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Myers Chp 12

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  1. 1. Chapter 12 Motivation
  2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>Key Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What motivates us to behavior &/or attitude? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHY do we do what we do? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motive <ul><li>A hypothetical state within an organism that activates behavior and motivates the organism toward a goal </li></ul>
  4. 4. NEED <ul><li>Any state of deprivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological needs (air, food, water pain avoidance, temperature, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our state of deprivation of the comfort level of any need gives rise to drive to regain that level again </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. HOMEOSTASIS <ul><li>“The same state” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our comfortable level we try to maintain </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. DRIVE <ul><li>A need gives rise to a drive </li></ul><ul><li>A condition of arousal in an organism that propels it toward satisfying the need </li></ul>
  7. 7. Physiological drives are the psychological counterparts of physiological needs
  8. 8. INCENTIVE <ul><li>An object, person or situation perceived as being capable of satisfying a need. </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives motivate behavior </li></ul>
  10. 10. A) COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY <ul><li>DR. FESTINGER (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>We are motivated to be sure our cognitions and beliefs are consistent, if not, we work until they are! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissonance - not in harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive - information processing </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. B) INSTINCT THEORY (1900 ish ) <ul><li>William James </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People inherit social behavior instincts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William McDougal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 Basic Instincts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migratory & mating behavior (birds) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rooting/Sucking (humans) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin- behavior originates from instinct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive survival behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. INSTINCT THEORY - ideas <ul><li>Species specific behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Releasers </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-Action Pattern (FAP) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ethologist - a scientist who studies the behavior patterns that characterize different species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Konrad Lorenz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby goslings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imprinting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical period </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Pheromones <ul><li>Seemingly odorless and tasteless chemical secretions detected by members of the same species that, when released, stimulate stereotypical behavior </li></ul><ul><li>What about in Humans?? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sociobiology <ul><li>Herding Behavior as threat reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Aged or nonproductive leave group to increase survival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Theory of the Buffalo from Norm on Cheers!) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. C) DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY <ul><li>CLARK HULL </li></ul><ul><li>We are motivated to reduce the compelling drive that we are experiencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of Irritation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We try to reduce tension where we no longer experience a “drive” because the “need” has been satisfied </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY <ul><li>Primary Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unlearned or physiological drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquired Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We learn to need them through experience </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. D) OPPONNENT-PROCESS THEORY <ul><li>RICHARD SOLOMON </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional reactions are followed by their opposite emotion rather than a neutral emotion, when the conditions give rise to the original emotion change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afterimages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fearful soldier </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. E. HUMANISTIC THEORY <ul><li>A DRIVE TO SELF-ACTUALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>ABRAHAM MASLOW </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is motivated by a conscious desire for personal growth </li></ul>
  20. 20. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  21. 21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Lowest level neeeds must be met first </li></ul><ul><li>then higher-level safety needs become active </li></ul><ul><li>then psychological needs become active </li></ul>Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst
  22. 22. F) COGNITIVE THEORY OF MOTIVATION <ul><li>Leon Festinger(1957) & Sandra Bem(1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Schemas - expectations of “maleness” or “femaleness” </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancies - people motivated by what they expect will happen (Bandura,Rotter,Mischel) </li></ul>
  23. 23. COGNITIVE THEORY OF MOTIVATION <ul><li>Self-efficacy expectations - Julian Rotter’s idea that we are motivated or not by our own sense of how well we will perform at something </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance - (Festinger) we are motivated to maintain consistency* </li></ul>
  24. 24. G) SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORY <ul><li>Covers all other theories </li></ul><ul><li>States that everything is within the “Filter” of a social or cultural context </li></ul><ul><li>“ Milieu” = environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sociocultural milieu influences motives such as aggressiveness, nurturance, etc. (M. Mead 1935) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>SATIETY - The state of being satisfied or full </li></ul><ul><li>LESION - and injury that relults in impaired or loss of function </li></ul>
  27. 27. Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>Set Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basal Metabolic Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body’s base rate of energy expenditure </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions </li></ul>
  29. 29. PsychSim <ul><li>Hunger & the Fat Rat </li></ul>
  30. 30. Eating Disorders
  31. 31. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly ( > 15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually an adolescent female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulimia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of highly caloric foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa <ul><li>when a person is less than 85% of their normal body weight </li></ul><ul><li>95% of sufferers are female </li></ul><ul><li>most are between the ages of 18-30 </li></ul><ul><li>30% of persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa die </li></ul>
  33. 33. Women’s Body Images Thinnest Women’s ideal What women believed men preferred What men actually preferred Women’s current body image Fattest
  34. 34. Psych Quest <ul><li>How do we control how much we eat? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Motivation and Achievement
  36. 36. Motivation <ul><li>Achievement Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a desire for significant accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for mastery of things, people, or ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for attaining a high standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClelland and Atkinson believed fantasies would reflect achievement concerns </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Motivation <ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire to perform a behavior for its own sake or to be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Rewards Affect Motivation Mom: “I’ll give you $5 for every A.’’ Controlling reward Child: “As long as she pays, I’ll study.’’ Extrinsic motivation Mom: “Your grades were great! Let’s celebrate by going out for dinner.’’ Informative reward Child: “I love doing well.’’ Intrinsic motivation
  39. 39. Motivation <ul><li>Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sub-field of psychology that studies and advises on workplace behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I/O Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help organizations select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, and design products and assess responses to them </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Motivation <ul><li>Task Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Motivation <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should be directed from above </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity </li></ul></ul>