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The basics of sentences
Thinking about sentences, main and subordinate clauses.
Sentences – sentence types + punctuation; main and subordinate clauses; commas.
Sentences
 A sentence is a group of words that work together as a unit
of meaning.
 It starts with a capital letter.
 It ends with a full stop, question or exclamation mark.
 It makes sense on its own.
Sentences
 There are 4 types of sentence:
a. Statements – tell you something:
- John walked down the road.
b. Questions – ask you something:
- Why did John walk down the road?
c. Commands (an order) tell you to do something:
- Walk down the road!
d. Exclamation (what/how) exclaim about something:
- What a long way to walk! How tall you have grown.
Reminder - clauses
 A clause is a group of words built around a verb.
 Clauses can be complete sentences.
The dog ate the bone.
The dog ate the bone before jumping onto the sofa.
The dog ate the bone, jumped onto the sofa and snoozed.
Main and Subordinate Clauses
• The main clause can stand on its own as a sentence.
The old man ran down the hill.
• It is the main thing in the sentence.
• The subordinate clause is an extra piece of information.
The old man ran down the hill after eating lunch.
Main and Subordinate Clauses
• Subordinate means ‘less important.
• Subordinate clauses do not make sense on their own.
… after eating lunch.
• Subordinate clauses need the main clause to make sense.
The dogs slept after eating lunch.
Main and Subordinate Clauses
• Subordinate clauses can be found in different places in a sentence:
• After the king ate the donut, the monkey slept.
• Rain falls when clouds get too heavy.
• Pete, who was feeling weary, sat down on a bench.
• After running for a long time, Bob sneezed until his glasses
fell off.
We use Commas to help the reader
1. In lists to separate items:
 He picked up a lemon, an apple, three buns and a cake.
2. After fronted adverbials:
 Slowly, she walked down the road.
 Excited by the news, she skipped.
 After that, turn on the machine.
 Furthermore, many people believe in fresh food.
We use Commas to help the reader
3. After subordinate clauses that start sentences:
 Hoping she would not be seen, she ran.
 Because it was cold, they wrapped up warm.
4. After subordinate clauses that are tagged on:
• She ran, stumbling on the pavement.
• The cows stood still, bewildered by the noise.
We use Commas to help the reader
5. To indicate parenthesis (adding in extra information):
• Bill, the pirate’s son, ran for it.
• Bill, who was scared, ran for it.
• Bill, hoping he would be saved, ran for it.
6. In punctuating speech:
 “Hello,” he said.
We use Commas to help the reader
6. To avoid misunderstandings:
Before drinking Bob, Jo and Tom were thirsty
Before drinking, Bob, Jo and Tom were thirsty.

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The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx

  • 1. The basics of sentences Thinking about sentences, main and subordinate clauses. Sentences – sentence types + punctuation; main and subordinate clauses; commas.
  • 2. Sentences  A sentence is a group of words that work together as a unit of meaning.  It starts with a capital letter.  It ends with a full stop, question or exclamation mark.  It makes sense on its own.
  • 3. Sentences  There are 4 types of sentence: a. Statements – tell you something: - John walked down the road. b. Questions – ask you something: - Why did John walk down the road? c. Commands (an order) tell you to do something: - Walk down the road! d. Exclamation (what/how) exclaim about something: - What a long way to walk! How tall you have grown.
  • 4. Reminder - clauses  A clause is a group of words built around a verb.  Clauses can be complete sentences. The dog ate the bone. The dog ate the bone before jumping onto the sofa. The dog ate the bone, jumped onto the sofa and snoozed.
  • 5. Main and Subordinate Clauses • The main clause can stand on its own as a sentence. The old man ran down the hill. • It is the main thing in the sentence. • The subordinate clause is an extra piece of information. The old man ran down the hill after eating lunch.
  • 6. Main and Subordinate Clauses • Subordinate means ‘less important. • Subordinate clauses do not make sense on their own. … after eating lunch. • Subordinate clauses need the main clause to make sense. The dogs slept after eating lunch.
  • 7. Main and Subordinate Clauses • Subordinate clauses can be found in different places in a sentence: • After the king ate the donut, the monkey slept. • Rain falls when clouds get too heavy. • Pete, who was feeling weary, sat down on a bench. • After running for a long time, Bob sneezed until his glasses fell off.
  • 8. We use Commas to help the reader 1. In lists to separate items:  He picked up a lemon, an apple, three buns and a cake. 2. After fronted adverbials:  Slowly, she walked down the road.  Excited by the news, she skipped.  After that, turn on the machine.  Furthermore, many people believe in fresh food.
  • 9. We use Commas to help the reader 3. After subordinate clauses that start sentences:  Hoping she would not be seen, she ran.  Because it was cold, they wrapped up warm. 4. After subordinate clauses that are tagged on: • She ran, stumbling on the pavement. • The cows stood still, bewildered by the noise.
  • 10. We use Commas to help the reader 5. To indicate parenthesis (adding in extra information): • Bill, the pirate’s son, ran for it. • Bill, who was scared, ran for it. • Bill, hoping he would be saved, ran for it. 6. In punctuating speech:  “Hello,” he said.
  • 11. We use Commas to help the reader 6. To avoid misunderstandings: Before drinking Bob, Jo and Tom were thirsty Before drinking, Bob, Jo and Tom were thirsty.