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Theories of Motivation

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Theories of Motivation

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Theories of Motivation

  1. 1. FACTORS INFLUENCING MOTIVATION Presented by: Dr. S.M. Yasir Arafat MBBS (DMC), MBA, FCPS (P1) Psychiatry, MD Phase A Resident Psychiatry, BSMMU. MPH, Batch-11, ID: 14-2-42-0004 ASAUB, Dhaka. December 05, 2014.
  2. 2. Motivation The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways
  3. 3. Motivation  Factors that direct and energize behavior of humans and other organisms  Motives - particular desired goals that underlie behavior  Exemplified in behavior  Steer one’s choice of activities  Forces that direct future behavior
  4. 4. Conceptual Approaches  Instinct  Drive-reduction  Arousal approaches  Incentive approach  Cognitive approach
  5. 5. Instinct approach  Inborn pattern of behavior  Biologically determined not learned  Born with preprogrammed set of behavior essential for survival  Provide energy that channels behavior in appropriate directions
  6. 6. Drawbacks  No agreement on nature & number of primary instinct  18 instinct (McDougall, 1908)  5,759 instinct (Bernard, 1924)  Can’t explain development of specific behavior pattern of a given species  However focus on evolution and genetic inheritance
  7. 7. Drive-reduction approaches  Hull, 1943  Lack of some basic biological requirement produce a drive to obtain that requirement  Drive- a motivational tension or arousal that energizes behavior to fulfill some need  Primary drives: related to biological needs of body or species as a whole; hunger, thirst, sleepiness, sex  Secondary drives: created by prior experience and learning: achievement, affiliation, power
  8. 8. Homeostasis  Try to satisfy primary drive by reducing the need underlying it  Body has a tendency to maintain a steady internal state  Operates through feedback loops bring deviations in body function back to an optimal state
  9. 9. Drawbacks  Inadequate to explain behavior to maintain or even increase level of excitement or arousal  Curiosity and thrill seeking behavior
  10. 10. Arousal Approaches  Try to maintain a certain level of stimulation and activity  Increasing or reducing them as necessary
  11. 11. Incentive approaches  Based on Operant Conditioning Theory  Stem from the desire to obtain valued external goals or incentives  Desirable properties of external stimuli account for a person’s motivation  Act as an anticipated reward or incentive  Punishment
  12. 12. Drawbacks  Not a complete explanation of motivation seek to fulfill needs even when incentives are not apparent  Internal drives proposed by drive-reduction theory work in tandem with the external incentives theory to “push” and “pull” behavior
  13. 13. Cognitive approaches  Product of people’s thoughts and expectations – their cognition  Intrinsic motivation: participate for our own enjoyment  Extrinsic motivation: for any concrete, tangible reward
  14. 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motivation  Motivation progresses up the pyramid from the broadest, most fundamental biological need to higher order ones.  Certain primary, lower order needs, at the bottom level, must be satisfied before more sophisticated, higher, order needs, in order to work effectively.
  15. 15. Lower and higher order need  Basic physiological need  Safety & security  Then, need for love and belongingness  Strive for esteem, to develop a sense of self-worth by knowing that other know and value one’s competence, comes next.  Highest-level need, self-actualization – a state of self fulfillment.
  16. 16. Hierarchy of Needs Need Level Description Examples Self- Actualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Promotions & recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items
  17. 17. Drawbacks  Unable to validate the specific ordering  Difficult to measure self-actualization Important:  Highlights the complexity of human needs  Emphasizes that until more basic biological needs are met, people will be unconcerned with higher order needs.
  18. 18. Secondary Drive  Need for achievement: striving for success  Astable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence.
  19. 19. People with high achievement need  Seek out situation to compete with standard to prove success  Tend to avoid situation where success is easy or unlikely  Take task of intermediate difficulty  Produce positive outcome in success oriented society  Indicates future economic and occupational success
  20. 20. Personality & Motivation  Internal Locus of Control  External Locus of Control  Type-A personality  Type-B personality
  21. 21. Need for Affiliation  Striving for friendship  Interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. People with higher affiliation need:  Emphasize desire to maintain or reinstate friendships  Show concern over being rejected by friends  Sensitive to relationships with others  More time with friends- gender difference
  22. 22. Need for Power  Striving for impact on others  Atendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others,  To be seen as a powerful individual People with strong need for power:  Apt to belong to organizations and seek office  Work in professions that fulfill power need  Gender differences exist
  23. 23. References 1. Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences, 10th Edition 2. Psychology, 6th Edition- Andrew B. Crider 3. Understanding Psychology, 10th Edition- Feldman 4. Principles of Marketing, 11th Edition- Kotler

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