MOTIVATIONDR. Ahmed Albehairy, M.D Consultant Psychiatry
DefinitionsMotivation is the activation or energization of goal- orientated behavior .Desire is a sense of longing for a person or object or hoping for an outcome (craving).Goal or objective is a projected state of affairs thata person or a system plans or intends to achieve .need is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life.Motivation affects every thing we do ; ability to learn, memory perception.
Types of motives physiologically based psychologically basedUnlearned, in animals: Learned , socially in- Survival needs: nature hunger & thirst.- Biologically based social needs: sex & maternal behavior.- curiosity
Concepts of motivation1- concept of instincts.2- concept of need & drive.3-concept of incentives.4- concept of equilibrium.5- psychoanalytic concepts of motivation.6- social learning theory of motivation.
concept of instincts.• Unlearned pattern of behavior that occur in the presence of certain stimuli.• Basic instincts are ( by William McDougal, 1980)- repulsion, curiosity, flight, parenting, reproduction, gregarious,acquisition, constructive, puganicity, self a
2- concept of need & drive.• needs arise from deprivation. E.g. need for food drive a state in which the need makes the organism tense, aroused and activated e.g. hunger drive.• Drive state is motivation.• Drives is alike instincts , 1ry ( unlearned physiological)– 2ry ( learned experience).
3-concept of incentives.Incentives , external stimuli & consequences are controlling the response and behavior.Motivated if operant conditioned with positive incentives.Not motivated if related to negative incentives.
4- concept of equilibrium.Essence of motivation is to maintain optimum level of functioning, equilibrium.Balance involve either physiological process or /and cognitive, emotional , arousal processes.
4- concept of equilibrium.(cont.)Homeostasis:-1ry, survival motives operate acc. To homeostasis, i.e. constancies are essentials for survivals, in the face of changing external environment .e.g. body temp and body water.- Need s the physiological departure from the optimum value.- Drive s the arousal and seek of org. to correct this problem( homeostasis)
5- psychoanalytic concepts of motivation. Eros, enhance life thantos,destruction• Libido, sex is energy • Suicide( inward). of life instinct. • Aggression• Unconscious motives, ( outwards). tongue slips, dreams. • Unconscious motives, tongue slips, dreams.• sex aggression
6- social learning theory of motivation.- Concerning behavior not the drive.- Successful behaviors, person select them by reinforcement and discard the others.- Social learning theory stresses: a- vicarious learning . b- cognitive process that think in the situations symbolically and so our action can be governed by anticipated consequences. c- self regulation , evaluation of the behavior and reaction to it and form a standard to the level of function of the behavior. d – most effective ext stimuli when there s consistent between self reinforcement and society approval of the behavior.
6- social learning theory of motivation. (CONT)The reinforcement that control the expression of learned behavior may be:- Direct reward, social approval, disapproval.- Vicarious learning.- Self – praise and reproach.
Current classification of motives inherited acquired• Physiological, air, • General social water, food, etc. motives shared by• Survival of species: whole env. sex, motherhood. • Cultural social• Emergency :fight and motives. flight. • Individual social• Objective : exploration, motives: education & subculture. manipulation , interests.