Motivation & Emotion


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For a General Psychology class discussion of Motivation & Emotion & its effects on behavior.

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Motivation & Emotion

  1. 2. Motivation and Emotion
  2. 3. What is Motivation? <ul><li>A general term describing need & instinct regulated behavior with respect to goals. </li></ul><ul><li>A presumed internal state causing a “move-toward.” </li></ul><ul><li>It is a preferential process that affects change in your equilibrium both physiological and psychological. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation determines that you will engage in certain responses and ignore others that are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated behavior is any behavior that is energized in an organized fashion to satisfy a need or gain a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>A motive is anything that will move you to action. </li></ul><ul><li>An incentive is a physical object that can be used to motivate you. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is an Instinct? <ul><li>An inherited behavior pattern in response to an environmental stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a genetically programmed behavior pattern designed for survival in a particular environment. </li></ul>
  4. 5. When Instinct overcomes a Basic Need
  5. 6. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Drive Reduction Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic Drives for Physiological Harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Drives to Satisfy Needs </li></ul><ul><li>NEED » DRIVE » BEHAVIOR » </li></ul><ul><li>SATISFACTION » HOMEOSTASIS </li></ul><ul><li>Primary & Secondary Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum Level of Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Drives seek the Highest Physiological Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Yerkes-Dodson Law </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to Goals & their Expected Consequences </li></ul>
  6. 7. Primary Drives - Hunger <ul><li>The Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger Detectors </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hunger center,” “Satiation center,” “Swallow counter,” “Stretch-nerves” </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with Eating </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia & Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Set-point theory & Metabolism </li></ul>
  7. 8. More Primary Drives <ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Suprachiasmatic Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Change </li></ul><ul><li>The need for novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Natural curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Need an optimum level of stimulation </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Sexual Drive <ul><li>Lower animals driven by hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Pheromones </li></ul><ul><li>Human responding </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological (testosterone & amygdala) & psychological factors involved </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences in arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Men aroused by images; women aroused by touch </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological factors important </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in male/female responding </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in male & female brains </li></ul>
  9. 10. Other Important Motives <ul><li>Stimulus Motives </li></ul><ul><li>1. Exploration & Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Mammalian trait </li></ul><ul><li>Need for novel experiences </li></ul><ul><li>2. Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Need to experience things for yourself </li></ul><ul><li>3. Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow’s experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Need to have physical contact & to be with others of the same species (affiliation) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Aggression <ul><li>Intentionally inflicting physical </li></ul><ul><li>or psychological harm on others. </li></ul><ul><li>Instinctive or learned? </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory of Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist vs. Individualist cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Approval by cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>Males higher due to testosterone? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Psychological Motivators <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of objects, people, & ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Increases self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>High achievers vs. low achievers </li></ul><ul><li>High achievers are not gamblers </li></ul><ul><li>Low achievers take big risks </li></ul><ul><li>Personality factors involved </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Need to win recognition or to influence & control others </li></ul><ul><li>Builds self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Respect vs. envy </li></ul>Tiger Woods Henry Kissinger
  12. 13. Areas of Achievement <ul><li>Intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation based on internal rewards (i.e. the basic pleasure of the activity itself, the intellectual challenge, or the satisfaction of curiosity). </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation based on external incentives (i.e. pay, praise, attention, or the avoidance of punishment). </li></ul>Achievement Productivity Knowledge Justice Autonomy Power Duty Excellence Money
  13. 14. Classical Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, the source of motivation is libido or sexual energy. Later, thanatos and anxiety were motivators . </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is through moral & “religious” values. Understanding the personality is the key to how one is motivated. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic Drive Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Need > Drive > Response > Goal > Reduced Need </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation involves more than one’s physical state. </li></ul><ul><li>We are capable of evaluating possibilities & incentives & choosing among them. </li></ul><ul><li>We have some degree of “free will.” </li></ul><ul><li>We are motivated to actualize our potential (self-actualization) and become a fully-functioning individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization is using your talents, capacities, & potentials to their fullest. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Hierarchy of Needs First Priority Needs Physiological Needs Air, Water, Food, Sleep, Protection from the Elements, etc. Safety & Security Caring for & Being Cared for; Structure, Order, & Predictability Second Order Needs Third Order Needs Love & Belongingness Community, Friends, & Family Fourth Order Needs Self-Esteem Self-Respect & Respect from Others Highest Order Needs Self-Actualization Using Talents & Capabilities to the Fullest; Know & Understand Self & Others More Fully
  15. 16. E m o t i o n s <ul><li>A state of affectively toned arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic emotions: Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Joy </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>These are seen in many mammals. </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Dimensions of an Emotional State 2. Level of Tension Emotions give Rise to differing Amounts of activity 4. Complexity Experience is a Mixture of Thoughts & Feelings 1. Intensity of Feeling Emotions vary in intensity 3. Affective Tone The degree of Pleasantness & Unpleasantness
  17. 18. Classifying Emotions <ul><li>Simplest classification </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant or unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Location in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus, pituitary, & amygdala </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li> - endorphins & neuropeptides </li></ul>
  18. 19. Theories of Emotional Responding <ul><li>James-Lange Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus > Physical Changes > Emotional Response </li></ul><ul><li>Canon-Bard Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus > Simultaneous Physical Changes & Emotional Response </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus > Physical Changes > Interpretation > Emotional Response </li></ul>
  19. 20. Experiencing Emotions <ul><li>Subjective Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul>2. Thoughts 3. Socio-Cultural Factors 4. Behaviors 1. “ Feelings”
  20. 21. Communicating Emotions <ul><li>Verbal Communications </li></ul><ul><li>About 20% of communications </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to describe an emotional state </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys more about emotions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Body language” & gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Many facial expressions are universal </li></ul>
  21. 22. Other Forms of Non-verbal Communication <ul><li>Emblems (Symbols) </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in their meaning from culture to culture. </li></ul><ul><li> The Serpent </li></ul><ul><li>The Dragon </li></ul>Wisdom Sin Higher Self Animal Nature
  22. 23. Gender Differences in Emotional Expression <ul><li>Differences in the same situation </li></ul><ul><li>Men tend to show less emotion; women show more concern </li></ul><ul><li>Men inhibit their emotions; women express them </li></ul><ul><li>Betrayal produces anger in men; hurt & sadness in women </li></ul><ul><li>Men & women interpret non-verbal emotional cues differently . </li></ul>
  23. 24. Sure Cure for Stress
  24. 25. Dealing with Emotions <ul><li>The ABCs of Emotional Change </li></ul><ul><li>A = Activating Event </li></ul><ul><li>B = Irrational Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>C = Emotional/Behavioral Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>D = Disputing </li></ul><ul><li>E = New Emotional Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize a Rational Belief and an Irrational Belief. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrational Beliefs are demands on one’s self, others or the world. </li></ul><ul><li>A Rational Statement is necessary to install the New Emotional Reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>1. I must be loved and approved by almost every significant other person in my life. </li></ul><ul><li>2. I should be completely competent and achieving in all ways to be a worthwhile person. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Certain people I must deal with are thoroughly bad and should be severely blamed and punished for it. </li></ul><ul><li>4. It is awful and upsetting when things are not the way I would very much like them to be. </li></ul><ul><li>5. My happiness is always caused by external events; I cannot control my emotional reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>6. If something unpleasant might happen, I should keep dwelling on it. </li></ul><ul><li>7. It is easier to avoid difficulties and responsibilities than to face them. </li></ul><ul><li>8. I should depend on others who are stronger than I am. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Because something once strongly affected my life, it will do so indefinitely. </li></ul><ul><li>10. There is always a perfect solution to human problems, and it is awful if this solution is not found. </li></ul>10 Common Irrational Beliefs