Promise yourself to live your life as arevolution and not just a process ofevolution.
Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal. “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get desired course of action, to push right button to get desired reactions.”
The term motivation can be traced to the latin word movere, which means “to move”. It refers to the factors which move or activate the organism. We infer the presence of motivation when we see that people work towards certain goals.
As Steiner states “a motive is an inner state that energies activates are moves an directs a channel behavior towards goal” According to Ferguson “The internal states of the organism that lead to the instigation, persistence, energy, and direction of behaviour”
an act of managers a continuous process positive or negative goal oriented complex in nature an art system-oriented different from job satisfaction
ENERGY --------> DIRECTION -------> PERSISTENCE It is a process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained towards attaining the goal. ◦ *Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. ◦ *Direction- Towards organizational goal. ◦ *Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal
1. Motivation starts with a need, vision, dream or desire to achieve the seemingly impossible. Creativity is associated with ideas, projects and goals, which can be considered a path to freedom.
2. Develop a love-to-learn, become involved with risky ventures and continually seek new opportunities. Success is based on learning what works and does not work.
3. Developing the ability to overcome barriers and to bounce back from discouragement or failure. Achievers learn to tolerate the agony of failure.
1. Set a major goal, but follow a path. The path has mini goals that go in many directions. When you learn to succeed at mini goals, you will be motivated to challenge grand goals.
2. Finish what you start. A half finished project is of no use to anyone. Quitting is a habit. Develop the habit of finishing self-motivated projects.
3. Socialize with others of similar interest. Mutual support is motivating. We will develop the attitudes of our five best friends. If they are losers, we will be a loser. If they are winners, we will be a winner. To be a cowboy we must associate with cowboys.
4. Learn how to learn.Dependency on others for knowledge supports the habit of procrastination. Man has the ability to learn without instructors. In fact, when we learn the art of self-education we will find, if not create, opportunity to find success beyond our wildest dreams.
5. Harmonize natural talent with interest that motivates. Natural talent creates motivation. Motivation creates persistence Persistence gets the job done.
6. Increase knowledge of subjects that inspires.The more we know about a subject, the more we want to learn about it. A self-propelled upward spiral develops.
7. Take risk. Failure and bouncing back are elements of motivation. Failure is a learning tool. No one has ever succeeded at anything worthwhile without a string of failures.
If you want to make your dreams come true, the first thing you have to do is wake up.
Monetary factors Non-Monetary factors Other factors
Salaries or wages Bonus Incentives Special Incentives
Status or job title Appreciation and recognition Delegation of authority Working conditions Job security Job enrichment Workers participation Good superiors
Providing training to the employees. Proper job placements. Proper promotions and transfers. Proper performance feed back. Proper welfare facilities. Flexible working hours.
Money fails to motivate people, when there is no direct relationship between reward and effort. Economic conditions of people influence the Importance of money. Money is a significant motivator at lower level of employees level however money may not be a significant factor for senior executives. Social attitudes towards money and wealth also decides the motivation to earn more and more.
Thebest angle from which to approach any problem is the try-angle. - Michelangelo
Early theories Content Theories• Scientific • Maslow Theory Management • Herzberg• Human Relation • McGregor’s XY Theories • ERG • Equity Theory • Performance satisfaction Model
Considered money to be the main motivator for workers therefore scientifically investigate how jobs are done through „work study‟. Extreme division of labour Payment by results (piecework) Tight management control Reduction in „unit costs‟
His Philosophies of management was based on mutual interest between employees and employers. It has 4 Principles The development of a true Science of Work The Scientific Selection and Progressive development of the workman The Bringing Together of the science of work and the scientifically selected and trained man The division of Work between Mangement and employees
Scientific Harmony Co-operation Maximum Output Greatest efficiency and Prosperity
Boring and repetitive jobs Lack of skills required leading to loss of skills in the workforce and also power for the workers. Led to low morale amongst the workforce
Human relations theory is characterized by a shift in emphasis from TASK to WORKER Go beyond physical contributions to include creative, cognitive, and emotional aspects of workers Based on a more dyadic (two-way) conceptualization of communication. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS are at the heart of organizational behavior--effectiveness is contingent on the social well- being of workers Workers communicate opinions, complaints, suggestions, and feelings to increase satisfaction and production Origins (Hawthorne Studies & work of Chester Barnard) Human Relations School of Management - Elton Mayo (Harvard
“The Hawthorne Studies ◦ Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company ◦ 1924 - Chicago ◦ Research focus: Relation of quality and quantity of illumination to efficiency in industry ◦ Four Important Studies
Illumination Study (November 1924) ◦ Designed to test the effect of lighting intensity on worker productivity ◦ Heuristic value: influence of human relations on work behavior Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-1932) ◦ Assembly of telephone relays (35 parts - 4 machine screws) ◦ Production and satisfaction increased regardless of IV manipulation ◦ Workers‟ increased production and satisfaction related to supervisory practices ◦ Human interrelationships are important contributing factors to worker productivity ◦ Bottom Line: Supervisory practices increase employee morale AND productivity Interviewing Program (1928-1930) ◦ Investigate connection between supervisory practices and employee morale ◦ Employees expressed their ideas and feelings (e.g., likes and dislikes) ◦ Process more important than actual results Bank Wiring Room Observation Study (November 1931 - May 1932) ◦ Social groups can influence production and individual work behavior ◦ RQ: How is social control manifested on the shop floor? ◦ Informal organization constrains employee behavior within formal organizational structure
Not conducted with the appropriate scientific rigor necessary Subjects replaced with more “cooperative” participants WORTHLESS GROSS ERRORS INCOMPETENCE
Lifes problems wouldnt be called "hurdles" if there wasnt a way to get over them ~Author Unknown
Maslow Theory Herzberg Theory McGregor’s XY Theory ERG Theory Equity Theory Performance satisfaction Model Theory
This theory was proposed by Abraham Maslow and is based on the assumption that people are motivated by a series of five universal needs. These needs are ranked, according to the order in which they influence human behavior, in hierarchical fashion
MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS Motivational factors are directly to job content itself, the individuals performance of it , its responsibilities and the growth an recognition obtained from it. HERZBERG
Herzbergs Two Factor Theory, also known as the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, was derived from a study designed to test the concept that people have two sets of needs. their needs as animals to avoid pain their needs as humans to grow psychologically
achievement company policy recognition administrative policies supervision work itself salary responsibility interpersonal relations advancement working conditionsSATISFACTION DISSATISFACTION(MOTIVATION) (HYGIENE)
McGregor’s Theory • McGregor looked at the way in which employers and employees traditionally viewed work – The employer paid the money and gave instructions, and the worker did the job without asking questions (THEORY X)DOUGHLAS McGREGOR
Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing view points of managers about their employees. one is negative called “Theory of X” one is positive called “Theory of Y”
Employees dislike work; if possible avoid the same Employees must be coerced, controlled or threatened to do the work Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction Most employees consider security of job, most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition
Employees love work as play or rest Employees are self directed and self controlled and committed to the organizational objectives Employees accept and seek responsibilities Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone, some employees also possess it.
About a hundred years ago, a man looked at themorning newspaper and to his surprise andhorror, read his name in the obituary column. Thenews papers had reported the death of the wrongperson by mistake. His first response was shock. Am Ihere or there? When he regained his composure, hissecond thought was to find out what people had saidabout him.
The obituary read, "Dynamite King Dies." And also "Hewas the merchant of death." This man was theinventor of dynamite and when he read the words"merchant of death," he asked himself a question, "Isthis how I am going to be remembered?" He got intouch with his feelings and decided that this was notthe way he wanted to be remembered. From that dayon, he started working toward peace. His name wasAlfred Nobel and he is remembered today by the greatNobel Prize.
Just as Alfred Nobel got in touch with his feelings and redefined his values, we should step back and do the same. What is your legacy? How would you like to be remembered? Will you be spoken well of? Will you be remembered with love and respect? Will you be missed?
A man was traveling and stopped at an intersection. He asked an elderly man, "Where does this road take me?" The elderly person asked, "Where do you want to go?" The man replied, "I dont know." The elderly person said, "Then take any road. What difference does it make?" How true. When we dont know where we are going, any road will take us there.
I am always doing that which I cannot do, in order that I may learn how to do it.
Clayton Alderfer reworked Maslows Need Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research. Alderfers theory is called the ERG theory -- Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.
Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements; what Maslow called physiological and safety needs. Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to Maslows social/love need, and the external component of his esteem need. Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslows esteem need, and self-actualization Alderfer also deals with frustration-regression & satisfaction-progression. That is, if a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual then seeks to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need.
LEVEL OF DEFINITION PROPERTIESNEEDS Impel a person to make Satisfied through usingGrowth creative or productive capabilities in engaging effects on himself and his problems; creates a greater sense of wholeness and environment fullness as a human being Involve relationships with Satisfied by mutually sharingRelatedness significant others thoughts and feelings; acceptance, confirmation, under- standing, and influence are elements Includes all of the various When divided among peopleExistence forms of material and one persons gain is anothers psychological desires loss if resources are limited
This theory of motivation centres around the principle of balance or equity. According to this theory level of motivation in an individual is related to his or her perception of equity and farness practiced by management. Greater the fairness perceived higher the motivation and vice versa.
Job Satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you kike your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction If you dislike, you will experience job dissatisfaction
Higher efficiency Reduce absenteeism. Reduces employee turn over. Improves a corporate image. Good relations. Improved morale. Reduced wastages and breakages. Reduced accidents. Facilitates initiative and innovation.
The manager of A.B.C.Ltd. Realised that the level of moral and motivation of their employees was very low and there was dissatisfaction among the employees. Labour productivity was also found to be very low. After investigating the causes of dissatisfaction, the managers decided that if employees were to be motivated, there was a need to establish and maintain good interpersonal relation, over and above good salary, job security, proper working conditions and supervision
So they put in sincere efforts to improve all these factors during one year. Yet, surprisingly, they came to know that in spite of reduction in the degree of dissatisfaction, the level of morale and motivation was low and there was no significant increase in their productivity. Therefore, the managers are worried. What managerial problem is involved in the above case? Suggest solution and make argument to justify your answer “ WE RECOVERED FROM DISASTER”