Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

► …


Published in Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. MOTIVATION DR. Ahmed Albehairy, M.D Consultant Psychiatry
  • 2. Definitions Motivation is the activation or energization of goalorientated behavior . Desire is a sense of longing for a person or object or hoping for an outcome (craving). Goal or objective is a projected state of affairs thata person or a system plans or intends to achieve . need is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. Motivation affects every thing we do ; ability to learn, memory perception.
  • 3. Types of motives physiologically based Unlearned, in animals: - Survival needs: hunger & thirst. - Biologically based social needs: sex & maternal behavior. - curiosity psychologically based Learned , socially in nature
  • 4. Concepts of motivation 1- concept of instincts. 2- concept of need & drive. 3-concept of incentives. 4- concept of equilibrium. 5- psychoanalytic concepts of motivation. 6- social learning theory of motivation.
  • 5. concept of instincts. • Unlearned pattern of behavior that occur in the presence of certain stimuli. • Basic instincts are ( by William McDougal, 1980) - repulsion, curiosity, flight, parenting, reproduction, gregarious,acquisition, constructive, puganicity, self a
  • 6. 2- concept of need & drive. • needs arise from deprivation. E.g. need for food drive a state in which the need makes the organism tense, aroused and activated e.g. hunger drive. • Drive state is motivation. • Drives is alike instincts , 1ry ( unlearned physiological)– 2ry ( learned experience).
  • 7. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  • 8. 3-concept of incentives. Incentives , external stimuli & consequences are controlling the response and behavior. Motivated if operant conditioned with positive incentives. Not motivated if related to negative incentives.
  • 9. 4- concept of equilibrium. Essence of motivation is to maintain optimum level of functioning, equilibrium. Balance involve either physiological process or /and cognitive, emotional , arousal processes.
  • 10. 4- concept of equilibrium. (cont.) Homeostasis: -1ry, survival motives operate acc. To homeostasis, i.e. constancies are essentials for survivals, in the face of changing external environment .e.g. body temp and body water. - Need s the physiological departure from the optimum value. - Drive s the arousal and seek of org. to correct this problem( homeostasis)
  • 11. 5- psychoanalytic concepts of motivation. Eros, enhance life thantos, destruction • Libido, sex is energy of life instinct. • Unconscious motives, tongue slips, dreams. • Suicide( inward). • Aggression ( outwards). • Unconscious motives, tongue slips, dreams. • sex aggression
  • 12. 6- social learning theory of motivation. - Concerning behavior not the drive. - Successful behaviors, person select them by reinforcement and discard the others. - Social learning theory stresses: a- vicarious learning . b- cognitive process that think in the situations symbolically and so our action can be governed by anticipated consequences. c- self regulation , evaluation of the behavior and reaction to it and form a standard to the level of function of the behavior. d – most effective ext stimuli when there s consistent between self reinforcement and society approval of the behavior.
  • 13. 6- social learning theory of motivation. (CONT) The reinforcement that control the expression of learned behavior may be: - Direct reward, social approval, disapproval. - Vicarious learning. - Self – praise and reproach.
  • 14. Current classification of motives inherited acquired • Physiological, air, water, food, etc. • Survival of species: sex, motherhood. • Emergency :fight and flight. • Objective : exploration, manipulation , interests. • General social motives shared by whole env. • Cultural social motives. • Individual social motives: education & subculture.
  • 15. THANK YOU