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Psychology Personality

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Personality
Personality
Understanding oneself entails developing an understanding of one’s
personality.
 Allport- “Personality as the dynamic organization within the
individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique
adjustment to his environment”
 Mischel(1976)- “Distinctive patterns of behavior including thoughts &
emotions that characterize each individual’s adaptation to the
situations of his or her life.”
• Behavior patterns across situations
• Psychological characteristics of the person that lead to those
behavior patterns.
Personality theories
 Understand the structure of adult personality, its origin & its
correlates.
 Predicting behavior & life events based on what we know
about personality.
 Vary on-
 Starting points and sources of data collection.
 Varying focus, understanding the structure of personality or how
personality developed and continues to grow.
 Different focus on healthy & troubled people.
Theories of Personality
 Type & Trait approach-focus on characteristics
 Dynamic approaches- on motives impulses &
psychological processes
 Learning & Behavioral
 Humanistic Approaches- Self and the importance of the
individuals subjective view of the world.
 Type Theories- Hippocrates 400 BC .
4 Temperamental types
 Sanguine-cheerful ,vigorous
 Phlegmatic-slow moving, calm
 Melancholic-Depressed, morose
 Choleric-Hot-tempered
Many other Typologies
A class of individuals said to share a common collection of
characteristics . Non overlapping categories
 Introverts-shyness, social withdrawal, tendency to talk
less
 Extraverts-tendency to be outgoing, talkative
William Sheldon (1942)
 Related physique to temperament
 Endomorphic-fat, soft, round- relaxed, sociable,
fond of eating.
 Mesomorph- muscular, rectangular, strong- filled
with energy, courage & assertive tendencies.
 Ectomorphs- thin, long, fragile- brainy, artistic
and introverted.
 Failed to predict behavior.

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personality.ppt

  • 2. Personality Understanding oneself entails developing an understanding of one’s personality.  Allport- “Personality as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment”  Mischel(1976)- “Distinctive patterns of behavior including thoughts & emotions that characterize each individual’s adaptation to the situations of his or her life.” • Behavior patterns across situations • Psychological characteristics of the person that lead to those behavior patterns.
  • 3. Personality theories  Understand the structure of adult personality, its origin & its correlates.  Predicting behavior & life events based on what we know about personality.  Vary on-  Starting points and sources of data collection.  Varying focus, understanding the structure of personality or how personality developed and continues to grow.  Different focus on healthy & troubled people.
  • 4. Theories of Personality  Type & Trait approach-focus on characteristics  Dynamic approaches- on motives impulses & psychological processes  Learning & Behavioral  Humanistic Approaches- Self and the importance of the individuals subjective view of the world.
  • 5.  Type Theories- Hippocrates 400 BC . 4 Temperamental types  Sanguine-cheerful ,vigorous  Phlegmatic-slow moving, calm  Melancholic-Depressed, morose  Choleric-Hot-tempered Many other Typologies A class of individuals said to share a common collection of characteristics . Non overlapping categories  Introverts-shyness, social withdrawal, tendency to talk less  Extraverts-tendency to be outgoing, talkative
  • 6. William Sheldon (1942)  Related physique to temperament  Endomorphic-fat, soft, round- relaxed, sociable, fond of eating.  Mesomorph- muscular, rectangular, strong- filled with energy, courage & assertive tendencies.  Ectomorphs- thin, long, fragile- brainy, artistic and introverted.  Failed to predict behavior.
  • 7.  Eysenck’s hierarchical Theory Personality Type (certain characteristics) habitual response patterns (applicable to many situations) specific responses (specific situations) Focus on good-fits
  • 8. Trait Theories Descriptive terms like determined, flamboyant, inclined to make quick decisions are “traits”; make people behave in distinctive and consistent ways across situations. Allport’s Theory- Distinctive & personal forms of behaviors  Mostly adjectives that describe how people act, think, perceive & feel.  Three levels of generality Cardinal Traits- Dominant and all individual action can be traced to them Central Traits- Characterizing an individual’s behavior to some extent but not in such a complete way as cardinal traits Secondary traits-influential but only within a narrow range
  • 9.  Idiographic Approach- Entails efforts to understand, explain and predict individual’s behavior in various situations.  Consistencies across one person  Nomothetic approach- discovery of principles of personality that apply to people in general  Consistencies across individuals
  • 10. Issues with Trait and Type Theories  Heritability studies show that almost all personality traits are influenced by genetics.  Consistency paradox, on looking at traits predicting behavior.  Methodological Issues  Reliability, getting agreement from different observers.  Validity of trait assessment, whether assessments mean what they actually mean, social desirability  Situationism  Is it adequate to think of our personalities as a sum of traits? Do not explain how personality develops or behavior is generated.
  • 11.  Type and Trait theories involve a search for separable components of personality and ways by which the components fit together to form a personality structure.  Dynamic approaches involve a search for processes by which needs, motives and impulses –often hidden from view –interact to produce the individual’s behavior.
  • 12. Freudian Psychoanalysis  Core of personality are the events that are part of the person’s mind.  According to Freud all behavior is motivated, some of these motives we are conscious of and some motivation operates at an unconscious level.  No accidental happenings cause behavior. Through analysis of thought associations, dreams, errors we can learn about unconscious motives.
  • 13.  Each person has inborn instincts or drives that create tension in the body.  Originally gave two basic drives  Self-preservation (meeting needs of hunger & thirst).  Eros the driving force related to preservation of the species. Not expressed only in sexual gratification but in other forms of seeking pleasure and or having physical contact with others.  Libido is the source of energy of sexual urges.  Eros does not appear suddenly at puberty but operates from birth.  Later added “Thanatos” or death instinct primitive to return to inorganic state.
  • 14. Psychoanalytic Theory 3 parts 1. Structure of the personality comprising of the id, ego, superego. 2. Personality dynamics in which conscious and unconscious motivation and ego-defense mechanisms play an important role. 3. Theory of psychosexual development in which different motives and bodily regions influence the child at different stages of growth.
  • 15. Personality Structure: Id, Ego & Superego 3 interlocking parts Id- most primitive, biological based urges - eat, drink, eliminate & sexual stimulation - the energy that underlies these urges is libido - operates on the pleasure principle, satisfaction immediately as the urges arose - without regard to rules, realities of life Ego- The elaborate ways of thinking and behaving constitutes the “executive-function” - delays the demands of id channelizing them into more socially acceptable out lets - works on the “in the service of reality principle”
  • 16. Superego- conscience- -mainly prohibitions learnt from parents and other authorities -superego may condemn as wrong certain things that the ego may otherwise do to satisfy the id -It is the seat for all positive values and moral ideals that are pursued because they are worthy Lively ongoing interplay between the id, ego and superego. Id wants to do what to do what feels good and superego insists on doing the right thing. Ego arbitrates
  • 17. 3 levels of consciousness- Conscious, preconscious & the unconscious  Conscious level- we are aware of certain things around us & certain conscious thoughts.  Preconscious level- Memories and thoughts that are easily available with a moments reflection  Unconscious- Memories ,thoughts and Motives which we cannot easily call up.
  • 18. Why do some ideas and feelings become unconscious? Repression- We repress or banish from consciousness, ideas, memories feelings or motives unacceptable, forbidden and disturbing.  It is unconscious and automatic.  We don’t choose  Whenever the idea or impulse which is painful and anxiety causing we must escape  This anxiety triggers repression
  • 19. According to Freud the repressed material is not just safely tucked away. It operates underground, converting repressed conflicts into neurosis. Neurotic symptoms often bear a symbolic relationship to repressed material that is causing them. -Unconscious process also figured in dreams and accidents. -Dreams are disguised manifestations of ids motives “royal road to the unconscious” -Slips of the tongue
  • 20. Defense Mechanism  The demands of id are instinctual & amoral and hence must be blocked by the ego & superego.  Results in anxiety and guilt from which the ego has to be protected  Defenses are used- The ego disguises, redirects and copes with the id’s urges. Reaction Formation- A motive that would arouse unbearable anxiety if it recognized hence it is converted into its opposite Projection and Displacement
  • 21. Psychosexual stages of development  Freud emphasized biological development and sexual development  From birth onwards we have innate tendency to seek pleasure though stimulation of various parts of the body that are sensitive to touch  The mouth, the anus and the genitals are erogenous zones  Psychosexual stages  If a child’s need at one psychosexual stage are under satisfied or over satisfied, then it leads to “fixation”
  • 22. Oral Stage – birth to 1 year  The infant obtains pleasure by sucking and later by biting  Feeding, mouthing new objects, even relief of teething pain  Mouth is the source of all pleasure in the first year  A baby given too little or too much or made too anxious about it-oral fixation  Adulthood excessive oral behavior in terms of concrete forms eg. Smoking, psychological forms such as dependence or critical biting personality
  • 23. Anal Stage- when child is toilet trained and teach them prohibited behavior  Anus becomes highly sensitive to the stimulation of “holding on” and “letting go”  Toilet training is first contact with authority  Id is brought under control of the ego Fixation characterized by  Messiness and disorder  Compulsiveness, over conformity
  • 24. Phallic Stage- (3-5 years)  After child has been toilet trained there is increase in awareness of genitals  It is in this stage that children develop sexual feelings towards the parent of the opposite sex  Oedipus complex & Electra complex  The child may be fearful of the parent of same sex and fear retaliation  Gradually this anxiety is resolved by identification with parent. Adopting behavior patterns and ideas.
  • 25. Latency Period- (6 years through puberty)  According to Freud not very important in the development if personality  The child learns more about the world and the ego expands Genital Stage- Adolescences & beyond  Mature sexual interests appear  The focus lies outside the self and family  Responsible enjoyment of adult sexuality which is the epitome of healthy development
  • 26. Jung’s analytical psychology  Jung parted ways from Freud; differences mainly due to Jung’s belief that childhood psychosexual development did not play that important a role for adult adjustment as suggested by Freud.  Jung gave less emphasis to sexual and aggressive urges arising out of past conflicts .  More emphasis to people’s future-oriented goals.  Also differed about the nature of the unconscious.
  • 27.  Jung focused on dreams and fantasies. Tried to understand the content and meanings of dreams and visions in people’s lives .  Used word association technique. 100 terms presented and respondent instructed to respond quickly.  Measured how long it took to respond, changes in patterns of breathing, perspiration.  Stimulus terms that had long delays were part of complexes- network of ideas bound together by emotions
  • 28.  From this arose difference in Jung and Freud’s idea of unconscious.  Freud’s focus on sexual urges and libido as the basis of human motivation. Jung provided another driving force as “only a continuous life urge”, a striving to live and insure the survival of one’s species & operate as one coherent whole  Jung also gave other structures of the personality.  Collective unconscious called the archetypes; these grow out of past experiences of the human race. Fundamental images, impressions or predispositions that were common to earlier members of the human race. Not memories but subjective reactions.
  • 29.  Jung also provided each individual with a personal unconscious; consists of an individual’s experiences that are repressed.  Psychologically healthy people come in contact with the unconscious parts of their personalities which they integrate with their conscious ego.  Each individual had their own unique way of integration; this process is individuation.
  • 30.  Limitations  Dynamic theories can not be tested  Cultural environment major influence  Research from studies of disturbed adults
  • 31. Learning and Behavioral Theories  Behaviors that make up our personality are conditioned or learned  Current conditions help maintain this behavior  Main focus is on testing their theories hence focus on observable behaviors  Dollard and Miller gave the basic idea that social behavior and individual behavior can be explained by means of basic learning principles  Neurosis explained as an outcome of conflict on being attracted and repelled by a course of action.
  • 32.  Skinner’s radical behavioral perspective drew only from instrumental conditioning  Reinforcement and punishment influence behavior  Ruled out unobservable like drive, motives and emotions  Personality as a collection of reinforced responses  Bandura and Walters- gave importance to observational learning or imitation  It requires no direct reinforcement to the learner  Imitator observes the model and experiences the model’s behaviors and its consequences vicariously  Situationalist approach that diminishes ‘person’ in personality
  • 33. Humanistic Theories  Have focused on an entity known as the self  2 distinct meanings - people’s attitudes about themselves their perceived traits, abilities, weaknesses - this is the self-concept/self-Image. - the executive functions-processes by which an individual copes, thinks , remembers, perceives and plans
  • 34. Roger’s Self theory - Individual's subjective frame of reference which is the phenomenal field , it may or may not correspond with external reality - The concept of the self develops out of the phenomenal field - The ideal self- what the person would like to be. - Trouble occurs when there are mismatches or incongruence - Results can be very disturbing - As an individual needs self-esteem we can distort our perceptions of our experiences in self-serving ways.
  • 35. Personality Development- as a child grows parents and others react to their behavior, sometimes in a positive way and sometimes with disapproval Children learn to regard some actions or thoughts as unworthy and they often react by distorting or denying these unworthy aspects of self Both these lead to maladaptive behaviors. Importance of unconditional positive regard in raising children. Unconditional positive self regard is important in adults. In mature well adjusted individuals there is congruence and no distortions.
  • 36. Maslow’s self actualization  Studied models of self actualized people and found that 1. Open to experience 2. In tune with their inner beings 3. Spontaneous, independent fresh in their appreciation of others 4. Devote efforts to their goals wanting to be good at it 5. Dedicated fully and creatively to something outside themselves 6. Related to a few specially loved others in a deep emotional plane  Had peak experiences, moments of true self actualization
  • 37.  Nature-Nurture debate  Person-situation debate