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 Introduction
 Objectives
 Mechanism
 Official Standards For Powders
 Sieves
 Material of construction of Sieves
 Official Standards For Sieves
 Cyclone Separator
Pragati K. Mahajan
Introduction
• The process of size reduction is
followed by size separation of the
powdered material.
• During the process of size reduction, it
is not possible to obtain the particles of
uniform size.
• Hence a special technique is used to
separate particles of specified size
which is known as the "process of size
separation".
• Size separation is the process that
involves the separation of particles of
desired size from the mixture of
various size particles.
• Size separation is also known as
sieving, sifting, or screening.
Pragati K. Mahajan
I. To determine particle size for the
production of tablets and capsules.
II. To improve mixing of powders.
III. To improve the solubility and
stability of particles during
production.
IV. To optimize feed rate, agitation,
screening during production.
V. Quality control of raw materials.
VI. Useful in production of tablets,
capsules, suspension, emulsion,
ophthalmic preparations,
ointments, creams, etc.
Pragati K. Mahajan
Mechanism of Size
Separation
Agitation
Oscillation
Vibration
Gyration
Brushing Centrifugal
Pragati K. Mahajan
 The working of mechanical sieving devices are based on following
methods.
1. Agitation
2.Brushing
3. Centrifugal
 Agitation methods Sieves may be agitated in a number of different
ways, such as:
1.Oscillation: The sieve is mounted in a frame that oscillates back and
forth. Movement of sieve is upward and downward.
2. Vibration: The sieve is vibrated at high speed by means of an electric
device. The rapid vibration is imparted to the particles on the sieve
which helps to pass the powdered material through it. Movement of
sieve is sideways.
3. Gyration: In this method, Movement of sieve is clockwise and
anticlockwise
Pragati K. Mahajan
Oscillation Vibration Gyration
Pragati K. Mahajan
 Brushing methods
• In this case, a brush is used
to move the particles on the
surface of the sieve and to
keep the meshes clear.
• The brush is rotated in the
middle in the case of a
circular sieve but spiral brush
is rotated on the longitudinal
axis in case of a horizontal
cylindrical sieve.
Pragati K. Mahajan
 Centrifugal methods
• It is technique used for separation
on basis of their shapes, size,
density and weight of particles.
• A high speed rotor is fixed inside
the vertical cylindrical sieve, so
that on rotation of rotor the
particles are thrown outwards by
centrifugal force.
• The current of air which is
produced due to high speed of
rotor helps in sieving the powder.
• When we revolve substance with
high speed heavy particles fall
near and light particles fall to far.
Pragati K. Mahajan
The Indian Pharmacopoeia has laid down the standards for powders for
pharmaceutical purposes. According to that, the degree of coarseness or
fineness of a powder is expressed by reference to the nominal mesh
aperture size of the sieve through which powder is able to pass. The I.P.
specifies five grades of powder which are as under:
1.Coarse powder: A powder of which all the particles pass through a
sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 1.70 mm (No. 10 sieve) and not
more than 40.0 per cent through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture
of 355 µm (No. 44 sieve) is called coarse powder.
2. Moderately coarse powder: A powder of which all the particles pass
through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 710 µm (No. 22
sieve) and not more than 40.0 per cent through a sieve with nominal
mesh aperture of 250 µm (No. 60 sieve) is called moderately coarse
powder.
Pragati K. Mahajan
3.Moderately fine powder: If all the particles of a powder
pass through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of
355 µm (No. 44 sieve) and not more than 40.0 per
cent through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of
180 µm (No. 85 sieve), it falls in this group.
4.Fine powder: In case all the particles pass through a
sieve with a nominal mesh aperture of 180 µm (No.
85 sieve), it is called fine powder.
5.Very fine powder If all the particles of the powder pass
through a sieve with a nominal mesh aperture of 125
µm (No. 120 sieve), it is said to be very fine powder.
Pragati K. Mahajan
Sr.
no
Grade of powder Sieve
through
which all
particles
must pass
Sieve through
which not more
than 40 per cent of
particles pass
1. coarse 10 44
2. Moderately coarse 22 60
3. Moderately Fine 44 85
4. Fine 85 Not specified
5. Very fine 120 Not specified
Pragati K. Mahajan
 Sieves are constructed from wire cloth with square
meshes, woven from wires of brass, bronze, stainless
steel or any other suitable material.
 The wires should be of uniform circular cross-section
and should not be coated or plated.
 Mesh: These are the holes in the screen.
 Mesh number: This indicate number of holes included
in a length of 1 inch.
 Aperture of screen: It is the clear space between wires
of screen opening and it is given in term of mm.
 Screen Number: It is number of meshes in a linear
length of 25.4mm
Pragati K. Mahajan
 Sieves are woven from wire of brass, bronze, stainless steels.
Sieves should not be coated with any material. It should be
non reactive with material used. The material used for
construction should be resistance to corrosion
 Generally iron wire is used as screen material because it is
cheap but their disadvantage are corrosive nature and
chances of contamination by iron. These disadvantages can
be overcome by coating iron with galvanizing agent which
increase the strength and also make it corrosion resistant.
 Brass, phosphor-bronze and stainless steel are the metals
used due to their corrosive resistance good strength and non
contamination qualities.
 Non metal such as nylon and terylene are also suitable
because they avoid risk of metallic contamination
Pragati K. Mahajan
 Standards for sieves used to testing must specify the
following
 1. Number of sieve: Sieve number indicates the
number of meshes in a length of 2.54 cm in each
transverse direction parallel to the wires.
 2. Nominal size of aperture: Nominal size of aperture
indicates the distance between the wires. It represents
the length of the side of the square aperture. The I.P.
has given the nominal mesh aperture size for majority
of sieves in mm or in cm.
Pragati K. Mahajan
 3. Nominal diameter of the wire: Wire mesh sieves are made
from the wire having the specified diameter in order to give a
suitable aperture size and sufficient strength to avoid distortion of
the sieve.
 4. Approximate percentage sieving area: This standard
expresses the area of the meshes as a percentage of the total area of
the sieve. It depends on the size of the wire used for any particular
sieve number. Generally the sieving area is kept within the range of
35 to 40 per cent in order to give suitable strength to the sieve
 5. Tolerance average aperture size: Some variation in the
aperture size is unavoidable and when this variation is expressed as
a percentage, it is known as the 'aperture tolerance average'.
Pragati K. Mahajan
Size
Separation
SIEVING
CYCLONE
SEPARATOR
AIR
SEPARATOR
ELUTRIATION
Pragati K. Mahajan
Principle :
• In cyclone separator, the centrifugal force is used to
separate solids from fluids.
• The separation depends not only on the particle size but
also on density of particles.
• Hence depending on the fluid velocity, the cyclone
separator can be used to separate all types of particles or
to remove only coarse particles and allow fine particles
to be carried through with the fluid.
Construction:
 It consists of a cylindrical vessel with a conical base.
 In the upper part of the vessel is fitted with a tangential
inlet and a fluid outlet and at the base it is fitted with
solid outlet.
Pragati K. Mahajan
Pragati K. Mahajan
Working :
• The suspension of a solid in gas (usually air) is introduced
tangentially at a very high velocity, so that rotary
movement takes place within the vessel.
• The fluid is removed from a central outlet at the top.
• The rotatory flow within the cyclone separator causes the
particles to be acted on by centrifugal force.
• The solids are thrown out to the walls, thereafter it falls to
the conical base and discharged out through solids outlet.
Uses:
1.Cyclone separators are used to separate the suspension of
a solid in a gas (air).
2. It can be used with liquid suspensions of solids.
Pragati K. Mahajan
Advantages:
1. It has no moving parts.
2. Continuous disposal of solid particles.
3. They are not expensive to install or maintain.
Disadvantages:
1. Low collection efficiency for the particles below 5µm in
diameter i.e. below their 'cut-off diameter when operated
under low solids- loading conditions.
2. 2. Equipment is subjected to severe abrasive deterioration
usually higher pressure loss than other separator types,
including bag filters and low pressure drop scrubbers.
Pragati K. Mahajan
Thank you
PRAGATI K. MAHAJAN

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size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics

  • 1.
  • 2. content  Introduction  Objectives  Mechanism  Official Standards For Powders  Sieves  Material of construction of Sieves  Official Standards For Sieves  Cyclone Separator Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 3. Introduction • The process of size reduction is followed by size separation of the powdered material. • During the process of size reduction, it is not possible to obtain the particles of uniform size. • Hence a special technique is used to separate particles of specified size which is known as the "process of size separation". • Size separation is the process that involves the separation of particles of desired size from the mixture of various size particles. • Size separation is also known as sieving, sifting, or screening. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 4. I. To determine particle size for the production of tablets and capsules. II. To improve mixing of powders. III. To improve the solubility and stability of particles during production. IV. To optimize feed rate, agitation, screening during production. V. Quality control of raw materials. VI. Useful in production of tablets, capsules, suspension, emulsion, ophthalmic preparations, ointments, creams, etc. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 6.  The working of mechanical sieving devices are based on following methods. 1. Agitation 2.Brushing 3. Centrifugal  Agitation methods Sieves may be agitated in a number of different ways, such as: 1.Oscillation: The sieve is mounted in a frame that oscillates back and forth. Movement of sieve is upward and downward. 2. Vibration: The sieve is vibrated at high speed by means of an electric device. The rapid vibration is imparted to the particles on the sieve which helps to pass the powdered material through it. Movement of sieve is sideways. 3. Gyration: In this method, Movement of sieve is clockwise and anticlockwise Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 8.  Brushing methods • In this case, a brush is used to move the particles on the surface of the sieve and to keep the meshes clear. • The brush is rotated in the middle in the case of a circular sieve but spiral brush is rotated on the longitudinal axis in case of a horizontal cylindrical sieve. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 9.  Centrifugal methods • It is technique used for separation on basis of their shapes, size, density and weight of particles. • A high speed rotor is fixed inside the vertical cylindrical sieve, so that on rotation of rotor the particles are thrown outwards by centrifugal force. • The current of air which is produced due to high speed of rotor helps in sieving the powder. • When we revolve substance with high speed heavy particles fall near and light particles fall to far. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 10. The Indian Pharmacopoeia has laid down the standards for powders for pharmaceutical purposes. According to that, the degree of coarseness or fineness of a powder is expressed by reference to the nominal mesh aperture size of the sieve through which powder is able to pass. The I.P. specifies five grades of powder which are as under: 1.Coarse powder: A powder of which all the particles pass through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 1.70 mm (No. 10 sieve) and not more than 40.0 per cent through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 355 µm (No. 44 sieve) is called coarse powder. 2. Moderately coarse powder: A powder of which all the particles pass through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 710 µm (No. 22 sieve) and not more than 40.0 per cent through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 250 µm (No. 60 sieve) is called moderately coarse powder. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 11. 3.Moderately fine powder: If all the particles of a powder pass through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 355 µm (No. 44 sieve) and not more than 40.0 per cent through a sieve with nominal mesh aperture of 180 µm (No. 85 sieve), it falls in this group. 4.Fine powder: In case all the particles pass through a sieve with a nominal mesh aperture of 180 µm (No. 85 sieve), it is called fine powder. 5.Very fine powder If all the particles of the powder pass through a sieve with a nominal mesh aperture of 125 µm (No. 120 sieve), it is said to be very fine powder. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 12. Sr. no Grade of powder Sieve through which all particles must pass Sieve through which not more than 40 per cent of particles pass 1. coarse 10 44 2. Moderately coarse 22 60 3. Moderately Fine 44 85 4. Fine 85 Not specified 5. Very fine 120 Not specified Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 13.  Sieves are constructed from wire cloth with square meshes, woven from wires of brass, bronze, stainless steel or any other suitable material.  The wires should be of uniform circular cross-section and should not be coated or plated.  Mesh: These are the holes in the screen.  Mesh number: This indicate number of holes included in a length of 1 inch.  Aperture of screen: It is the clear space between wires of screen opening and it is given in term of mm.  Screen Number: It is number of meshes in a linear length of 25.4mm Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 14.  Sieves are woven from wire of brass, bronze, stainless steels. Sieves should not be coated with any material. It should be non reactive with material used. The material used for construction should be resistance to corrosion  Generally iron wire is used as screen material because it is cheap but their disadvantage are corrosive nature and chances of contamination by iron. These disadvantages can be overcome by coating iron with galvanizing agent which increase the strength and also make it corrosion resistant.  Brass, phosphor-bronze and stainless steel are the metals used due to their corrosive resistance good strength and non contamination qualities.  Non metal such as nylon and terylene are also suitable because they avoid risk of metallic contamination Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 15.  Standards for sieves used to testing must specify the following  1. Number of sieve: Sieve number indicates the number of meshes in a length of 2.54 cm in each transverse direction parallel to the wires.  2. Nominal size of aperture: Nominal size of aperture indicates the distance between the wires. It represents the length of the side of the square aperture. The I.P. has given the nominal mesh aperture size for majority of sieves in mm or in cm. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 16.  3. Nominal diameter of the wire: Wire mesh sieves are made from the wire having the specified diameter in order to give a suitable aperture size and sufficient strength to avoid distortion of the sieve.  4. Approximate percentage sieving area: This standard expresses the area of the meshes as a percentage of the total area of the sieve. It depends on the size of the wire used for any particular sieve number. Generally the sieving area is kept within the range of 35 to 40 per cent in order to give suitable strength to the sieve  5. Tolerance average aperture size: Some variation in the aperture size is unavoidable and when this variation is expressed as a percentage, it is known as the 'aperture tolerance average'. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 18. Principle : • In cyclone separator, the centrifugal force is used to separate solids from fluids. • The separation depends not only on the particle size but also on density of particles. • Hence depending on the fluid velocity, the cyclone separator can be used to separate all types of particles or to remove only coarse particles and allow fine particles to be carried through with the fluid. Construction:  It consists of a cylindrical vessel with a conical base.  In the upper part of the vessel is fitted with a tangential inlet and a fluid outlet and at the base it is fitted with solid outlet. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 20. Working : • The suspension of a solid in gas (usually air) is introduced tangentially at a very high velocity, so that rotary movement takes place within the vessel. • The fluid is removed from a central outlet at the top. • The rotatory flow within the cyclone separator causes the particles to be acted on by centrifugal force. • The solids are thrown out to the walls, thereafter it falls to the conical base and discharged out through solids outlet. Uses: 1.Cyclone separators are used to separate the suspension of a solid in a gas (air). 2. It can be used with liquid suspensions of solids. Pragati K. Mahajan
  • 21. Advantages: 1. It has no moving parts. 2. Continuous disposal of solid particles. 3. They are not expensive to install or maintain. Disadvantages: 1. Low collection efficiency for the particles below 5µm in diameter i.e. below their 'cut-off diameter when operated under low solids- loading conditions. 2. 2. Equipment is subjected to severe abrasive deterioration usually higher pressure loss than other separator types, including bag filters and low pressure drop scrubbers. Pragati K. Mahajan