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Wireless sensor network wireless network

Wireless sensor network

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Wireless sensor network wireless network

  1. 1. 1 Wireless Sensor NetworkWireless Sensor Network ผศผศ.. ณัฐณัฐวุฒิวุฒิ ขวัญแกวขวัญแกว หองปฏิบัติการวิจัยเชิงประยุกตระบบสื่อสารและสมองกลฝงตัวหองปฏิบัติการวิจัยเชิงประยุกตระบบสื่อสารและสมองกลฝงตัว [CARSAREA : C[CARSAREA : Communicationommunication AAndnd EEmbeddedmbedded SSystemsystems AApplicationpplication ReResearch Lsearch Laab.]b.] ภาควิชาวิศวกรรมไฟฟาภาควิชาวิศวกรรมไฟฟา คณะวิศวกรรมศาสตรคณะวิศวกรรมศาสตร มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตรมหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร
  2. 2. 2 TopicsTopics Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworkIntroduction to Wireless Sensor Network Basic FeatureBasic Feature ApplicationApplication Implementation ConceptImplementation Concept Hardware PlatformHardware Platform Software PlatformSoftware Platform Existing WSN SystemExisting WSN System Sensor Network Operating SystemSensor Network Operating System ZigbeeZigbee CZARNETCZARNET –– CAESAREA Wireless Sensor NetworkCAESAREA Wireless Sensor Network
  3. 3. 3 Wireless Sensor Networks (Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNsWSNs)) It consists of a set of small devices withIt consists of a set of small devices with sensingsensing andand wireless communicationwireless communication capabilitiescapabilities Those small devices are namedThose small devices are named sensor nodessensor nodes, and are, and are deployed within a special area to monitor a physicaldeployed within a special area to monitor a physical phenomenon.phenomenon. MultifunctionalMultifunctional Depends on what sensors are attachedDepends on what sensors are attached FeaturesFeatures Widely deployed. (100~1MWidely deployed. (100~1M↑↑)) Low communication bandwidthLow communication bandwidth Limited memory space and computation powerLimited memory space and computation power
  4. 4. 4 Basic FeaturesBasic Features SelfSelf--organizing capabilitiesorganizing capabilities ShortShort--range broadcast communication andrange broadcast communication and multihopmultihop routingrouting Dense deployment and cooperative effort of sensor nodesDense deployment and cooperative effort of sensor nodes Frequently changing topology due to fading and node failuresFrequently changing topology due to fading and node failures Limitations in energy, transmit power, memory, andLimitations in energy, transmit power, memory, and computing powercomputing power
  5. 5. 5 ApplicationsApplications General EngineeringGeneral Engineering Agriculture and Environmental MonitoringAgriculture and Environmental Monitoring Civil EngineeringCivil Engineering Military ApplicationMilitary Application Health Monitoring and SurgeryHealth Monitoring and Surgery
  6. 6. 6 GeneralGeneral EngineeringEngineering AutomotiveAutomotive telematicstelematics Fingertip accelerometer virtual keyboardsFingertip accelerometer virtual keyboards Sensing and maintenance in industrial plantsSensing and maintenance in industrial plants Aircraft drag reductionAircraft drag reduction Smart office spacesSmart office spaces Tracking of goods in retail storesTracking of goods in retail stores Social studiesSocial studies Commercial and residential securityCommercial and residential security
  7. 7. 7 Application : Monitoring Volcanic EruptionsApplication : Monitoring Volcanic Eruptions
  8. 8. 8 AgricultureAgriculture andand EnvironmentalEnvironmental MonitoringMonitoring Precision agriculturePrecision agriculture Planetary explorationPlanetary exploration Geophysical monitoringGeophysical monitoring Monitoring of freshwater qualityMonitoring of freshwater quality ZebranetZebranet Habitat MonitoringHabitat Monitoring Disaster detectionDisaster detection Contaminant transportContaminant transport
  9. 9. 9 CivilCivil EngineeringEngineering Monitoring of structuresMonitoring of structures Urban planningUrban planning Disaster recoveryDisaster recovery
  10. 10. 10 Military ApplicationsMilitary Applications Asset monitoring and managementAsset monitoring and management Surveillance and battleSurveillance and battle--space monitoringspace monitoring Urban warfareUrban warfare ProtectionProtection SelfSelf--healing minefieldshealing minefields
  11. 11. 11 HealthHealth MonitoringMonitoring andand SurgerySurgery Medical SensingMedical Sensing Body temperatureBody temperature Blood pressureBlood pressure PulsePulse MicroMicro--surgerysurgery MEMSMEMS--based robotsbased robots
  12. 12. 12 Application : Medical CareApplication : Medical Care
  13. 13. 13 Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN)Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) Ubiquitous Health MonitoringUbiquitous Health Monitoring
  14. 14. 14 Technical Challenges (1/4)Technical Challenges (1/4) Performance metricsPerformance metrics Energy efficiency/system lifetimeEnergy efficiency/system lifetime LatencyLatency AccuracyAccuracy Fault toleranceFault tolerance ScalabilityScalability Transport capacity/throughputTransport capacity/throughput Power SupplyPower Supply Battery, Capacitor, Solar CellBattery, Capacitor, Solar Cell Design of EnergyDesign of Energy--Efficient ProtocolsEfficient Protocols ClusteringClustering Broadcast and multicast treesBroadcast and multicast trees Sleep modesSleep modes
  15. 15. 15 Technical Challenges (2/4)Technical Challenges (2/4) Capacity/ThroughputCapacity/Throughput Expected number of successful packet transmissions of a given noExpected number of successful packet transmissions of a given node per timeslotde per timeslot RoutingRouting ““many to onemany to one”” networknetwork –– all node report to a single base stationall node report to a single base station UpUp--toto--date, less effort given to routing protocolsdate, less effort given to routing protocols MultihopMultihop communication andcommunication and QoSQoS routingrouting Ad hoc routing protocols are not suited well for WSNAd hoc routing protocols are not suited well for WSN Channel Access and SchedulingChannel Access and Scheduling Aim at energy and delay balancingAim at energy and delay balancing Medium Access problemMedium Access problem –– minimum collisions and maximum spatial reuseminimum collisions and maximum spatial reuse Node LevelNode Level -- Determines which flow will be eligible to transmit nextDetermines which flow will be eligible to transmit next System LevelSystem Level -- Determines which nodes will be transmittingDetermines which nodes will be transmitting
  16. 16. 16 Technical Challenges(3/4)Technical Challenges(3/4) ModelingModeling Number of nodes and relative distributionNumber of nodes and relative distribution Degree and type of mobilityDegree and type of mobility Characteristics of wireless linkCharacteristics of wireless link Volume of traffic injected by the sourceVolume of traffic injected by the source Lifespan of nodes interactionLifespan of nodes interaction Detailed energy consumption modelsDetailed energy consumption models ConnectivityConnectivity Crucial for most application : Network is not partitioned into dCrucial for most application : Network is not partitioned into disjoints partsisjoints parts Quality of Service (Quality of Service (QoSQoS)) Capability of a network to deliver data reliably and timelyCapability of a network to deliver data reliably and timely HighHigh Quantity of ServiceQuantity of Service generally not sufficient to satisfy an applicationgenerally not sufficient to satisfy an application’’s delays delay requirementrequirement Speed of propagation of information may be as crucial as the thrSpeed of propagation of information may be as crucial as the throughputoughput
  17. 17. 17 Technical Challenges (4/4)Technical Challenges (4/4) SecuritySecurity Sensor nodes are not protected against physical mishandling or aSensor nodes are not protected against physical mishandling or attacksttacks Eavesdropping, jamming and ListenEavesdropping, jamming and Listen--andand--retransmit attacks can hamper or preventretransmit attacks can hamper or prevent the operationthe operation ImplementationImplementation Nodes must become an order of magnitude cheaper in order to rendNodes must become an order of magnitude cheaper in order to render applicationser applications with a large number of nodes affordablewith a large number of nodes affordable Other IssuesOther Issues Distributed signal processingDistributed signal processing Synchronization and localizationSynchronization and localization Wireless reprogrammingWireless reprogramming
  18. 18. 18 Implementation Concept : Hardware PlatformImplementation Concept : Hardware Platform Processing UnitProcessing Unit Transceiver UnitTransceiver Unit Power UnitPower Unit Sensing UnitsSensing Units Other ApplicationOther Application DependentDependent ComponentsComponents
  19. 19. 19 Implementation Concept : Software PlatformImplementation Concept : Software Platform Application Programming Interface (API)Application Programming Interface (API) Embedded Operating System (EOS)Embedded Operating System (EOS) Device DriversDevice Drivers Hardware Abstract Layer (HAL)Hardware Abstract Layer (HAL) Hardware Platform Operating System Virtual M/C MiddleWare Network Stack Applications
  20. 20. 20 Motes are tiny, selfMotes are tiny, self--contained, battery powered computers with radio links,contained, battery powered computers with radio links, which enable them to communicate and exchange data with one anotwhich enable them to communicate and exchange data with one another, and toher, and to selfself--organize into ad hoc networksorganize into ad hoc networks Motes form the building blocks of wireless sensor networksMotes form the building blocks of wireless sensor networks TinyOS : componentTinyOS : component--based runtime environment, is designed to providebased runtime environment, is designed to provide support for these motes which require concurrency intensive opersupport for these motes which require concurrency intensive operations whileations while constrained by minimal hardware resourcesconstrained by minimal hardware resources Figure 3: Berkeley MoteFigure 3: Berkeley Mote Berkeley Motes (1/2)Berkeley Motes (1/2)
  21. 21. 21 Berkeley Motes (2/2)Berkeley Motes (2/2)
  22. 22. 22 Mote Kit : Crossbow (Mote Kit : Crossbow (www.xbow.comwww.xbow.com)) Monitoring temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and other environmental parameters. Low sampling rates, typically slower than 2 minutes per sensor measurement. Outdoor environments Deployment of sensors over several acres or more Battery operation for at least one year Remote logging of data and remote data access.
  23. 23. 23 StargateStargate : WSN Gateway: WSN Gateway Interfacing Sensor Networks to the InternetInterfacing Sensor Networks to the Internet IntelIntel XScaleXScale ProcessorProcessor Compact Flash , PCMIA,Compact Flash , PCMIA, EternetEternet , USB Host, USB Host Linux BasedLinux Based
  24. 24. 24 XbowXbow Software ToolsSoftware Tools XMeshXMesh:: TrueMeshTrueMesh, low, low--power, selfpower, self--forming reliable networkingforming reliable networking stack that runs on each Motestack that runs on each Mote XServeXServe:: Server software manages data logging and forwardingServer software manages data logging and forwarding of Mote network dataof Mote network data MOTEMOTE--VIEWVIEW:: Client software for monitoring, visualization,Client software for monitoring, visualization, and network management softwareand network management software
  25. 25. 25 Mote ViewMote View Historical and RealHistorical and Real--Time ChartingTime Charting Topology MapTopology Map Network VisualizationNetwork Visualization
  26. 26. 26 Telos PlatformTelos Platform Low PowerLow Power Minimal port leakageMinimal port leakage Hardware isolation and bufferingHardware isolation and buffering RobustRobust Hardware flash write protectionHardware flash write protection Integrated antenna (50mIntegrated antenna (50m--125m)125m) Standard IDC connectorsStandard IDC connectors Standards BasedStandards Based USBUSB IEEE 802.15.4 (CC2420 radio)IEEE 802.15.4 (CC2420 radio) High PerformanceHigh Performance 10kB RAM, 1610kB RAM, 16--bit core, extensive double bufferingbit core, extensive double buffering 1212--bit ADC and DAC (200ksamples/sec)bit ADC and DAC (200ksamples/sec) DMA transfers while CPU offDMA transfers while CPU off
  27. 27. 27 TelosTelos : Design Principles: Design Principles Wireless Sensor NetworksWireless Sensor Networks Must operate for many yearsMust operate for many years Need low duty cycles to achieve long lifetimesNeed low duty cycles to achieve long lifetimes Key to Low Duty Cycle Operation:Key to Low Duty Cycle Operation: SleepSleep –– majority of the timemajority of the time WakeupWakeup –– quickly start processingquickly start processing ActiveActive –– minimize work & return to sleepminimize work & return to sleep
  28. 28. 28 TelosTelos : Sleep: Sleep Majority of time, node is asleepMajority of time, node is asleep >99%>99% Minimize sleep current throughMinimize sleep current through Isolating and shutting down individual circuitsIsolating and shutting down individual circuits Using low power hardwareUsing low power hardware Need RAM retentionNeed RAM retention Run auxiliary hardware components from low speedRun auxiliary hardware components from low speed oscillators (typically 32kHz)oscillators (typically 32kHz) Perform ADC conversions, DMA transfers, and busPerform ADC conversions, DMA transfers, and bus operations while microcontroller core is stoppedoperations while microcontroller core is stopped
  29. 29. 29 Perpetually PoweredPerpetually Powered TelosTelos Solar energy scavenging system for TelosSolar energy scavenging system for Telos Super capacitors buffer energySuper capacitors buffer energy Lithium rechargeable battery as aLithium rechargeable battery as a emergencyemergency backupbackup Possible due to low voltage (1.8V) and low power (<15mW) consumpPossible due to low voltage (1.8V) and low power (<15mW) consumptiontion Duty CycleDuty Cycle Light RequiredLight Required System LifetimeSystem Lifetime 1%1% 5 hrs / 1 mo5 hrs / 1 mo 43 years43 years 10%10% 5 hrs / 4 days5 hrs / 4 days 4 years4 years 100%100% 10 hrs / 1 day10 hrs / 1 day 1 year1 year
  30. 30. 30 ScatterwebScatterweb Embedded Sensor Board (ESB)Embedded Sensor Board (ESB) Embedded Gateway/USBEmbedded Gateway/USB Embedded Web ServerEmbedded Web Server
  31. 31. 31 ESB BoardESB Board TI MSP430 ProcessorTI MSP430 Processor 2KB RAM, 60KB flash ROM2KB RAM, 60KB flash ROM RFM TR1001 Transceiver : 868 MHzRFM TR1001 Transceiver : 868 MHz Serial Interface : up to 115.2 kbpsSerial Interface : up to 115.2 kbps Sensor Interface :Sensor Interface : Light , Motion, Temperature, Vibration , MicrophoneLight , Motion, Temperature, Vibration , Microphone
  32. 32. 32 ScatterwebScatterweb ViewerViewer Data LoggingData Logging Node ManagingNode Managing OTA FlashingOTA Flashing NetNet--ScanningScanning ScatterRoutingScatterRouting
  33. 33. 33 Sensor Network Operating SystemSensor Network Operating System TinyOSTinyOS University of California, BerkeleyUniversity of California, Berkeley www.tinyos.netwww.tinyos.net MANTISMANTIS University of Colorado at BoulderUniversity of Colorado at Boulder http://mantis.cs.colorado.edu/tikiwiki/tikihttp://mantis.cs.colorado.edu/tikiwiki/tiki--index.phpindex.php CONTIKICONTIKI AdamAdam DunkelsDunkels , Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Swedish Institute of Computer Science http://http://www.sics.se/~adam/contikiwww.sics.se/~adam/contiki//
  34. 34. 34 RealReal--time operating system for microcontrollerstime operating system for microcontrollers OpenOpen--source project at UC Berkeleysource project at UC Berkeley Key Features:Key Features: Developed for sensing applicationsDeveloped for sensing applications Emphasis on lowEmphasis on low--power: Idle & sleep modespower: Idle & sleep modes Highly modular architectureHighly modular architecture Efficient utilization of resourcesEfficient utilization of resources Currently developed for Atmega & MSP430Currently developed for Atmega & MSP430 microcontrollersmicrocontrollers TinyOSTinyOS
  35. 35. 35 System composed of concurrent FSM modulesSystem composed of concurrent FSM modules Single execution contextSingle execution context Component modelComponent model Frame (storage)Frame (storage) Commands & event handlersCommands & event handlers Tasks (computation)Tasks (computation) Command & Event interfaceCommand & Event interface Easy migration across h/wEasy migration across h/w --s/w boundarys/w boundary Two level scheduling structureTwo level scheduling structure Preemptive scheduling of event handlersPreemptive scheduling of event handlers NonNon--preemptive FIFO scheduling of taskspreemptive FIFO scheduling of tasks Compile time memory allocationCompile time memory allocation NesCNesC CompilerCompiler Messaging Component Internal StateInternal Tasks Commands Events TinyOSTinyOS : Characteristics: Characteristics
  36. 36. 36 nesCnesC the nesC model:the nesC model: interfaces:interfaces: usesuses providesprovides components:components: modulesmodules configurationsconfigurations application:= graphapplication:= graph of componentsof components Component A Component B Component D Component C Application configurationconfiguration Component E Component F
  37. 37. 37 MantisMantis MANTISMANTIS ((MMultimodultimodAAll system forsystem for NNeTworkseTworks ofof IInn--situ wirelesssitu wireless SSensors) provides a new multiensors) provides a new multi--threaded embedded operatingthreaded embedded operating system integrated with a generalsystem integrated with a general--purpose singlepurpose single--board hardwareboard hardware platform to enable flexible and rapid prototyping of wirelessplatform to enable flexible and rapid prototyping of wireless sensor networkssensor networks the key design goals of MANTIS arethe key design goals of MANTIS are ease of useease of use, i.e., a small learning curve that, i.e., a small learning curve that encourages novice programmers to rapidlyencourages novice programmers to rapidly prototype sensor applicationsprototype sensor applications flexibilityflexibility such that expert researchers cansuch that expert researchers can continue to adapt and extend thecontinue to adapt and extend the hardware/software system to suit the needshardware/software system to suit the needs of advanced researchof advanced research MANTIS NymphMANTIS Nymph
  38. 38. 38 ContikiContiki ““a Lightweight and Flexible Operating Systema Lightweight and Flexible Operating System for Tiny Networked Sensorsfor Tiny Networked Sensors ”” Adam Dunkels, Bj¨orn Gr¨onvall, Thiemo Voigt Swedish Institute of Computer Science
  39. 39. 39 ContikiContiki : Introduction: Introduction Resource constrained devices – “mote class devices (2K/64K) “like a real OS” Multi-tasking Conventional protocol stack
  40. 40. 40 ContikiContiki OverviewOverview IPIP--based Sensor Networkbased Sensor Network uIPuIP -- lightweight TCP/IP stacklightweight TCP/IP stack Downloading Code at runDownloading Code at run--timetime PortabilityPortability EventEvent--driven systemsdriven systems Preemptive multiPreemptive multi--threadingthreading OverOver--TheThe--Air ProgrammingAir Programming Prototype applicationsPrototype applications Building securityBuilding security Marine environmental monitoringMarine environmental monitoring Residential HVAC monitoringResidential HVAC monitoring
  41. 41. 41 ContikiContiki FeaturesFeatures EventEvent--based concurrency modelbased concurrency model Lightweight protoLightweight proto--threadsthreads PrePre--emptive multithreading as a libraryemptive multithreading as a library Loadable programs and servicesLoadable programs and services Flexible resource allocationFlexible resource allocation Dynamic loading of serviceDynamic loading of service Enables fieldEnables field upgradabilityupgradability Design emphasizes development and deployment issuesDesign emphasizes development and deployment issues
  42. 42. 42 Event Driven and MultiEvent Driven and Multi--threadedthreaded EventEvent--driven kernel minimizes memory usedriven kernel minimizes memory use Size capacity 1KSize capacity 1K Processes post events to each otherProcesses post events to each other EventEvent--driven programming modeldriven programming model Everything programmed as stateEverything programmed as state--machinemachine Not flexibleNot flexible Not suitable for long computationNot suitable for long computation Threads are memory intensiveThreads are memory intensive MultiMulti--threading as application librarythreading as application library PreemptiblePreemptible Managed by event handlerManaged by event handler ProtoProto--threadsthreads Blocked waitBlocked wait No perNo per--thread stack (2 bytes)thread stack (2 bytes)
  43. 43. 43 Event Driven VS MultiEvent Driven VS Multi--threadedthreaded EventEvent--driven (driven (TinyOSTinyOS)) Low context switching overhead, fits well for reactiveLow context switching overhead, fits well for reactive systemssystems Not suitable for e.g. long running computationNot suitable for e.g. long running computation Public/private key cryptographyPublic/private key cryptography MultiMulti--threadedthreaded Suitable for long running computationSuitable for long running computation Requires more resources (stack)Requires more resources (stack) TradeTrade--offsoffs PreemptionPreemption SizeSize
  44. 44. 44 ContikiContiki : Protocol Stack: Protocol Stack UDP/IP for sensor data TCP/IP for administrative functions Connect sensor network directly to IP infrastructure Avoid proxies and middle boxes Reliably address node Filed upgradable Update task lists Diagnostics and calibration
  45. 45. 45 TCP/IP in Sensor NetworksTCP/IP in Sensor Networks Advocate use of standard Internet protocols where possibleAdvocate use of standard Internet protocols where possible Perceived disadvantagesPerceived disadvantages header sizeheader size memory footprintmemory footprint IP addressingIP addressing endend--toto--end TCP performanceend TCP performance
  46. 46. 46 uIPuIP Small, but fully interoperableSmall, but fully interoperable Low throughputLow throughput Single packet in flightSingle packet in flight DelayedDelayed ACKsACKs Ported to several 8/16 bit platformsPorted to several 8/16 bit platforms
  47. 47. 47 ContikiContiki : Kernel Architecture: Kernel Architecture EventEvent--based Kernelbased Kernel Most programs run directly on top of the kernelMost programs run directly on top of the kernel MultiMulti--threading implemented as a librarythreading implemented as a library Thread only used if explicitly neededThread only used if explicitly needed Long running computationLong running computation Preemption possiblePreemption possible Responsive system with running computationsResponsive system with running computations Loadable programsLoadable programs RunRun--time relocation function and a binary format that contain relocatime relocation function and a binary format that contain relocationtion informationinformation Loader check sufficient memory spaceLoader check sufficient memory space Loader call initialization functionLoader call initialization function Power save ModePower save Mode
  48. 48. 48 ContikiContiki :Reprogramming:Reprogramming Reprogramming Sensor NodesReprogramming Sensor Nodes 40 nodes dynamic distributed alarm system40 nodes dynamic distributed alarm system Manual wired reprogramming complete system imageManual wired reprogramming complete system image One node >> 30 secOne node >> 30 sec 40 nodes >> 30 min40 nodes >> 30 min Over the air reprogramming a single component of applicationOver the air reprogramming a single component of application 2 Min2 Min Program typically much smaller than entire systemProgram typically much smaller than entire system image (1image (1--10%)10%) Much quicker to transfer over the radioMuch quicker to transfer over the radio
  49. 49. 49 ContikiContiki : Code Size: Code Size TinyOSTinyOS << ContikiContiki < Mantis< Mantis
  50. 50. 50 ZigbeeZigbee
  51. 51. 51 ZigBeeZigBee Market GoalsMarket Goals Global band operation, 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHzGlobal band operation, 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHz Unrestricted geographic useUnrestricted geographic use RF penetration through walls and ceilingsRF penetration through walls and ceilings Automatic or semiAutomatic or semi--automatic installationautomatic installation Ability to add or remove devicesAbility to add or remove devices Cost advantageousCost advantageous
  52. 52. 52 The Buzz ofThe Buzz of ZigbeeZigbee
  53. 53. 53 ApplicationsApplications
  54. 54. 54 WhyWhy ZigBeeZigBee?? Reliable and self healingReliable and self healing Supports large number of nodesSupports large number of nodes Easy to deployEasy to deploy Very long battery lifeVery long battery life SecureSecure Low costLow cost Can be used globallyCan be used globally
  55. 55. 55 ZigBeeZigBee Market GoalsMarket Goals Global band operation, 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHzGlobal band operation, 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHz Unrestricted geographic useUnrestricted geographic use RF penetration through walls and ceilingsRF penetration through walls and ceilings Automatic or semiAutomatic or semi--automatic installationautomatic installation Ability to add or remove devicesAbility to add or remove devices Cost advantageousCost advantageous
  56. 56. 56 ZigBeeZigBee Technical Market GoalsTechnical Market Goals 10 kbps to 115 kbps data throughput10 kbps to 115 kbps data throughput 10 to 75 m coverage range10 to 75 m coverage range Up to 100 collocated networksUp to 100 collocated networks Up to 2 years of battery life on standard alkaline batteriesUp to 2 years of battery life on standard alkaline batteries
  57. 57. 57 How DoesHow Does ZigBeeZigBee Compare?Compare?
  58. 58. 58 ZigbeeZigbee Stack Reference ModelStack Reference Model
  59. 59. 59 IEEE 802.15.4IEEE 802.15.4
  60. 60. 60 802.15.4 Applications802.15.4 Applications Sensors & ControlsSensors & Controls Home networkingHome networking Industrial networksIndustrial networks Remote meteringRemote metering Automotive networksAutomotive networks Interactive ToysInteractive Toys Active RFID / Asset TrackingActive RFID / Asset Tracking
  61. 61. 61 802.15.4 General Characteristics802.15.4 General Characteristics Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbpsData rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or PeerStar or Peer--toto--Peer network topologiesPeer network topologies Support for Low Latency DevicesSupport for Low Latency Devices CDMACDMA--CA Channel AccessCA Channel Access Dynamic Device AddressingDynamic Device Addressing Low Power ConsumptionLow Power Consumption Extremely low dutyExtremely low duty--cycle (<0.1%)cycle (<0.1%)
  62. 62. 62 802.15.4 Frequency Bands802.15.4 Frequency Bands BAND COVERAGE DATA RATE CHANNELS 2.4 GHz ISM Worldwide 250 kbps 16 915 MHz ISM Americas 40 kbps 10 868 MHz Europe 20 kbps 1 BAND COVERAGE DATA RATE CHANNELS 2.4 GHz ISM Worldwide 250 kbps 16 915 MHz ISM Americas 40 kbps 10 868 MHz Europe 20 kbps 1
  63. 63. 63 IEEE 802.15.4 Device TypesIEEE 802.15.4 Device Types Network Coordinator Maintains overall network knowledge; most sophisticated of thethree types; most memory and computing power Full Function Device (FFD) Carries full 802.15.4 functionality and all features specified by the standard Additional memory, computing power make it ideal for a network router function Could also be used in network edge devices where the network touches other networks or devices that are not IEEE 802.15.4 compliant Reduced Function Device RFD) Carriers limited (as specified by the standard) functionality to control cost and complexity General usage will be in network edge devices
  64. 64. 64 868MHz/ 915MHz PHY 2.4 GHz 868.3 MHz Channel 0 Channels 1-10 Channels 11-26 2.4835 GHz 928 MHz902 MHz 5 MHz 2 MHz 2.4 GHz PHY Channel DivisionChannel Division
  65. 65. 65 ZigBeeZigBee Network ModelNetwork Model
  66. 66. 66 Basic Network CharacteristicsBasic Network Characteristics 65,536 network (client) nodes65,536 network (client) nodes Optimized for timingOptimized for timing--critical applicationscritical applications Network join time: 30 ms (Network join time: 30 ms (typtyp)) Sleeping slave changing to active: 15 ms (Sleeping slave changing to active: 15 ms (typtyp)) Active slave channel access time: 15 ms (Active slave channel access time: 15 ms (typtyp)) Network coordinator Full Function node Reduced Function node Communications flow Virtual links
  67. 67. 67 Topology ModelsTopology Models PAN coordinator Full Function Device Reduced Function Device Star Mesh Cluster Tree
  68. 68. 68 Topology & ApplicationTopology & Application Star Networks (Personal Area Network)Star Networks (Personal Area Network) Home automationHome automation PC PeripheralsPC Peripherals Personal Health CarePersonal Health Care PeerPeer--toto--Peer (ad hoc, self organizing & healing)Peer (ad hoc, self organizing & healing) Industrial control and monitoringIndustrial control and monitoring Wireless Sensor NetworksWireless Sensor Networks Intelligent AgricultureIntelligent Agriculture
  69. 69. 69 Full function device (FFD)Full function device (FFD) Any topologyAny topology Network coordinator capableNetwork coordinator capable Talks to any other deviceTalks to any other device Reduced function device (RFD)Reduced function device (RFD) Limited to star topologyLimited to star topology Cannot become a network coordinatorCannot become a network coordinator Talks only to a network coordinatorTalks only to a network coordinator Very simple implementationVery simple implementation Device ClassesDevice Classes
  70. 70. 70 Traffic TypesTraffic Types Periodic dataPeriodic data Application defined rate (e.g. sensors)Application defined rate (e.g. sensors) Intermittent dataIntermittent data Application/external stimulus defined rate (e.g. light switch)Application/external stimulus defined rate (e.g. light switch) Repetitive low latency dataRepetitive low latency data Allocation of time slots (e.g. mouse)Allocation of time slots (e.g. mouse)
  71. 71. 71 Comparison of complimentary protocolsComparison of complimentary protocols Feature(s) IEEE 802.11b Bluetooth ZigBee Power Profile Hours Days Years Complexity Very Complex Complex Simple Nodes/Master 32 7 64000 Latency Enumeration upto 3 seconds Enumeration upto 10 seconds Enumeration 30ms Range 100 m 10m 70m-300m Extendability Roaming possible No YES Data Rate 11Mbps 1Mbps 250Kbps Security Authentication Service Set ID (SSID) 64 bit, 128 bit 128 bit AES and Application Layer user defined
  72. 72. 72 802.15.4/ZigBee802.15.4/ZigBee vsvs BluetoothBluetooth Bluetooth 30 days (park mode @ 1.28s) 802.15.4/ZigBee more battery- effective at all beacon intervals greater than 0.246s At beacon interval ~1s, 15.4/ZigBee battery life 85 days At beacon interval ~60s, 15.4/ZigBee battery life approx 416 days
  73. 73. 73 MicroChipMicroChip PICDEM Z Demonstration kitPICDEM Z Demonstration kit Features:Features: ZigBeeZigBee software stack supporting RFD (Reducedsoftware stack supporting RFD (Reduced Function Device), FFD (Full Function Device) andFunction Device), FFD (Full Function Device) and CoordinatorCoordinator PIC18LF4620 MCU featuringPIC18LF4620 MCU featuring nanoWattnanoWatt Technology, 64 KB Flash memory and robustTechnology, 64 KB Flash memory and robust integrated peripheralsintegrated peripherals RF transceiver and antenna interface via daughterRF transceiver and antenna interface via daughter card for flexibilitycard for flexibility Supports 2.4 GHz frequency band viaSupports 2.4 GHz frequency band via ChipconChipcon CC2420 RF transceiverCC2420 RF transceiver Temperature sensor (Microchip TC77),Temperature sensor (Microchip TC77), LEDsLEDs andand button switches to support demonstrationbutton switches to support demonstration Package ContentsPackage Contents Two PICDEM Z demonstration boards each withTwo PICDEM Z demonstration boards each with an RF transceiver daughter cardan RF transceiver daughter card ZigBeeZigBee protocol stack source code (on CD ROM)protocol stack source code (on CD ROM)
  74. 74. 74 Motorola/Motorola/FreeScaleFreeScale 13192DSK13192DSK Two 2.4 GHz wireless nodes compatibleTwo 2.4 GHz wireless nodes compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standardwith the IEEE 802.15.4 standard MC13192MC13192 2.4 GHz RF data modem2.4 GHz RF data modem MC9S08GT60MC9S08GT60 lowlow--voltage, lowvoltage, low--power 8power 8--bitbit MCU forMCU for basebandbaseband operationsoperations IntegratedIntegrated sensorssensors MMA6261QMMA6261Q 1.5g X1.5g X--YY--axisaxis accelerometeraccelerometer MMA1260DMMA1260D 1.5g Z1.5g Z--axis accelerometeraxis accelerometer Printed transmitPrinted transmit--andand--receive antennaereceive antennae Onboard expansion capabilities for externalOnboard expansion capabilities for external applicationapplication--specific development activitiesspecific development activities Onboard BDM port for MCU FlashOnboard BDM port for MCU Flash reprogramming and inreprogramming and in--circuit hardwarecircuit hardware debuggingdebugging RSRS--232 port for monitoring and Flash232 port for monitoring and Flash programmingprogramming
  75. 75. 75 Low Data Rate Wireless EvolutionLow Data Rate Wireless Evolution Proprietary Fades ZigBee Emerges Semiconductor Focus Early Adopter OEMs $1 - $10B Industry $100 - $10 Unit Cost Second Stage 2004 2005 2006 Standards Dominate IEEE 1451.5 Emerges OEM Focus Wireless Ubiquitous $10 - $100B+ Industry $10 - $1 Unit Cost Third Stage 2007 2008 2009+ First Stage ……… 2002 2003 Proprietary Dominates IEEE 802.15.4 Emerges System Integrator Focus Leading Edge OEMs $.1 - $1B Industry $1,000 - $100 Unit Cost
  76. 76. 76 Sensor NodeSensor Node 433 MHz433 MHz 2.4 GHz2.4 GHz –– IEEE 802.15.4IEEE 802.15.4 GatewayGateway Micro GatewayMicro Gateway MultiMulti--protocol Gatewayprotocol Gateway Wireless Sensor Network TesterWireless Sensor Network Tester Wireless PacketWireless Packet SnifferSniffer & Monitoring Software& Monitoring Software CZARNETCZARNET –– CAESAREA Wireless Sensor NetworkCAESAREA Wireless Sensor Network
  77. 77. 77 CZARCZAR –– Node 433Node 433 Sensor NodeSensor Node -- 433433 TI MSP430 ProcessorTI MSP430 Processor ChipconChipcon CC1000 433 MHzCC1000 433 MHz Sensor :Sensor : TemperatureTemperature Humidity ,Humidity , Magnetic SensorMagnetic Sensor RTOS :RTOS : ContikiContiki Character LCD (option)Character LCD (option) Embedded Web server (optional)Embedded Web server (optional)
  78. 78. 78 CZARCZAR –– Node 240Node 240 Sensor NodeSensor Node –– 240240 TI MSP430 ProcessorTI MSP430 Processor ChipconChipcon CC2420CC2420 –– IEEEIEEE 802.15.4802.15.4 Sensor : Temperature ,Sensor : Temperature , Humidity , Motion ,Humidity , Motion , Light , Vehicle DetectorLight , Vehicle Detector Character LCD (option)Character LCD (option) RTOS :RTOS : ConikiConiki ZigbeeZigbee StackStack Embedded Web serverEmbedded Web server (optional)(optional)
  79. 79. 79 CZARCZAR-- TestTest Wireless Sensor Network TesterWireless Sensor Network Tester TI MSP430 ProcessorTI MSP430 Processor ChipconChipcon CC2420CC2420 –– IEEE 802.15.4IEEE 802.15.4 RTOS :RTOS : ConikiConiki ZigbeeZigbee StackStack ManMan--Machine Interface SoftwareMachine Interface Software Character LCDCharacter LCD KeypadKeypad
  80. 80. 80 CZARCZAR –– MicroGateMicroGate Micro GatewayMicro Gateway TI MSP430 ProcessorTI MSP430 Processor GSM/GPRS, GPS InterfaceGSM/GPRS, GPS Interface USB InterfaceUSB Interface ContikiContiki RTOSRTOS
  81. 81. 81 CZARCZAR –– MultiGateMultiGate MultiMulti--protocol Gatewayprotocol Gateway ARMARM--9 Processor9 Processor GSM/GPRS InterfaceGSM/GPRS Interface WLAN InterfaceWLAN Interface Ethernet InterfaceEthernet Interface ShortShort--rage RF Interfacerage RF Interface 433 MHz433 MHz 2.4 GHz2.4 GHz –– IEEE 802.15.4IEEE 802.15.4 Serial PortSerial Port USB HostUSB Host USB DeviceUSB Device Linux Operating SystemLinux Operating System
  82. 82. 82 Question & AnswerQuestion & Answer

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  • AlirezaKhoshzaban

    Dec. 31, 2015
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    Dec. 2, 2016
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    Nov. 11, 2017
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    Jul. 17, 2018
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    Oct. 20, 2019
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    May. 30, 2021
  • WaqasAbbas14

    Jun. 18, 2021

Wireless sensor network

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