What is motivation?Coming from the Greek word “movere,” which means to move, motivation involves the question of why people behave, think and feel the way they do.
What is motivation?Motivation is having the desire and willingness to do something (e.g. becoming a professional; learning how to ride a bike)
What are the characteristicsof a motivated behavior?Energized to do or engage in an activity;Directed towards reaching a specific goal;Sustained and intensified feelings about reaching that goal.
What are the kindsof motives? Basic or Primary Motives 1. Need to adjust to temperature 2. Need to quench thirst Acquired or Secondary 3. Need to satisfy hunger 1. Need to belong 4. Avoidance of pain 2. Need for love 5. Need for sensory stimulation 3. Need for achievement 6. Need for sex 4. Need to be nurtured 5. Need for safety
I. INSTINCT THEORYWilliam McDougall (1908): Humans are motivated by a number of different instincts (e.g. curiosity, self-assertion).Instincts—are innate tendencies or Instincts— biological forces that determine behavior; they are assumed to be universal throughout species.
Instincts are now redefined as fixed action pattern—an innate biological force that predisposes an organism to behave in a fixed way in the presence of a specific environmental condition
II. DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORYKey Components: – Need—a biological state in which the organism lacks something essential for survival (e.g. food, water, oxygen); a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation. – Drive—a state of tension produced by need that motivates the organism to act to reduce that tension.
Why would the organismwant to reduce the tension? To go back to a state of homeostasis—once the need is satisfied, the body returns to a more balanced state or equilibrium.
DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY: – A need results in a drive, which is a state of tension, that motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension and return the body to homeostasis.
III. INCENTIVE THEORYIncentives—are environmental factors, Incentives such as external stimuli, reinforcers or rewards, that motivate our behavior. – Examples: grades, recognition, money, fame
Because incentives are external, they are thought of as pulling us to obtain them; whereas drives are internal, they are thought of as pushing us to obtain them. Hence, incentives and drives are the pull and push of our behavior.
IV. COGNITIVE THEORYExtrinsic motivation—involves motivation— engaging in certain behaviors or activities because of incentives or external rewards
Intrinsic motivation— involves engaging in certain behaviors or activities because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations.
In summary:The theory of fixed action patterns (instinct) explains the behavior of animals.The drive-reduction theory (a pushing forced) explains our actions to meet biological or physiological needs.The incentive theory (a pulling force) explains why we do things to obtain external rewards.The cognitive theory explains that we do things to satisfy personal beliefs or meet personal goals.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow believed that our needs are arranged in a hierarchy. We satisfy our biological needs first before we turn our attention and energy to fulfilling personal and social needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is represented by a pyramid and shows the order in satisfying biological and social needs.
Two Kinds of Needs: Biological needs—are physiological requirements that are critical to our survival and physical well-being. – Examples: food, water, oxygen, sleep, avoidance of pain and sex Social needs—are needs that are acquired through learning and experience. – Examples: affiliation, nurturance, play, dominance, achievement
Maslow’sHierarchy ofNeeds Self-actualization Higher Order Needs Esteem Social Needs Lower Order Needs Safety Needs Physiological
Level 1. Physiological needs• Physiological needs—includes food, water, sleep, sex, etc. necessary for basic survival. – Examples: People who are homeless would be especially concerned with satisfying their physiological needs.
Level 2. Safety and security needs• Safety and security needs—the need for protection from harm. – Examples: People who live in dangerous communities will be concerned about satisfying their safety needs.
Level 3. Love and belongingness needs • Love and belongingness needs—the need for affiliation and acceptance by others. – Examples: Adolescents and young adults who are beginning to form serious relationships would be interested in satisfying their need for love and belongingness.
Level 4. Esteem needs• Esteem needs—the need for achievement, competency, gaining approval and recognition. – Examples: During early and middle adulthood, people are concerned with achieving their goals and establishing their careers.
Level 5. Self-actualization needs • Self-actualization needs—the need to fulfill one’s unique potential as a human being; this is the highest and most elusive kind of need and because it is difficult and challenging, only a few individuals are able to reach this level.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Applied in Work SettingSelf Actualization Challenging work Participation in decision makingEsteem Promotions to higher status quo Recognition from bosses Friendly co-workersSocial Needs Interaction with customers Job securitySafety Safe working conditionsPhysiological Reasonable work hours Physical comfort on the job
REFLECTION: What motivates me most?• Write a short reflection paper on the things that motivate you most: – To achieve – To love – To go on with your life• Rank the following list of values in terms of how important are they as your guiding principles : – A comfortable life —An exciting life – A sense of accomplishment —A world at peace – A world of beauty —Equality – Family security —Freedom – Happiness —Inner harmony – Mature love —National security – Pleasure —Salvation – Self-respect —Social recognition – True friendship —Wisdom