Motivation come from a Latin word
“Movere” which means to move.
Motivation is what moves people to do
the things they do.
Baron, 1995 defined motivation as an
internal process that activate, guide and
Need, Drive, Incentive, Motive
they are general wants or
desires. It is a condition of deficiency
every human has to strive for. E.g.
Food, hunger, rest, oxygen, e.t.c.
It is an aroused state resulting
from some bodily need or tissue need.
This state motivates the organism to
initiate behaviour to remedy the need.
is a reinforcing agent that
adds force to a drive. If need is added
with incentive, drive becomes powerful.
E.g. praise, reward, appreciation, e.t.c.
It is a desired goal that prompts
ExtrinsicExtrinsic motivation refers when
motivation is external or coming from
outside. A person performs an action
because it leads to an outcome that is
separate from the person (Ryan and
E.g.- giving a child money for every A+ he
IntrinsicIntrinsic motivation refers to motivation
that is driven by an interest or
enjoyment in the task itself, and exists
within the individual rather than relying
on external pressures or a desire for
reward. These behaviours are
interesting and self satisfying.
E.g.- playing guitar even when no one is
need- Hunger, thirst etc.,
Safety need- To feel secure & safe, out of
Belongingness & love needs- Affiliate with
others, be accepted & belong
Esteem needs- To achieve, be
component, gain approval
Self-actualization needs- Self fulfillment &
realize one’s potential
He explained needs of the people. Had a very
optimistic view of humans. Its basic
According to Herzberg, individuals are
not content with the satisfaction of
lower-order needs at work, for
example, those associated with
minimum salary levels e.t.c.
Rather, individuals look for the
gratification of higher-level
psychological needs having to do with
achievement, recognition, responsibility
, advancement, and the nature of the
Herzberg added a new dimension to this
theory by proposing a two-factor
model of motivation, based on the
notion that the presence of one set of
job characteristics or incentives
leads to worker satisfaction at
work, while another and separate set
to dissatisfaction at work.
Taken from OB this theory finds its
applications in daily life as well.
It focuses on individual drives and patterns
of behaviour the individual learns in coping
with the environment. It says that the
behaviors can be learnt through direct
experience or by observing behaviors of
Instincts are goal-directed and innate
patterns of behavior that are not the
result of learning or experience.
According to the instinct theory of
motivation, all organisms are born with
innate biological tendencies that help
them survive. This theory suggests that
all behaviors are driven by instincts.
Biological needs arising within our body
creates unpleasant state of arousal that we
usually call hunger, thirst, e.t.c. To eliminate
such feelings & restore a balanced
physiological state or homeostasis we
engage in certain activities.
Thus motivation according to this theory
(1943) is a process in which various
biological needs push/drive us to do actions
designed to satisfy these needs.
Those actions that fail to do so are
weakened and will not be repeated
again when the need arises.
E.g.- reflexes of infants.
He explained the reasons for our
Two kinds of drives
Primary drives Acquired
Those that involve
survival needs of
E.g.- hunger, thirst,
Those that are
E.g.- Money, social
In this theory people are said to have
an optimal level of tension that they
seek to maintain by increasing or
E.g.-Task performance suffers if the level
of arousal is too high or too low. For
most tasks, moderate level of arousal
The Yerkes–Dodson law
It is an empirical relationship
between arousal and performance, was
developed in 1908. The law dictates that
performance increases with physiological or
mental arousal, but only up to a point. When
levels of arousal become too
high, performance decreases.
Helps in understanding people and their
level of motivation and anxiety. (sports
psychology, competitions, O.B.)
Incentive theory (Pull Theory)
It states that external stimuli regulates
motivational state. It is also called expectancy
theory. (McClelland 1975)
Expectancy-value model; (Atkinson 1978)
It states that actions depend on 2 factorsoExpectancy about ones chance of attaining
oValue of desired incentive.
Basic application is behavioural modification
(token economy) like in Tihar jail, giving gold
stars to kids for solving the question right, e.t.c.
Goal Setting Theory
It suggests that motive is strongly influenced
by goals. Though it works under certain
conditions. It is most effective in boosting
performance when the goal set is highly
specific and is perceived to be attainable.
Setting smaller goals to reach the larger one
helps more in many cases.
We are motivated to maintain harmony
among our beliefs and attitudes. It’s a basic
theory of attitude change. Mainly used in the
marketing sector or other place (some times
to chance beliefs in patients with cognitive
distortions as well) where attitude change is
STRATEGIES FOR MOTIVATION
instead of mindless
Reward smart work
instead of busy work
together instead of
Six important words are “ I admit I made
Five important words are” You did a good
Four important words are “ What is your
Three important words are “Let’s work
Two most important words are “ Thank
Single most important word is ”WE”.