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An Introduction to Psychology
2
3
Learning Goals and Objectives:
• Analyze the modern definition of
psychology.
• Describe the goals of psychology
• Describe modern Perspectives in
psychology
4
Goals of Psychology
5
Definition of Psychology
Why do psychologists study
normal behavior?
– To understand the abnormal
– To help us gain control over our
environments and be more
productive
Root word: “Psyche” = Soul or breath
(Greek)
Theory of Phrenology: Greek for
"Study of the Mind:
Psychology is the scientific study of
behavior and mind
– Scientific: Based on observation
– Mind: Subjective experiences
such as sensations, thoughts,
emotions
– Behavior: Anything that can be
observed and measured
systematically
6
The Evolutionary Perspective
Focuses on the evolution of
behavior and mental processes.
•Evolutionary psychologists
suggest human social behavior
(aggression and mate selection)
has a hereditary basis.
•When these behaviors are
adaptive, they are passed on
across generations.
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
•Darwin believed that both
physical and psychological
characteristics were naturally
selected for their adaptive value.
7
Behaviorism-Behavioral Perspective
John B. Watson, B. F.
Skinner
Focuses only on observable
behavior in carefully
controlled experiments
Discovered the principles of
behavior modification: how
actions are changed by
reinforcement and
nonreinforcement
8
Learning Perspectives
Behaviorism
Ivan Pavlov -
– Classical conditioning -
Organisms associate or
anticipate events. A neutral
stimulus evokes the response
of another stimulus by being
paired repeatedly with the
other stimulus.
– Operant Conditioning
B. F. Skinner
– Learning through repetition
and reinforcement.
The rat presses a lever because
of reinforcement --in the form
of food pellets--delivered
through the feeder. The habit
strength of this operant is the
frequency of lever pressing.
9
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Sigmund Freud’s theory of
psychoanalysis studies
how the mind works and
how to address disorders.
Psychological problems are
best solved through
insight.
Unconscious mind
– Conflicts, memories
outside of awareness
– Many psychological
problems arise from
childhood experiences
– ID, Ego, Superego
10
Humanistic Perspective
Humanistic psychology:
– Abraham Maslow, Carl
Rogers
– Humans have great potential
for self-awareness, choice,
responsibility and growth
– Empathetic therapists
should help unlock client’s
untapped potential
11
The Sociocultural Perspective
Addresses the many ways in which people
differ from one another.
Studies influences of ethnicity, gender,
culture, and socioeconomic status on
behavior and mental processes.
– Ethnicity
Ethnic groups are united by cultural
heritage, race, language, and
common history.
Studies cultural heritages and
ethnic differences in
vulnerability to problems.
– Gender
Refers to culturally defined
concepts of masculinity and
femininity.
Involves cultural expectations and
social roles.
12
Cognitive Perspective
13
Biological Perspective
14
The Eclectic Approach
Selecting or adopting
information from many
different sources rather
than relying on one
perspective
• Psychoanalytic
• Humanistic
• Evolutionary
• Sociocultural
• Learning
• Cognitive
• Biological

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Introduction to Psychology

  • 1. 1 An Introduction to Psychology
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3 Learning Goals and Objectives: • Analyze the modern definition of psychology. • Describe the goals of psychology • Describe modern Perspectives in psychology
  • 5. 5 Definition of Psychology Why do psychologists study normal behavior? – To understand the abnormal – To help us gain control over our environments and be more productive Root word: “Psyche” = Soul or breath (Greek) Theory of Phrenology: Greek for "Study of the Mind: Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind – Scientific: Based on observation – Mind: Subjective experiences such as sensations, thoughts, emotions – Behavior: Anything that can be observed and measured systematically
  • 6. 6 The Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes. •Evolutionary psychologists suggest human social behavior (aggression and mate selection) has a hereditary basis. •When these behaviors are adaptive, they are passed on across generations. Darwin's Theory of Evolution •Darwin believed that both physical and psychological characteristics were naturally selected for their adaptive value.
  • 7. 7 Behaviorism-Behavioral Perspective John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner Focuses only on observable behavior in carefully controlled experiments Discovered the principles of behavior modification: how actions are changed by reinforcement and nonreinforcement
  • 8. 8 Learning Perspectives Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov - – Classical conditioning - Organisms associate or anticipate events. A neutral stimulus evokes the response of another stimulus by being paired repeatedly with the other stimulus. – Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner – Learning through repetition and reinforcement. The rat presses a lever because of reinforcement --in the form of food pellets--delivered through the feeder. The habit strength of this operant is the frequency of lever pressing.
  • 9. 9 Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis studies how the mind works and how to address disorders. Psychological problems are best solved through insight. Unconscious mind – Conflicts, memories outside of awareness – Many psychological problems arise from childhood experiences – ID, Ego, Superego
  • 10. 10 Humanistic Perspective Humanistic psychology: – Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers – Humans have great potential for self-awareness, choice, responsibility and growth – Empathetic therapists should help unlock client’s untapped potential
  • 11. 11 The Sociocultural Perspective Addresses the many ways in which people differ from one another. Studies influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status on behavior and mental processes. – Ethnicity Ethnic groups are united by cultural heritage, race, language, and common history. Studies cultural heritages and ethnic differences in vulnerability to problems. – Gender Refers to culturally defined concepts of masculinity and femininity. Involves cultural expectations and social roles.
  • 14. 14 The Eclectic Approach Selecting or adopting information from many different sources rather than relying on one perspective • Psychoanalytic • Humanistic • Evolutionary • Sociocultural • Learning • Cognitive • Biological

Editor's Notes

  1. Understanding the definition of psychology is related to Outcome 1.1. Distinguishing among clinical, applied, and research psychologists related to Outcomes 4.1 (Describe major and emerging applied areas of psychology) and 10.2 (Identify the types of academic experience and performance in psychology and the liberal arts that will facilitate entry into the workforce, postbaccalaureate education, or both.)
  2. This slide explains why psychology is a science (Outcome 1.1a) and distinguishes somewhat between behavior and the mind -- Outcome 1.2d(5), understanding the mind-body problem.
  3. This slide touches on the importance of Outcome 1.3e -- Integrate theorectical perspectives to produce comprehensive and mutifaceted explanations.