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  1. 1. MOTIVATION DR. Ahmed Albehairy, M.D Consultant Psychiatry
  2. 2. Definitions Motivation is the activation or energization of goalorientated behavior . Desire is a sense of longing for a person or object or hoping for an outcome (craving). Goal or objective is a projected state of affairs thata person or a system plans or intends to achieve . need is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. Motivation affects every thing we do ; ability to learn, memory perception.
  3. 3. Types of motives physiologically based Unlearned, in animals: - Survival needs: hunger & thirst. - Biologically based social needs: sex & maternal behavior. - curiosity psychologically based Learned , socially in nature
  4. 4. Concepts of motivation 1- concept of instincts. 2- concept of need & drive. 3-concept of incentives. 4- concept of equilibrium. 5- psychoanalytic concepts of motivation. 6- social learning theory of motivation.
  5. 5. concept of instincts. • Unlearned pattern of behavior that occur in the presence of certain stimuli. • Basic instincts are ( by William McDougal, 1980) - repulsion, curiosity, flight, parenting, reproduction, gregarious,acquisition, constructive, puganicity, self a
  6. 6. 2- concept of need & drive. • needs arise from deprivation. E.g. need for food drive a state in which the need makes the organism tense, aroused and activated e.g. hunger drive. • Drive state is motivation. • Drives is alike instincts , 1ry ( unlearned physiological)– 2ry ( learned experience).
  7. 7. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  8. 8. 3-concept of incentives. Incentives , external stimuli & consequences are controlling the response and behavior. Motivated if operant conditioned with positive incentives. Not motivated if related to negative incentives.
  9. 9. 4- concept of equilibrium. Essence of motivation is to maintain optimum level of functioning, equilibrium. Balance involve either physiological process or /and cognitive, emotional , arousal processes.
  10. 10. 4- concept of equilibrium. (cont.) Homeostasis: -1ry, survival motives operate acc. To homeostasis, i.e. constancies are essentials for survivals, in the face of changing external environment .e.g. body temp and body water. - Need s the physiological departure from the optimum value. - Drive s the arousal and seek of org. to correct this problem( homeostasis)
  11. 11. 5- psychoanalytic concepts of motivation. Eros, enhance life thantos, destruction • Libido, sex is energy of life instinct. • Unconscious motives, tongue slips, dreams. • Suicide( inward). • Aggression ( outwards). • Unconscious motives, tongue slips, dreams. • sex aggression
  12. 12. 6- social learning theory of motivation. - Concerning behavior not the drive. - Successful behaviors, person select them by reinforcement and discard the others. - Social learning theory stresses: a- vicarious learning . b- cognitive process that think in the situations symbolically and so our action can be governed by anticipated consequences. c- self regulation , evaluation of the behavior and reaction to it and form a standard to the level of function of the behavior. d – most effective ext stimuli when there s consistent between self reinforcement and society approval of the behavior.
  13. 13. 6- social learning theory of motivation. (CONT) The reinforcement that control the expression of learned behavior may be: - Direct reward, social approval, disapproval. - Vicarious learning. - Self – praise and reproach.
  14. 14. Current classification of motives inherited acquired • Physiological, air, water, food, etc. • Survival of species: sex, motherhood. • Emergency :fight and flight. • Objective : exploration, manipulation , interests. • General social motives shared by whole env. • Cultural social motives. • Individual social motives: education & subculture.
  15. 15. THANK YOU