School of Psychology - Motivation


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School of Psychology - Motivation

  2. 2. Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an individual to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls and sustains certain goal directed behaviors.  arousal of interest that directs the learner towards a goal.  The process that gives behavior purpose and direction.  The general energizer for behavior.
  3. 3. Motivation  Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex.  Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. These inner conditions such as wishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior.
  5. 5. Motivation is a very important construct in educational psychology. Its is generally defined as the intervening variable involved in arousing, directing, and sustaining behavior.  It is a hypothetical construct. It cannot observe directly. Rather, it is inferred from a person’s observable behavior. As in inference, it is subject to change and is a rich area of investigation.  It is not the only factor that determines behavior. For behavior is complex and has multiple causes. Poor academic performance cannot be attribute to poor motivation. It could result from interplay of motivation with low mental capacity and lack of or absence of environment support.
  6. 6. Behavior cont.  Motivational behavior is selective and directional. Having direction, attention of the individual is focused to a particular goal.  Motivation leads to persistent behavior. The learner persists to reach a perceived goal.
  7. 7. Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter. It can:  Direct behavior toward particular goals  Lead to increased effort and energy  Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities  Enhance cognitive processing  Determine what consequences are reinforcing  Lead to improved performance.  Controls and directs human behavior  Inculcates spiritual and moral values in the minds of the young  Gives satisfaction and happiness to the individual
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVES  Biological and physiological Drives > innate inborn stimuli such as desires for food, water etc.  Psychological Drives> required, learned or derives, such as security, safety and belongingness  Creativity or self- actualization Drives> general or consious drives/motives > desire to do something exceptional for good of humanity
  9. 9. TYPES OF MOTIVATION INTRINSIC MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION  occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant.  comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).
  10. 10. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  DRIVE REDUCTION: The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that people have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drive's strength is reduced. When preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared and after the food has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. Claims you are motivated to do things to restore a sense of balance in your life. Your motivation is a combination of your environment and experience, as well as your biology. Biological needs are called "primary drives," while learned needs are known as "secondary drives."
  11. 11.  DRIVE INDUCTION: AROUSAL The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal. When arousal levels get too low, for example, a person might watch and exciting movie or go for a jog. When arousal levels get too high, on the other hand, a person would probably look for ways to relax such as meditating or reading a book. According to this theory, we are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal, although this level can vary based on the individual or the situation.
  12. 12.  HEDONISTIC THEORY focus on pleasure as the primary motivation. According to Frued, human nature is motivated toward pleasure and away from pain, he termed this as “pleasure principle.” ( pupils are pleased to work at their own pace and appreciate the elimination of public embarassment over making mistake).
  13. 13.  INCENTIVE THEORY The incentive theory suggests that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards. For example, you might be motivated to go to work each day for the monetary reward of being paid. Behavioral learning concepts such as association and reinforcement play an important role in this theory of motivation.Need is probably the greatest source of motivation and the desire to satisfy the needs is the strongest motive.
  14. 14.  Humanistic Theory The humanistic theory of motivation subscribes to the idea that you are motivated to develop yourself into the best person possible. This theory is based on the theories of humanists, who believe that people naturally "seek the frontiers of creativity, the highest reaches of consciousness and wisdom," explained Janet A. Simons in "Psychology --- The Search for Understanding." In other words, you are motivated to do your best in everything simply because you are human.
  15. 15. MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES (CAGE and BERLINER)  Use verbal praise  Use tests and grade judiciously  Capitalize on the arousal value of suspense, discovery, curiosity and exploration  Occasionally do the unexpected  Whet the appetite  Use familiar materials for example  Use unique and unexpected contexts when applying concepts and principles  Require use of what has been previously learned  Use situations and games  Minimize the unpleasant consequences of student involvement.
  16. 16. Why Is Motivation Important?
  17. 17. Everyone wants to be successful. But to be successful, there is an important thing you must have and that is motivation. Here are four reasons why motivation is important for success. Motivation helps you get started. Have you noticed the difference between working on something you like and working on something you don't like? I'm sure you can feel the difference. When you're motivated about something, you can work on it effortlessly. Nobody needs to force you to work. Nobody needs to tell you to move. In fact, you are waiting for the opportunity to work. Since getting started is perhaps the most difficult part of getting things done, being motivated is tremendously helpful for you.
  18. 18. Motivation helps you keep moving. Getting started is one thing but keep moving is another thing. Whatever you do, there are always obstacles along the way that can hinder you from achieving success. If you don't have motivation, it's easy to get discouraged when you meet such obstacles. That's why motivation often makes the difference between winners and losers. Winners are those who can go through challenges and difficulties, thanks to their motivation. Losers, on the other hand, are those who can't go through challenges and difficulties since they lack the necessary motivation.
  19. 19. Motivation makes you do more than necessary. If you are motivated about something you will voluntarily do more about it than what is required from you. You will naturally go further and dig deeper than other people since you love to do it. While other people will only do what is necessary, you do more than that. In such situation, there is a good chance that you will be more successful than others.
  20. 20. Motivation makes the journey fun. People who don't have motivation will think that the journey to success is long and difficult. Those who are motivated look at it differently. The journey is still long, but it's an enjoyable journey. Not only can they endure it, they actually have fun along the way. Of course, there are always times when things aren't good, but motivation enables you to endure such difficult times.
  21. 21. Prepared and Presented by: SHARON FAJILAGUTAN- GEROQUIA