ▪ These signs indicate a need for special caution by road users and may require a reduction in speed or some other manoeuvre. ▪ Some examples of these signs are Hairpin Bend, Narrow Bridge, Gap in Median, School Ahead etc. 38 Denis Jangeed
  • 40. Informative signs: ▪ Informative signs also called guide signs are provided to assist the drivers to reach their desired destinations. ▪ These are predominantly meant for the drivers who are unfamiliar to the place. ▪ The guide signs are redundant for the users who are accustomed to the location. ▪ Some of the examples for these type of signs are route markers, destination signs, mileposts, service in-formation, recreational and cultural interest area signing etc. ▪ Mostly they are colour coded as white letters with green background. 40 Denis Jangeed
  • 43. Road Accidents: Causes and Safety measures ▪ The problem of accident is a very acute in highway transportation due to complex flow pattern of vehicular traffic, presence of mixed traffic along with pedestrians. Mixed Traffic Flow Homogeneous flow Vs Mixed traffic flow 43 Denis Jangeed
  • 44. ▪ Traffic accident leads to loss of life and property. Thus the traffic engineers have to undertake a big responsibility of providing safe traffic movements to the road users and ensure their safety. ▪ Road accidents cannot be totally prevented but by suitable traffic engineering and management the accident rate can be reduced to a certain extent. For this reason systematic study of traffic accidents are required to be carried out. ▪ Proper investigation of the causes of accident will help to propose preventive measures in terms of design and control. 44 Denis Jangeed
  • 46. Causes of road accidents The various causes of road accidents are: 1.Road Users- Excessive speed and rash driving, violation of traffic rules, failure to perceive traffic situation or sign or signal in adequate time, carelessness, fatigue, alcohol, sleep etc. 2.Vehicle- Defects such as failure of brakes, steering system, tyre burst, lighting system 3. Road Condition - Skidding road surface, potholes, ruts. 4. Road design- Defective geometric design like inadequate sight distance, inadequate width of shoulders, improper curve design, improper traffic control devices and improper lighting,. 5. Environmental factors- Unfavourable weather conditions like mist, snow, smoke and heavy rainfall which restrict normal visibility and makes driving unsafe. 6. Other causes- Improper location of advertisement boards, gate of level crossing not closed when required etc.. 46 Denis Jangeed
  • 47. Road Condition Road Design Using Mobile during Driving Causes of Road Accidents Potholes Ruts 47 Denis Jangeed
  • 48. ROAD SAFETY MEASURES ⮚The various measures to decrease the accident rates may be divided into three groups: ⮚These three measures are generally termed as‘3-Es’. (1.) Engineering (2.) Enforcement (3.) Education 48 Denis Jangeed
  • 49. (1) Engineering measures: ⮚This aspect aims to improve the existing transportation infrastructure and factor of safety when designing new transportation infrastructure. ⮚ Engineering measures include:- a) Road design b) Preventive maintenance of vehicles c) Before and after studies d) Road lighting 49 Denis Jangeed
  • 50. a) Road design ▪ The geometric design features of the road such as sight distance, width of pavement, width of shoulders, horizontal and vertical alignment design details are checked and corrected if necessary. . Shoulder 50 Denis Jangeed
  • 52. b) Preventive maintenance of vehicles ▪ The braking system, steering, indicators, lighting system and condition of tyres of vehicles plying on the roads are to be checked at suitable intervals and heavy penalties levied on defective vehicles c) Before and after studies The record of accidents and their patterns for different locations are maintained by means of collision and condition diagrams. 52 Denis Jangeed
  • 56. d) Road lighting ▪ Proper road lighting can decrease the rate of accidents due to poor visibility during night. ▪ Lighting is particularly desirable at intersections, bridge sites and at places where there are restrictions to traffic movements. 56 Denis Jangeed
  • 57. (2) Enforcement measures: a) Speed control b) Traffic control device c) Training and supervision d) Medical check e) Observation of law and regulation 57 Denis Jangeed
  • 58. a) Speed control ▪ Installation of speed limit and warning sign at all critical locations of the roads. ▪ Checking over speeding of vehicles by conducting surprise speed checks and leying of fines and taking legal action on drivers who violate speed limits. 58 Denis Jangeed
  • 59. ▪ Introduction of ‘Speed breakers’ for control of vehicular speeds at the intersection of minor roads with major roads. Speed Breaker Speed Breaker Sign 59 Denis Jangeed
  • 60. b) Traffic control device ▪ Traffic control device like speed limit signs, warning signs, marking or channelizing island may be installed whenever necessary. Speed Limit Sign Warning Sign Traffic Signal 60 Denis Jangeed
  • 62. c) Training and supervision ▪ The transport authorities should be strict in testing and issuing license to drivers of public service vehicles and taxis. ▪ The drivers who passed the requisite test should be kept under proper supervision and be trained in proper defensive driving. d) Medical check The drivers should be tested for vision, glare recovery time and reaction time at prescribed intervals. 62 Denis Jangeed
  • 63. e) Observation of law and regulation Traffic or Transport authorities should send study groups of trained personnel, assisted by police to different locations to check whether the traffic regulations are being followed by the road users and also to enforce the essential regulations. 63 Denis Jangeed
  • 64. (3) Educational measures: a) Education to road user b) Safety drive a) Education to road user ✔ It is very essential to educate the road users for the various precautionary measures to use roadway facilities with safety. ✔ It may be possible by introducing necessary instructions in the schools for the children. ✔ The IRC (Indian roads congress) has published highway safety Code (IRC:SP-44). 64 Denis Jangeed
  • 65. b) Safety drive ✔ Organising traffic Safety week ❑The Road Safety Week is a national event that is celebrated from the 11th to the 17th of January, ❑ Which is aimed at raising public awareness about traffic rules and to reduce the number of road accidents that occur on a daily basis. ✔ Various institute/ organisations/ departments have been organising Highway safety workshop in different regions of the country. 65 Denis Jangeed