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A SEMINAR REPORT
       ON
  REACTIVE POWER
   COMPENSATION


            By
PRAJNYA PRIYADARSINI MISHRA
      Regd.0901106020
REACTIVE POWER
            COMPENSATION


INTROUDUCTION      .
Major industrial loads       ,for  example,
transformers, furnaces, induction motors etc
need reactive power for sustaining magnetic
field.
DEFINATION

 Any device which is connected in series or
 parallel with load and which is capable of
 supplying reactive power demanded by load is
 called reactive power compensation device.
Power factor

  Power factor is the cosine of angle determined by
   the inverse tangent ratio of reactive power and
   real power.
  The closer this angle is zero ,the lesser is the
   requirement of reactive power.
  Power factor below 0.85 is regarded as low
   power factor
REAL, REACTIVE, AND APPARENT
POWERS
 Reactive power is not delivered as effective
  mechanical power output unlike real power which
  is effectively   converted as mechanical power
  output.
 The portion of power averaged over a complete
  AC waveform, is the real power; that is, energy
  that can be used to do work (for example
  overcome friction in a motor, or heat an element).
 On the other hand, the portion of power flow that
  is temporarily stored in the form of magnetic or
  electric fields, due to inductive and capacitive
  network elements, and then returned to source, is
  known as reactive power.
 The figure shows the relationship between the reactive
  power,active power, and apparent power on a power
  factor angle .
 The load is uncompensated.If the conductor is fully
  loaded,the arc of the circle represents the maximum
  power output.
 The less the power factor angle of the circuit, higher the
  apparent power,higher the losses,for the same amount of
  real power.
                           CosQ=p/s
                           SinQ=Q/S
 Uncompensated Load
                       S
         Q


                                Q
                   P
Compensated load

              Qc=P (tanQ-tanQ1)

    Qc
                    S
Q
         S1

                            Q
                p
THERE ARE TWO MAJOR WAYS OF
REACTIVE COMPENSATION

Shunt compensation:
    Shunt capacitors are connected in parallel in the
 system and are used mainly for power factor
 improvement and in harmonic filters. It also boosts
 the voltage of the bus. This also known as load
 compensation.
SHUNT COMPENSATION

            V-1        X   R        V2

      source                        Load


 Vr                                JX
       P          V2
 Q      Q                      R
Shunt compensation with current
           source

Source    V                           V2
                  X   R                         Load
                                  Z
                              Q



    V                                          JX
         P                $
             V2                            R
         P Q
    Q
Series compensation
 Series capacitor are connected in series in the
  lines and are used mainly for boosting the
  receiving end voltage, increase in transmission
  capacity and reduction in losses in the lines.
 It also improve power factor at the sending end of
  the line.
 Unlike shunt capacitor whose output depends on
  the voltage, the voltage improvement by series
  capacitors increase with increase in load current.
 In other word the series capacitor is a self
  regulating type. Series compensation is also
  known as live compensation.
SERIES COMPENSATION

Source
                V1              V2
                        X   R             Load



         v                           JX
          V2   Ip
         Ic                      R
                    Q
SERIES COMPENSATION WITH
     VOLTAGE SOURCE

   sourc        v1
                             R   V2     V2’
                     X                        load
   e
                                      Vcomp



                     V2’          Vcomp
                        v1         JX
                         v2      R
           If
FIXED COMPENSATION VS
DYNAMIC COMPENSATION
 FIXED COMPENSATION:-Here the reactive
 power fed by the capacitors to the system is
 fixed. These are basically breaker controlled
 capacitors and are used in system which has
 constant load having a set pattern of operation.

 DYNAMIC COMPENSATION:-Here the reactive
 power fed by the capacitors to the system is
 dynamic. This is done using thyristor controlled
 capacitors. These are used in systems where the
 loads are fluctuating in nature like arc furnace
 loads.
BENEFITS OF REACTIVE POWER
COMPENSATION
 Better efficiency of power generation,
    transmission and distribution
   Improvement in voltage
   Reduced KVA demand
   Higher load capability.
   Reduced system losses.
Conclusion
 why capacitors are used as reactive power
  compensation device?
 A capacitor is said to be generator of reactive power.
  When a capacitor is connected across a load, it
  provides reactive power to the load.
 Dielectric materials make it possible to increase the
  output per unit and to reduce losses, thus making
  the compensation by means of capacitor more
  profitable.
Thanks

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Reactive power compensation

  • 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ON REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION By PRAJNYA PRIYADARSINI MISHRA Regd.0901106020
  • 2. REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION INTROUDUCTION . Major industrial loads ,for example, transformers, furnaces, induction motors etc need reactive power for sustaining magnetic field.
  • 3. DEFINATION  Any device which is connected in series or parallel with load and which is capable of supplying reactive power demanded by load is called reactive power compensation device.
  • 4. Power factor  Power factor is the cosine of angle determined by the inverse tangent ratio of reactive power and real power.  The closer this angle is zero ,the lesser is the requirement of reactive power.  Power factor below 0.85 is regarded as low power factor
  • 5. REAL, REACTIVE, AND APPARENT POWERS  Reactive power is not delivered as effective mechanical power output unlike real power which is effectively converted as mechanical power output.  The portion of power averaged over a complete AC waveform, is the real power; that is, energy that can be used to do work (for example overcome friction in a motor, or heat an element).  On the other hand, the portion of power flow that is temporarily stored in the form of magnetic or electric fields, due to inductive and capacitive network elements, and then returned to source, is known as reactive power.
  • 6.  The figure shows the relationship between the reactive power,active power, and apparent power on a power factor angle .  The load is uncompensated.If the conductor is fully loaded,the arc of the circle represents the maximum power output.  The less the power factor angle of the circuit, higher the apparent power,higher the losses,for the same amount of real power. CosQ=p/s SinQ=Q/S  Uncompensated Load S Q Q P
  • 7. Compensated load Qc=P (tanQ-tanQ1) Qc S Q S1 Q p
  • 8. THERE ARE TWO MAJOR WAYS OF REACTIVE COMPENSATION Shunt compensation: Shunt capacitors are connected in parallel in the system and are used mainly for power factor improvement and in harmonic filters. It also boosts the voltage of the bus. This also known as load compensation.
  • 9. SHUNT COMPENSATION V-1 X R V2 source Load Vr JX P V2 Q Q R
  • 10. Shunt compensation with current source Source V V2 X R Load Z Q V JX P $ V2 R P Q Q
  • 11. Series compensation  Series capacitor are connected in series in the lines and are used mainly for boosting the receiving end voltage, increase in transmission capacity and reduction in losses in the lines.  It also improve power factor at the sending end of the line.  Unlike shunt capacitor whose output depends on the voltage, the voltage improvement by series capacitors increase with increase in load current.  In other word the series capacitor is a self regulating type. Series compensation is also known as live compensation.
  • 12. SERIES COMPENSATION Source V1 V2 X R Load v JX V2 Ip Ic R Q
  • 13. SERIES COMPENSATION WITH VOLTAGE SOURCE sourc v1 R V2 V2’ X load e Vcomp V2’ Vcomp v1 JX v2 R If
  • 14. FIXED COMPENSATION VS DYNAMIC COMPENSATION  FIXED COMPENSATION:-Here the reactive power fed by the capacitors to the system is fixed. These are basically breaker controlled capacitors and are used in system which has constant load having a set pattern of operation.  DYNAMIC COMPENSATION:-Here the reactive power fed by the capacitors to the system is dynamic. This is done using thyristor controlled capacitors. These are used in systems where the loads are fluctuating in nature like arc furnace loads.
  • 15. BENEFITS OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION  Better efficiency of power generation, transmission and distribution  Improvement in voltage  Reduced KVA demand  Higher load capability.  Reduced system losses.
  • 16. Conclusion  why capacitors are used as reactive power compensation device?  A capacitor is said to be generator of reactive power. When a capacitor is connected across a load, it provides reactive power to the load.  Dielectric materials make it possible to increase the output per unit and to reduce losses, thus making the compensation by means of capacitor more profitable.