MOTIVATION―EXISTENCE ALONE IS NOT SUCCESS‖.IT‘S A LOT MORE !SUCCESS RESULTS FROM INSPIRATION,ASPIRATION, DESPERATION ANDPERSPIRATION‖.
MEANING AND DEFINITIONS► ―Motivationis like food for the brain. It needs continual and regular top up‖.► ―Motivation is a process which begins with a physiological or psychological need or deficiency which triggers behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. Needs Drives Incentives
MEANING AND DEFINITIONS…► Motivation is one of the key ingredients in employee performance and productivity. Individuals may not get the job done without sufficient motivation though they are provided with right objectives, supportive work environment and the right skills.► Motivation is the latest challenge that is faced by the employers and these challenges have come due to restructuring of organisation, re-engineering, globalisation and information technology.
MEANING AND DEFINITIONS…► Motivationis derived from the Latin word ‗movere‘ which means to ―move‖. And it is the ‗motive‘ an inner state of mind that energises, activates or moves and directs behaviour towards goals.► Motivationrefers to the forces within a person that affects his or her direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour.
MEANING AND DEFINITIONS…► According toDalton E. McFarland,► ―Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings or needs influence the choice of alternatives in the behaviour of human beings‖.► According to Stephen P. Robbins,► ―Motivation represents an unsatisfied need, which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need‖.
MEANING AND DEFINITIONS…► ―Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it‖ - Dwight D. Eisenhower Motivation is the willingness to exert high level of efforts towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual needs.
► NEED :Need is deficiency. Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance.► DRIVE :Drive is deficiency with direction. They enhance the goal accomplishment through actions.
► GOALS : Goals are generally interpreted as incentives and anything that will alleviate a need to reduce a drive is called an incentive.► SATISFACTION: The goal achievement requires a clear direction and the direction enhances the level and quality of output. The individual derives the ultimate satisfaction only if the goals are achieved.
NATURE OR CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION► i) Energetic force► ii) An internal feeling► iii) Intervening variable► iv) Work related behaviour► v) Positive or negative► vi) Equilibrium► vii) Complex process
Motivation is notpermanent.. Neitheris bathing – OverThe Top – Zig ZiglarMotivation is the fuelnecessary to keep thehuman enginerunning
► Energetic force : Motivation is a momentum for doing something which may originate ‗within‘ or ‗beyond‘ an individual. It is a urge to accomplish a task.► An internal feeling: Motivation is an inner state that energises, activates, or moves and that directs or channels behaviour towards goals.► Intervening variable : Motivation is an internal psychological process which is not directly observable and which account for behaviour from behaviour. It cannot be seen but can only be inferred from behaviour.
► Work related behaviour : Motivation directs behaviour towards some goal, work or action. It influences human behaviour to perform. It creates work environment on the part of individuals.► Positive or negative : Positive motivation is based on rewards, praise, pride, participation and growth. Negative motivation, on the other hand, is based on force of fear and punishment.
► Equilibrium : According to Chester Bernard, motivation is in the form ―inducement-contribution theory‖. It motivates workers and organisations to find what payouts (inducements) to workers in exchange for what degree of co-operation (contributions) from workers will be satisfactory to both the parties. Thus motivation cannot happen without this equilibrium.
► Complex process : This is evident from the following reasons.► A) Motivation is hypothetical construct, as it is not seen.► B) Motivation is an individual phenomenon.► C) Humans are not consciously aware of their desires.► D) People have different ways to satisfy their needs.► E) Motivation is rarely traceable to a single motive etc.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION► 1) MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY► 2) ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY► 3) McGREGOR’S X AND Y THEORY► 4) HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY► 5) McCLELLAND’S ACHIEVEMENT – MOTIVATION THEORY
► 6) VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY► 7) PORTER – LAWLER’S THEORY► 8) EQUITY THEORY► 9) GOAL SETTING THEORY► 10) ATTRIBUTION THEORY► 11) OUCHIS Z THEORY
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY► This theory was proposed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow postulates that people in work environment are motivated to perform by a desire to satisfy a set of internal needs. His framework is based on the following fundamental assumptions :► i) people‘s needs influence their behaviour,► ii) people‘s needs exerts a powerful effect on the individual‘s thinking and behaviour,► iii) once one need is satisfied, another need emerges and demands satisfaction,► iv) the lowest unsatisfied need has the greatest motivational potential.
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY…► PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS consists of the basic needs of the human body such as food, clothing, shelter and sex. These needs dominate all other needs.► SAFETY & SECURITY NEEDS includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm, ill health, economic disaster and the unexpected.► SOCIAL/ BELONGING NEEDS includes need for companionship, affection, belongingness, acceptance and love. Non satisfaction of these needs may affect the mental health of the individual.
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY…► SELF ESTEEM NEEDS includes internal esteem (awareness of one‘s importance to others) factors such as self- respect, autonomy and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition and attention. The satisfaction of these needs leads to self confidence and prestige.► SELF ACTUALISATION is the desire to become more and more what one is, to become one is capable of becoming. It includes growth, achieving one‘s potential and self fulfillment. The satisfaction of self actualization needs is possible only after the satisfaction of all other needs.
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY► CLAYTON ALDERFER proposed this ERG theory by grouping human needs into three categories viz.► E – Existence, R – Relatedness, G – Growth.► EXISTENCE NEEDS include individual‘s physiological and safety needs i.e. the need for food, clothing, shelter, fringe benefits and better working conditions.► RELATEDNESS NEEDS include how individuals develop the need to interact with other individuals and to acquire public recognition and have an interpersonal security.
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY….► GROWTH NEEDS explain the individual‘s self- esteem through personal achievement and the concept of self –actualisation.► ERG theory explains that an individual‘s behaviour could be motivated simultaneously by more than one need. Alderfer also states that one could satisfy the growth needs even though the related needs are not met.► The ERG theory can help managers to gain an insight into employees‘ behaviour because of the assumptions it holds that individual‘s are motivated to adopt a behaviour to satisfy one of the three sets of needs.
McGREGOR‘S X AND Y THEORY► Douglas McGregor assumed that motivating people involves certain assumptions about human nature. It involves certain assumptions, generalisations and hypothesis relating human behaviour and human nature. These set of assumptions serve the purpose of predicting human behaviour. These are merely intuitive deductions and not based on any research findings.
► Theory X represents old stereotyped and authoritarian management style of motivation. It is based on the following assumptions :► i) by nature man is lazy and dislikes work,► ii) lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility and prefers to be directed,► iii) self centred and indifferent to organisational goals,► iv) needs to be closely controlled,► v) motivation occurs at psychological and safety needs,
► vi) management must organise for factors of production,► vii) average man is generally passive and resistant to organisational needs.► This shows the negative assumptions of human behaviour. Hence the carrot and stick approach of motivation needs to be followed.
► McGregor suggested a counter approach to motivation which is called Theory Y. He recognised some factors that theory X fails to take into account. This theory is based on the following assumptions :► i) that the average person is active and does not inherently dislike work,► ii) seeks responsibility and learns under proper condition to accept the responsibility,► iii) self directed, self controlled and creative,► iv) motivation occurs at higher level needs, though unsatisfied lower needs are important,
► v) there is capacity to exercise high degree of imagination. ingenuity and creativity is solving problems though widely distributed.► Theory Y suggests the modern approach of motivation. It emphasises on the democratic and participative style of leadership. The most important contribution of this theory is the commitment of workers towards organisational goals, cooperation and co—ordination in work. It leads to decentralisation of authority, job enrichment, participative leadership and two way communication system to create a better environment.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY► FREDERICK HERZBERG, extended the work of Maslow and developed this theory. This is also called as Dual Structure Theory. According to this theory, there two factors called MOTIVATORS and HYGIENE that lead to employee‘s satisfaction or dissatisfaction.► Motivators are identified as growth, recognition, responsibility, advancement and achievement.► Hygiene is referred to job security, company policies, working conditions, supervisor relations and co-worker relations.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY…► In 1950, Herzberg conducted a motivational study on about 200 accountants and engineers using a critical incident method for data collection which resulted in following conclusions:► i) Different sets of needs play different roles in the overall process of motivation and satisfaction in organisations.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY…► ii) The factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction.► iii) Job satisfaction is not a unidimensional concept. Thus, to eliminate factors that create job dissatisfaction can bring about peace, but cannot necessarily motivate.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY…► The Herzberg‘s research revealed two distinct types of motivational factors as under :► 1)MOTIVATORS OR SATISFIERS – There is set of intrinsic (internal) job conditions which can result in good job performance and can build a strong level of motivation. If these conditions are not present, they do not result dissatisfaction. They are associated with job experiences and job content. They are job –centred and create a challenge and opportunity for achievement and growth. They are roughly equivalent to Maslow‘s higher level needs.
► 2) HYGIENE FACTORS OR DISSATISFIERS –► There is a set of extrinsic (external) job conditions which result in dissatisfaction among employees when they are not present.► But if these conditions are present, this does not necessarily motivate employees.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY…► Hygiene factors are associated with the surrounding or peripheral aspects of the job – the job context.► They are preventive and environmental in nature and are needed to maintain at least a level of ―no dissatisfaction‖.► Although they seem to be important in preventing dissatisfaction, by themselves they do not motivate or lead to satisfaction.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY…► HYGIENE FACTORS ► MOTIVATORS (DISSATISFIERS) (SATISFIERS)► Job context ► Job content► Company policy and ► Sense of Achievement administration. ► Recognition► Supervision ► Work itself► Salary ► Increase in► Interpersonal relations Responsibility► Working conditions ► Advancement, Growth► Status, security & Development
McCLELLAND’S ACHIEVEMENT – MOTIVATION THEORY► This theory was proposed by DAVID McCLELLAND.► He refers that apart from the primary needs, individual‘s have secondary needs that are learned. The secondary needs are learned and reinforced through parental styles, childhood learning and social norms. He argues that individual‘s could be motivated through these learned needs. The learned needs are :► Need for achievement► Need for affiliation and► Need for power.
McCLELLAND’S ACHIEVEMENT – MOTIVATION THEORY…► Need for achievement:► Individuals with higher need for achievement will take up challenging goals. These individuals do not prefer to work in teams. They have a higher responsibility in order to reach their goals. These individuals are generally satisfied only when they are given a challenging job, with due recognition and feedback from the managers.
McCLELLAND’S ACHIEVEMENT – MOTIVATION THEORY…► Need for affiliation :► This is similar to Maslow‘s safety and belongingness needs. An individual high on the need of affiliation wish to seek recognition from others and likes more of dealing with interpersonal relationship. In order to seek for positive relationship these individuals generally avoid conflicts. They participate in general meetings and social gatherings. This need could also be related to Alderfer‘s relatedness need.
McCLELLAND’S ACHIEVEMENT – MOTIVATION THEORY…► Need for power :► The ability to induce or influence other‘s behaviour is called power. McClelland found that persons with a high power need display a great concern for exercising influence and control. They are also interested in providing status rewards to their followers.
VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY► Vroom‘s theory covers the entire work environment while attempting to answer the question on what is the strength of the needs in motivating people at work.► This expectancy theory goes by the basic premise that employees are rational people, they think about what they have to do to be rewarded and how much the rewards mean to them before they perform their jobs.
VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY….► This theory is based on four assumptions viz..► a) It is a combination of both individual (expectations about their jobs based on their needs, motivations, etc.) and the environment (the organisation) which will influence how people behave in organisations. And these could also change over period of time.
VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY….► b)Individuals consciously make their own decisions (coming to work, staying with the same firm etc) even though there may be many constraints placed on their behaviour (working norms, rules etc).► c)People expect different rewards from their work depending on their different needs and goals.► d)Individuals take decisions based on their perceptions about what will be the desired outcome of a specific behaviour.
VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY….► Vroom has built this theory on three concepts – Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy.► So this approach is also called as VIE theory.► Vroom has referred to the result of behaviours associated with doing the job itself as First Level Outcomes (ex. Level of performance, quality of work, amount of absenteeism).►
► The Second Level Outcomes are said to be the rewards (either positive or negative) the first level outcomes are likely to produce (ex. An increase in pay, promotion, job security, acceptance by colleagues).
► VALENCE :► The strength of an individual‘s preference for a particular outcome (second level) is called Valence. Outcomes having a positive valence could take the form of gaining respect from friends and colleagues, performing meaningful work, feeling of job security, earning enough to maintain a family.
► Outcomes having negative valence are instances one could want to avoid such as being given a golden hand shake, being passed over for promotion or discharged on grounds of improper behaviour at work place (sexual harassment etc). Outcome is positive when it is preferred by the individual and negative when it is not preferred and the individual tries to avoid it.
► INSTRUMENTALITY :► This refers to the relationship between first level outcome and second level outcomes and the values ranging from -1 to +1.► -1 implies that the attainment of a second level outcome is inversely related to the achievement of a first level outcome. For instance, Mr. A to be accepted as member of a work group has to have level of performance, in which case A will ensure that he will not violate the group‘s norm.
► +1 indicates that the first level outcome is positively related to the second level outcome. When a student receives a A+ grade in the final exam, the chance of him achieving the second level outcome (clearing the exams with distinction) approaches ―+1‖.
► EXPECTANCY :► Thisrefers to the belief that a particular level of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance. The expectancy may vary from the belief that there is absolutely no relationship between effort and performance to the surety that a certain level of effort will result in a corresponding level of performance.
► The expectancy has a value ranging from ―0‖ (no chances that a first level outcome will occur after the behaviour) to ―+1‖ ( the certainty or surety that a particular first level outcome will be the result of a particular behaviour).
PORTER – LAWLER’S THEORY► Porter& Lawler made an effort to refine and extend Vroom‘s model to try to understand the relationships between satisfaction and performance.► They opined that motivation is not equal to satisfaction or performance. According to them, motivation, satisfaction and performance are separate variables and relate in different ways as compared to what was assumed traditionally.
PORTER – LAWLER’S THEORY….► According to this approach, effort do not directly lead to performance and is mediated or interrupted by abilities, traits and role perceptions.► Unlike the traditional theories, this theory suggests that performance leads to satisfaction. This approach has no doubt, made significant contributions which has led to the better understanding of work motivation and the relationship between performance and satisfaction.► However theory is very complex and has proved to be a difficult one in practice.
EQUITY THEORY► This theory was introduced by J. Stacy Adams. It works on two assumptions :► a) People evaluate their interpersonal relationships just as exchange process in which they make contributions and expect certain results.► b) Individuals tend to compare their situations to those of others to determine the equity of an exchange.► Stacy Adams opines that people compare themselves with others based on two variables i.e. outcomes and inputs.
EQUITY THEORY…► Inputs represent what an individual contributes to an exchange and Outputs are what an individual receives from the exchange. Both inputs and outputs here are based on the person‘s perception.► Equity theory includes that individuals compare their outcomes and inputs with those of others and judge their equality of these relationships in the form of a ratio. Later they compare the ratios of their own outcomes / input to the ratios of others outcomes/ inputs.
EQUITY THEORY…► But these comparisons occur only when individuals are working in the same area or domain.► Ex.Jack & Jill – Rs 500/- & Rs 350/- per day for the same job having equal trait, where one feels happy and other disappointed.
GOAL SETTING THEORY► “Goals can be defined as future outcomes / results that individuals and groups desire and strive to achieve. Goal setting is the process through which efficiency and effectiveness can be increased by specifying the desired outcomes towards which individuals, teams, departments and organisations should work‖.► Goal setting process is one of the most important motivational tools having an impact on the performance of employees in organisation.
GOAL SETTING THEORY….► Goals setting is the process of developing, negotiating and establishing goals which will be challenging enough to structure the individual‘s time and effort.► The key attributes of goals are:
► GOAL DIFFICULTY: A good goal; should be challenging at the same time not too easy, nor should it be too difficult.► GOAL CLARITY: The goal should be clear and specific enough to direct the efforts of the individual in the desired direction.►► SELF EFFICACY: The goal should be set such that the individual is able to perform the task at the desired level.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY► Attributions play an important role in the cognitive processes of an individual. Attributions which people make have emerged as an important indicator for work motivation.► The Attributions theory works on the basis of the relationship between personal perception and interpersonal behaviour than as a theory of individual motivation.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY…► All the attributions theories share the following same assumptions: Individuals tend to seek and make sense of the world. We tend to attribute people‘s actions to internal or external causes. And this is done in logical ways.
WILLIAM OUCHI’S THEORY Z► William ouchi‘s theory Z captures the best in management methods from the US and Japanese approaches. Ouchi has made a comparative analysis in theory Z.► Japanese management can be characterised by : life-time employment, emphasis on group, concern for employees, collective decision making and role of top management as a facilitator. While American practices include short –term employment, rapid advancement, personal decision making, individual responsibility, segmented concern for employees and specialisation in career.
► This is a ―Hybrid‖ type of system which incorporates the strengths of Japanese management practices and American management practices.► In fact, Z does not stand for anything. It is merely the last letter of the alphabet. Actually, theory Z is not a theory. It is a label interchangeable with type Z.► William Ouchi described the following feature under the caption of ‗Z‘.► i) strong bond between organisation and employees,► ii) employees‘ participation,
► iii)mutual trust,► iv) no formal organisation structure,► v) human resource development,► vi) informal control system.► Thus theory Z provides a complete transformation of motivational aspect of employees. It is a comprehensive philosophy of management. It rather involves a complex amalgamation of management principles and techniques for obtaining the maximum co-operation of the employees.
THE MBO APPROACH TO MOTIVATION► Management By Objectives is a philosophy and system advocated by Peter Drucker in 1950 that emphasises on a particular set of goals that are tangible, verifiable and measurable.► MBO is the method by which managers and employees jointly set goals for work performance and personal development, periodically evaluate the employee’s progress towards achieving these goals and integrating of individual, team, departmental and organisational goals.► The MBO model comprises of four basic components viz: Goal Setting, Subordinate participation, Implementation and Performance Appraisal/Feedback.
MBO – in practice► A lot of emphasis is placed on rewarding people for accomplishing goals and punished for not doing so.► MBO is supposed to reduce the amount of paper work and red tapism but reverse usually occurs.► In reality the process is controlled from the top, offering little scope for employee participation.► Very often the MBO is reduced to a lose-win situation between the managers and the employees.► Too much of importance is given to individual goals and performance. This may result in the individual concentrating on attainment of individual goal defeating the very purpose of collaborative team work and group goals.
EMPLOYEE ECOGNITION PROGRAMMES► Congratulate an employee – note/email, complimenting at meetings► Install an award/certificate – recognise an employee’s productivity/work performance► Group Good Performance Recognition – T-shirts, Tea Mugs, Tie-pins,► Examples:► ICICI Bank uses the ‗service ambassador‘ concept to foster good customer service norms through well groomed select employees► Co’s like Infosys, Voltas make use ‗Suggestion Schemes‘ to reward the valuable suggestions for cost cutting/improving quality
EMPLOYEE ECOGNITION PROGRAMMES FINANCIAL MOTIVATION NON-FINANCIAL MOTIVATIONVariable Pay – piece rate, bonus, Complimenting employeesincentives, profit sharing bonusesSkill Based Pay – on attaining degrees Awarding certificatesand proficienciesFlexible Benefits – an employee can Recognition-as service ambassadorspick from a basket of benefit optionsCash Awards Employee Involvement /Participation ProgrammesESOP Quality circles Job Enrichment /Job Excitement Delegation & Empowerment