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# Single Subjects Research

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EDUCATION

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### Single Subjects Research

1. 1. SINGLE SUBJECT RESEARCH PREPARED FOR: DR JOHAN @ EDDY LUARAN PREPARED BY: AFZA ARRMIZA BINTI RAZIF [2013697158] HANIFAH BINTI RAMLEE IZYAN NADHIRAH BINTI WAHID MAIZATUL AKMAL BINTI ZULKIFLI
2. 2. DEFINITION • • •
3. 3. SINGLE SUBJECT DESIGN • • •
4. 4. CHARACTERISTIC  • • •
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6. 6.  • • •
7. 7. Figure 14.2 A-B Design As you can see, five measures were taken before the intervention and five more during the intervention. Looking at the data in figure 14.2, the intervention appears to have been effective. The amount of responsiveness after the intervention increased markedly.
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13. 13. Threat to Internal Validity in SingleSubject Research It involve the :  The length of the baseline and intervention conditions  The Number of Variables Changed When Moving from One Condition to Another  The Degree and Speed of Change  The Return to Baseline Level  Independence of Behaviour  Number of Baselines
14. 14. CONDITION LENGTH  Refers to how long the baseline and intervention conditions are in effect.  The number of data points gathered during a conditions.  Minimum three of data point to establish a clear pattern or trend.  As a hypothesis,in a certain period or condition of length,the researcher need to gathered enough data as it will establish the clear pattern
15. 15.  Figure 14.10 (a)  Figure 14.10 (b)
16. 16.  NUMBER OF VARIABLES CHANGED WHEN MOVING FROM ONE CONDITION TO ANOTHER  Only one variable should be changed at a time when moving from one condition to another  When analyzing a single – subject design,it always important to determined whether only one variable at a time has been changed
17. 17. DEGREE AND SPEED OF CHANGE  In single-subject research,the stability is important  The data change at the time the intervention condition is implemented influenced the stability of baseline (when the independent variable is introduced or removed)
18. 18.  Figure 14.11(a)  Figure 14.11(b)
19. 19.  Figure 14.11(c)
20. 20. RETURN TO BASELINE LEVEL  The subject’s behaviour did not return to the original baseline level suggest that the one or more extraneous variable may have produced the effects observed during the intervention condition
21. 21. Differences in Return to Baseline Conditions  Figure 14.12(a)  Figure 14.12(b)
22. 22. NUMBER OF BASELINES  In order to have a multiple – baseline design,researcher must have at least two based line  Baseline begin at same time,the intervention occur in different time  More baseline and intervention will lead to invalid conclusion
23. 23.  NUMBER OF BASELINES  The greater number of baselines,the greater the probability that the intervention is the cause of any change in behaviour  The more baselines,there are,the longer the later behaviours must remain in baseline  The fewer the number of baseline,the less likely we can conclude that is the intervention rather than some other variable that causes any change in behaviour
24. 24.  CONTROL OF THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY IN SINGLE-SUBJECT RESEARCH Single-Subject designs are most effective in controlling for :  Subject characteristics  Mortality  Testing  History
25. 25. EXTERNAL VALIDITY IN SINGLE-SUBJECT RESEARCH:THE IMPORTANCE OF REPLICATION  Single subject studies are weak when it comes to external validity  Total rely on replicationsacross individual instead of groups  The result worthly of generalization