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WITRICITY:
      A WORLD WITHOUT WIRES




SUBMITTED BY:               SUBMITTED TO:
    SATYAJIT MOHANTY       Dr. ABHIMANYU MAHAPATRA
    Regd. no- 0901106207   Dr. RANJAN KU JENA
TOPICS TO BE DISUSSED :

• WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER

•CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE

•EVIDENCE FROM HISTORY

•MODES OF WPT TRANSMISSION

•WHAT IS WITRICITY

   HOW IT IS DEVELOPED

RESONACE COUPLING (COUPLING RESONATOR)

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

APPLICATIONS

ADVANTAGES & DIS ADVANTAGES
WHAT IS WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER :

 Efficient transmission of electric power from one
point to another through vacuum or without the use of
wire or any other substance. This is used for
applications where
continuous delivery of energy is needed, but
conventional wires are inconvenient, expensive or
impossible.


The power can be transmitted using
electromagnetic waves like microwaves, radio waves
or lasers.
CONCEPT OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVE
CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE:

When an electric current passes through a wire, there
is an electric field & magnetic field in the dielectric
surrounding the conductor .
The electric field of a circuit over which energy flows
has three main axes at right angles with leach other:
a. The magnetic field, concentric with the conductor.
b. The lines of electric force, radial to the conductor.
c. The power gradient, parallel to the conductor.
In a direct current circuit, the current is continuous &
the fields are constant . There is a condition of stress
in the space surrounding the conductor, which
represents stored electric and magnetic energy, just
as a compressed spring or a moving mass represents
stored energy.

In an alternating current circuit, the fields are
alternate; that is, with every half wave of current and
of voltage, the magnetic and the electric field start at
the conductor(primary) and run outwards into space
with the speed of light. Where these alternating fields
impinge on another conductor(secondary) & voltage
and current are induced. This is called
Electromagnetic induction.
Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the
intensity of the current and voltage in conductor &
frequency of field. The higher the frequency the
more is the inductive effects.

A high frequency current does not pass for long
distances along a conductor but rapidly transfers
its energy by induction to adjacent
conductors. The more rapidly the energy
decreases and the current dies down along the
circuit.

 in electromagnetic wave radiation , flow of
electric energy comprises -phenomena inside of
the conductor and phenomena in the space
outside of the conductor .
SOME EXAMPLES FROM

      HISTORY
Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, published
in 1865 mentions electromagnetic waves moving at
the speed of light.



In 1886 Hertz performed a successful
experiment with pulsed wireless energy transfer.
He produced an apparatus that produced and
detected microwaves in the UHF region.
Tesla’s experiment : TESLA COIL
 In1894 Nikola Tesla used resonant inductive
coupling, also known as "electro-dynamic
induction" to wirelessly light up phosphorescent
and incandescent lamps at the 35 South Fifth
Avenue laboratory.
1897 he patented a device called
high-voltage resonance transformer or
 "Tesla coil” capable of producing
 very high voltagesat high frequency.
In 1899 using pulsed wireless energy
managed to light 200 lamps, without wires, from 40
kilometers away by using an aerial tower callled
Wardenclyffe tower, which was meant to be a pilot
plant for his “World Wireless System” to broadcast
energy around the globe. The core facility was
never fully operational and was not completed due
to economic problems .
DIFFERENT MODES OF WPT
1.Electrostatic induction or capacitive coupling

2.Electromagnetic radiation-beam powered antenna,
microwave radiation , laser radiation

3.Electrodynamic induction method or resonant
inductive coupling or witricity
Electrostatic induction:
 It is the passage of electrical energy through a
dielectric. Here insulated terminals or plates
are elevated over a conducting ground plane.
The electric field is created by charging the
plates with a high potential, high frequency ac
power supply. The capacitance between two
terminals and a powered device form a voltage
divider . The electric energy transmitted by this
is utilized by wireless lamp.
MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION:

power transmission through microwave is called far
field power transmission .
 It is accomplished by 3 stages:

1. The electrical energy is transmitted towards receiver
   by      transmitting antenna which is supplied by a dc
   energy
2. Propagating medium
3. Rectenna : the energy sent was received by a a
   special designed antenna called Rectenna. “An
  antenna comprising a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing
  microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it into
  electric power.”

  Microwaves radiation: 85% efficiency around 5km
across
  (3.1 miles) ,95% of the beam will fall on the Rectenna.
Demonstration of microwave power transmission using solar energy
Recent development has shown that power can be transmitted by laser wave
Microwave vs. Laser transmission


   Microwave                     Laser
   More developed                  Recently
   High efficiency up              developed
   to 85%                           solid state lasers
   Beams is far below              allow efficient
   the lethal levels of             transfer of power
   concentration even               Range of 10% to
   for a prolonged                  20% efficiency
   exposure                         within a few years
   Cause interference               Conform to limits
   with satellite                   on eye and skin
   communication                    damage
   industry as 2.45
   ghz.
WITRICITY


WiTricity ,is used for "wireless electricity” in which
wireless energy transfer includes resonant energy
transfer , the ability to provide electrical energy to
remote objects without wires using oscillating
magnetic fields. The term WiTricity was used for a
project that took place at MIT, led by Marin Soljačić
in 2007.
Inductive Coupling:
 It uses magnetic fields that is produced due to
current's movement through- wire. Bending the wire
into a coil amplifies the magnetic field. The more
loops the coil makes, the bigger the field will be.
 This is the principle how a transformer works.
Using it an electric toothbrush recharged. It takes
three basic steps:
1. Current from the wall outlet flows through a coil
   inside the charger, creating a magnetic field. In a
   transformer, this coil is called the primary
   winding.
2. When you place your toothbrush in the charger,
    the magnetic field induces a current in another
    coil, or secondary winding, which connects to
    the battery.
3. This current recharges the battery.
Need of Resonant coupling




Non-resonant coupled inductors(transformers,)work
on the principle of inductive coupling is of short range
power transfer & requires a magnetic core. Over greater
distances the NRI Method is highly inefficient and
wastes the majority of the energy in resistive losses of
the primary coil.
Hence concept of resonant coupling comes where
two coils are tuned to a particular frequency called
resonating frequency & absorb optimal energy.
CONCEPT OF COUPLED RESONATOR :
For resonance coupling coupled resonator is used.
Here Two resonant objects of the same resonant
frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while
interacting weakly with extraneous off-resonant objects.
Coupled resonators operate in a strongly coupled
regime where energy transfer rate is substantially higher
than the rate at which they lose energy due to material
absorption and radiation. So energy transfer can be very
efficient.
This is use for wireless charging of devices
(mobile/laptop)
WiTricity Technology is Born
Experimental demonstration :
 Two copper coils, each a self-resonant system. resonant source &
resonant capture device, connected to a 60 watt light bulb. The coils are
suspended in mid-air with nylon thread, at distances that ranged from a
few centimeters to over 2.5 meters (8.2 ft).
Not only was the light bulb illuminated, but the theoretical predictions of
high efficiency over distance were proven experimentally. By placing
various objects between the source and capture device, the team
demonstrated how the magnetic near field can transfer power through
certain materials and around metallic obstacles.
Block diagram of the setup
general principle:
If an ac is applied to a primary coil which is
capacitively loaded, the coil will 'ring', and form an
oscillating magnetic field. The energy will transfer back
and forth between the magnetic field in the inductor and
the electric field across the capacitor at the resonant
frequency. This oscillation will die away at a rate
determined by the gain-bandwidth (Q factor), mainly due
to resistive and radiative losses. However secondary
coil has to cut most of the field before loss, then most of
the energy can be transferred.
The primary coil forms a series RLC circuit, and
the Q factor for such a coil is:
 For R=10 ohm,C=1 micro farad and L=10 mH, Q is given as 10.
 Because the Q factor can be very high, (1000 with air cored coils) only
 a small percentage of the field has to be coupled from one coil to the
 other to achieve high efficiency.
Transmitter coils and circuitry
Unlike the multiple-layer secondary of a
non-resonant transformer, coils for this
purpose are single layer solenoids (to
minimize skin effect and give
improved Q) in parallel with a suitable
capacitor. Insulation absent, with spacers
of low permittivity, low loss materials
such as silk to minimize dielectric losses.

To progressively feed energy/power into
the primary coil with each cycle, Colpitts
oscillator is used
Receiver coils and circuitry

In receiver coil is connected to a
microchip. It provides capacitance
to give resonance & regulators to
provide suitable voltage.
The secondary receiver coil is of
same design & same tuning
frequency like primary . so offers
less impedance. So energy is
optimally absorbed.
 To remove energy from the
secondary coil, different methods       Receiver of a smartcard

can be used, the AC can be used
directly or rectified and a regulator
circuit can be used to generate DC
voltage.
FEATURES OF THIS COUPLING:

It is a near field effect . the wireless power
transmission concept based on strongly-coupled
resonator.

Time taken for energy transfer is less than the time of
loss . So high efficiency. Since the resonant wavelength
is much larger than the resonators, the field can
circumvent extraneous objects in the vicinity and no
need of line-of-sight.

This method is safe, since magnetic fields interact
weakly with living organisms.
Coupling coefficient:

The coupling coefficient is the fraction of the flux of
the primary that cuts the secondary coil, and is a
function of the geometry of the system. The coupling
coefficient is between 0 and 1.

a. Tight coupling coupling coefficient ~1 as with
   conventional iron-core transformers.
b. Over coupling :secondary coil is so close that it
   tends to collapse the primary's field . Critical
   coupling is when the transfer in the pass band is
   optimal.
c. Loose coupling coils are distant from each other,
   most of the flux misses the secondary.
In Tesla CC=0.2 . At greater distances, for inductive
wireless power transmission, it may be < 0.01.
Comparison with other technologies:
In conventional transformers, for inductive transfer
efficiency around 80% at short range
 in witricity tightly coupled conventional transformers
has efficiency around 90-95% .
In addition, where batteries need periodic
maintenance and replacement, resonant energy
transfer can be used instead. So pollution due to
Batteries during their construction and their disposal is
largely avoided.
Regulations and safety:

 Shock prevention unlike wired connection cause
no direct connection.
The coupling is due to predominantly magnetic
field. so technology is safe up to <10 mhz
according to Safety standards and guidelines for
electromagnetic field exposures . This also
depends on transmitted power .
Deployed systems already generate magnetic
fields, for example induction
cookers and contactless smart card readers . But
they are proved not to be harmful.
APPLICATION:

Contactless smart card
High voltage (one million volt) sources for X-ray production
Tesla coils
Some Passports
 recharging mobiles or computers ,tooth brush etc.
Interior design of a future modern room
THANKS

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Witricity

  • 1. WITRICITY: A WORLD WITHOUT WIRES SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO: SATYAJIT MOHANTY Dr. ABHIMANYU MAHAPATRA Regd. no- 0901106207 Dr. RANJAN KU JENA
  • 2. TOPICS TO BE DISUSSED : • WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER •CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE •EVIDENCE FROM HISTORY •MODES OF WPT TRANSMISSION •WHAT IS WITRICITY  HOW IT IS DEVELOPED RESONACE COUPLING (COUPLING RESONATOR) COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES & DIS ADVANTAGES
  • 3. WHAT IS WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER :  Efficient transmission of electric power from one point to another through vacuum or without the use of wire or any other substance. This is used for applications where continuous delivery of energy is needed, but conventional wires are inconvenient, expensive or impossible. The power can be transmitted using electromagnetic waves like microwaves, radio waves or lasers.
  • 5. CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE: When an electric current passes through a wire, there is an electric field & magnetic field in the dielectric surrounding the conductor . The electric field of a circuit over which energy flows has three main axes at right angles with leach other: a. The magnetic field, concentric with the conductor. b. The lines of electric force, radial to the conductor. c. The power gradient, parallel to the conductor.
  • 6. In a direct current circuit, the current is continuous & the fields are constant . There is a condition of stress in the space surrounding the conductor, which represents stored electric and magnetic energy, just as a compressed spring or a moving mass represents stored energy. In an alternating current circuit, the fields are alternate; that is, with every half wave of current and of voltage, the magnetic and the electric field start at the conductor(primary) and run outwards into space with the speed of light. Where these alternating fields impinge on another conductor(secondary) & voltage and current are induced. This is called Electromagnetic induction.
  • 7. Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the intensity of the current and voltage in conductor & frequency of field. The higher the frequency the more is the inductive effects. A high frequency current does not pass for long distances along a conductor but rapidly transfers its energy by induction to adjacent conductors. The more rapidly the energy decreases and the current dies down along the circuit.  in electromagnetic wave radiation , flow of electric energy comprises -phenomena inside of the conductor and phenomena in the space outside of the conductor .
  • 9. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, published in 1865 mentions electromagnetic waves moving at the speed of light. In 1886 Hertz performed a successful experiment with pulsed wireless energy transfer. He produced an apparatus that produced and detected microwaves in the UHF region.
  • 10. Tesla’s experiment : TESLA COIL  In1894 Nikola Tesla used resonant inductive coupling, also known as "electro-dynamic induction" to wirelessly light up phosphorescent and incandescent lamps at the 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory. 1897 he patented a device called high-voltage resonance transformer or "Tesla coil” capable of producing very high voltagesat high frequency. In 1899 using pulsed wireless energy managed to light 200 lamps, without wires, from 40 kilometers away by using an aerial tower callled Wardenclyffe tower, which was meant to be a pilot plant for his “World Wireless System” to broadcast energy around the globe. The core facility was never fully operational and was not completed due to economic problems .
  • 12. 1.Electrostatic induction or capacitive coupling 2.Electromagnetic radiation-beam powered antenna, microwave radiation , laser radiation 3.Electrodynamic induction method or resonant inductive coupling or witricity
  • 13. Electrostatic induction: It is the passage of electrical energy through a dielectric. Here insulated terminals or plates are elevated over a conducting ground plane. The electric field is created by charging the plates with a high potential, high frequency ac power supply. The capacitance between two terminals and a powered device form a voltage divider . The electric energy transmitted by this is utilized by wireless lamp.
  • 14. MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION: power transmission through microwave is called far field power transmission .  It is accomplished by 3 stages: 1. The electrical energy is transmitted towards receiver by transmitting antenna which is supplied by a dc energy 2. Propagating medium 3. Rectenna : the energy sent was received by a a special designed antenna called Rectenna. “An antenna comprising a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it into electric power.” Microwaves radiation: 85% efficiency around 5km across (3.1 miles) ,95% of the beam will fall on the Rectenna.
  • 15. Demonstration of microwave power transmission using solar energy
  • 16. Recent development has shown that power can be transmitted by laser wave Microwave vs. Laser transmission Microwave Laser More developed Recently High efficiency up developed to 85% solid state lasers Beams is far below allow efficient the lethal levels of transfer of power concentration even Range of 10% to for a prolonged 20% efficiency exposure within a few years Cause interference Conform to limits with satellite on eye and skin communication damage industry as 2.45 ghz.
  • 17. WITRICITY WiTricity ,is used for "wireless electricity” in which wireless energy transfer includes resonant energy transfer , the ability to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires using oscillating magnetic fields. The term WiTricity was used for a project that took place at MIT, led by Marin Soljačić in 2007.
  • 18. Inductive Coupling:  It uses magnetic fields that is produced due to current's movement through- wire. Bending the wire into a coil amplifies the magnetic field. The more loops the coil makes, the bigger the field will be.  This is the principle how a transformer works. Using it an electric toothbrush recharged. It takes three basic steps: 1. Current from the wall outlet flows through a coil inside the charger, creating a magnetic field. In a transformer, this coil is called the primary winding. 2. When you place your toothbrush in the charger, the magnetic field induces a current in another coil, or secondary winding, which connects to the battery. 3. This current recharges the battery.
  • 19. Need of Resonant coupling Non-resonant coupled inductors(transformers,)work on the principle of inductive coupling is of short range power transfer & requires a magnetic core. Over greater distances the NRI Method is highly inefficient and wastes the majority of the energy in resistive losses of the primary coil. Hence concept of resonant coupling comes where two coils are tuned to a particular frequency called resonating frequency & absorb optimal energy.
  • 20. CONCEPT OF COUPLED RESONATOR : For resonance coupling coupled resonator is used. Here Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while interacting weakly with extraneous off-resonant objects. Coupled resonators operate in a strongly coupled regime where energy transfer rate is substantially higher than the rate at which they lose energy due to material absorption and radiation. So energy transfer can be very efficient. This is use for wireless charging of devices (mobile/laptop)
  • 21. WiTricity Technology is Born Experimental demonstration : Two copper coils, each a self-resonant system. resonant source & resonant capture device, connected to a 60 watt light bulb. The coils are suspended in mid-air with nylon thread, at distances that ranged from a few centimeters to over 2.5 meters (8.2 ft). Not only was the light bulb illuminated, but the theoretical predictions of high efficiency over distance were proven experimentally. By placing various objects between the source and capture device, the team demonstrated how the magnetic near field can transfer power through certain materials and around metallic obstacles.
  • 22. Block diagram of the setup
  • 23. general principle: If an ac is applied to a primary coil which is capacitively loaded, the coil will 'ring', and form an oscillating magnetic field. The energy will transfer back and forth between the magnetic field in the inductor and the electric field across the capacitor at the resonant frequency. This oscillation will die away at a rate determined by the gain-bandwidth (Q factor), mainly due to resistive and radiative losses. However secondary coil has to cut most of the field before loss, then most of the energy can be transferred. The primary coil forms a series RLC circuit, and the Q factor for such a coil is: For R=10 ohm,C=1 micro farad and L=10 mH, Q is given as 10. Because the Q factor can be very high, (1000 with air cored coils) only a small percentage of the field has to be coupled from one coil to the other to achieve high efficiency.
  • 24. Transmitter coils and circuitry Unlike the multiple-layer secondary of a non-resonant transformer, coils for this purpose are single layer solenoids (to minimize skin effect and give improved Q) in parallel with a suitable capacitor. Insulation absent, with spacers of low permittivity, low loss materials such as silk to minimize dielectric losses. To progressively feed energy/power into the primary coil with each cycle, Colpitts oscillator is used
  • 25. Receiver coils and circuitry In receiver coil is connected to a microchip. It provides capacitance to give resonance & regulators to provide suitable voltage. The secondary receiver coil is of same design & same tuning frequency like primary . so offers less impedance. So energy is optimally absorbed.  To remove energy from the secondary coil, different methods Receiver of a smartcard can be used, the AC can be used directly or rectified and a regulator circuit can be used to generate DC voltage.
  • 26. FEATURES OF THIS COUPLING: It is a near field effect . the wireless power transmission concept based on strongly-coupled resonator. Time taken for energy transfer is less than the time of loss . So high efficiency. Since the resonant wavelength is much larger than the resonators, the field can circumvent extraneous objects in the vicinity and no need of line-of-sight. This method is safe, since magnetic fields interact weakly with living organisms.
  • 27. Coupling coefficient: The coupling coefficient is the fraction of the flux of the primary that cuts the secondary coil, and is a function of the geometry of the system. The coupling coefficient is between 0 and 1. a. Tight coupling coupling coefficient ~1 as with conventional iron-core transformers. b. Over coupling :secondary coil is so close that it tends to collapse the primary's field . Critical coupling is when the transfer in the pass band is optimal. c. Loose coupling coils are distant from each other, most of the flux misses the secondary. In Tesla CC=0.2 . At greater distances, for inductive wireless power transmission, it may be < 0.01.
  • 28. Comparison with other technologies: In conventional transformers, for inductive transfer efficiency around 80% at short range  in witricity tightly coupled conventional transformers has efficiency around 90-95% . In addition, where batteries need periodic maintenance and replacement, resonant energy transfer can be used instead. So pollution due to Batteries during their construction and their disposal is largely avoided.
  • 29. Regulations and safety:  Shock prevention unlike wired connection cause no direct connection. The coupling is due to predominantly magnetic field. so technology is safe up to <10 mhz according to Safety standards and guidelines for electromagnetic field exposures . This also depends on transmitted power . Deployed systems already generate magnetic fields, for example induction cookers and contactless smart card readers . But they are proved not to be harmful.
  • 30. APPLICATION: Contactless smart card High voltage (one million volt) sources for X-ray production Tesla coils Some Passports  recharging mobiles or computers ,tooth brush etc.
  • 31. Interior design of a future modern room