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“Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool
(types/ classification) its Utilization and conservation”
 PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES, ITS UTILIZATION AND
CONSERVATION
 PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES:
Sum total of genes in a crop species is referred to as genetic resources.
 Germplasm –
 The sum total of hereditary (transmission of traits from parent to offspring material)
i.e., all the alleles of various genes present in a crop species and its wild
relatives.
• Germplasm / gene pool is the basic material with which a plant breeder
has to initiate his breeding programme.
 Important features of plant genetic resources are –
 Gene pool represents the entire genetic variability or diversity available in a
crop species.
 Germplasm consists of land races, modern cultivars, obsolete cultivars, breeding
stocks, wild forms and wild species of cultivated crops.
 Germplasm includes both cultivated and wild species or relatives of crop plants.
 Germplasm is collected from the centres of diversity, gene banks, gene
sanctuaries, farmers fields, markets and seed companies.
 Germplasm is the basic material for launching a crop improvement
programme.
 Germplasm may be indigenous (collected with in country) or exotic (collected
from foreign countries)
• AIMS OF PGR:
Prevent genetic erosion by
1.Collection
2. Conservation
3. Study of documentation
4. Utilization
• ‘Genetic material’ - Any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin
containing functional units of heredity.
• Any functional units of heredity can be captured in two dimensions:
1. the genetic structure information
2. nucleotide sequence of the genetic material can be read.
 PGR include the following categories of plants:
i) Cultivated varieties (cultivars) in current use;
ii) Newly developed varieties;
iii) Obsolete cultivars;
iv) Primitive cultivars (land races);
v) Wild and weedy relatives of cultivated varieties and
vi) Special genetic stocks (including elite and current breeders’ line and mutants).
 What is GERMPLASM ?
 Defined as, the sum total of hereditary material i.e., all the alleles of various genes
present in a crop species and its wild relatives.
 Basic material with which a plant breeder has to initiate his breeding programme.
• KINDS/TYPES OF GERMPLASM
The germplasm consists of various plant materials of a crop such as land races ,
advanced (homozygous), breeding materials, obsolete cultivars, wild forms of
cultivated species , modern cultivars, wild relatives, mutants .
1. Land races –
• High level of genetic diversity.
• It Provides high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
• Main drawbacks - less uniform and low yielders.
• 1st collected and studied by N.I. Vavilor in rice.
2. Obsolete Cultivars-
• Varieties developed by systematic breeding effort which were popular earlier.
(now have been replaced by new varieties).
• Improved varieties of recent past are known as obsolete cultivars.
• Example : Wheat varieties K65, K68, pb 591 were most popular traditional tall
varieties before introduction of high yielding dwarf Mexican wheat varieties.
3. Modern cultivars/ Improved cultivars /Advanced cultivars
• Currently cultivated high yielding varieties are referred to as modern cultivars.
• Major part of working collections and are extensively used as parents in the
breeding programmes.
• good sources of genes for yield and quality.
4. Advanced breeding lines
• Pre -released plants which have been developed by plant breeders in modern
scientific breeding programmes.
• These lines which are not yet ready for release to farmers.
• They often contain valuable gene combinations.
5. Wild forms of cultivated species
• Wild forms of cultivated species are available in many crop plants. Such plants
have generally high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and are
utilized in breeding programmes.
• They can easily cross with cultivated species.
6. Wild Relatives / Wild species.
• Sources of valuable genes for biotic and abiotic stress and for quality traits and
yield.
7. Mutants
• An organism that is different from others of its type of permanent
change in its genes.
• They are useful in breeding programmes.
• The gene pool system of classification
 The pool of a crop includes all cultivars, wild species and wild relatives
containing all the genes available for breeding use. Based on degree of
relationship, the gene pool of crops can be divided into three groups.
1. Primary gene pool (GP1) : The gene pool in which intermating is easy
and leads to production of fertile hybrids is known as primary gene pool.
2. Secondary gene pool (GP2) :The genetic material that leads to partial
fertility on crossing with GP1 is referred to as secondary gene pool.
3. Tertiary gene pool (GP3) : The genetic material which leads to
production of sterile hybrids on crossing with primary gene pool is
termed as tertiary gene pool or gene pool three (GP3).
Gene pool is the basic material with which a plant breeder has to initiate his
breeding programme.
 Germplasm Conservation
It refers to protection of genetic diversity of crop plants
from genetic erosion.
There are two important methods.
1. In situ conservation ;-
• Conservation of germplasm under natural habitat.
• This is achieved by protecting this area from human interference : such
an area is often called as natural park, biosphere reserve or gene
sanctuary.
2. Ex situ conservation
• Conservation of germplasm away from its natural habitat .
• Preservation in the form of seed is the most common and easy method,
relatively safe, requires minimum space and easy to maintain. Glass,
tin or plastic containers are used for preservation and storage of seeds.
The seed can be conserved under long term, medium term and short
term storage conditions
 Utilization
• it refers to use of germplasm in crop improvement programmes. The
germplasm can be utilized in various ways.
 Cultivated Germplasm
It can be used in three main ways:
(1) as a variety.
(2) as a parent in the hybridization.
(3) as a variant in the gene pool.
• Wild Germplasm: it is used to transfer resistance to biotic and abiotic
stresses, wider adaptability and sometimes quality such as fibre strength
in cotton.
 Organizations associated with germplasm
• IPGRI – International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
• NBPGR – National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources

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Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx

  • 1. “Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool (types/ classification) its Utilization and conservation”
  • 2.  PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES, ITS UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION  PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES: Sum total of genes in a crop species is referred to as genetic resources.  Germplasm –  The sum total of hereditary (transmission of traits from parent to offspring material) i.e., all the alleles of various genes present in a crop species and its wild relatives. • Germplasm / gene pool is the basic material with which a plant breeder has to initiate his breeding programme.
  • 3.  Important features of plant genetic resources are –  Gene pool represents the entire genetic variability or diversity available in a crop species.  Germplasm consists of land races, modern cultivars, obsolete cultivars, breeding stocks, wild forms and wild species of cultivated crops.  Germplasm includes both cultivated and wild species or relatives of crop plants.  Germplasm is collected from the centres of diversity, gene banks, gene sanctuaries, farmers fields, markets and seed companies.  Germplasm is the basic material for launching a crop improvement programme.  Germplasm may be indigenous (collected with in country) or exotic (collected from foreign countries)
  • 4. • AIMS OF PGR: Prevent genetic erosion by 1.Collection 2. Conservation 3. Study of documentation 4. Utilization • ‘Genetic material’ - Any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity. • Any functional units of heredity can be captured in two dimensions: 1. the genetic structure information 2. nucleotide sequence of the genetic material can be read.  PGR include the following categories of plants: i) Cultivated varieties (cultivars) in current use; ii) Newly developed varieties; iii) Obsolete cultivars; iv) Primitive cultivars (land races); v) Wild and weedy relatives of cultivated varieties and vi) Special genetic stocks (including elite and current breeders’ line and mutants).
  • 5.  What is GERMPLASM ?  Defined as, the sum total of hereditary material i.e., all the alleles of various genes present in a crop species and its wild relatives.  Basic material with which a plant breeder has to initiate his breeding programme. • KINDS/TYPES OF GERMPLASM The germplasm consists of various plant materials of a crop such as land races , advanced (homozygous), breeding materials, obsolete cultivars, wild forms of cultivated species , modern cultivars, wild relatives, mutants . 1. Land races – • High level of genetic diversity. • It Provides high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. • Main drawbacks - less uniform and low yielders. • 1st collected and studied by N.I. Vavilor in rice.
  • 6. 2. Obsolete Cultivars- • Varieties developed by systematic breeding effort which were popular earlier. (now have been replaced by new varieties). • Improved varieties of recent past are known as obsolete cultivars. • Example : Wheat varieties K65, K68, pb 591 were most popular traditional tall varieties before introduction of high yielding dwarf Mexican wheat varieties. 3. Modern cultivars/ Improved cultivars /Advanced cultivars • Currently cultivated high yielding varieties are referred to as modern cultivars. • Major part of working collections and are extensively used as parents in the breeding programmes. • good sources of genes for yield and quality. 4. Advanced breeding lines • Pre -released plants which have been developed by plant breeders in modern scientific breeding programmes. • These lines which are not yet ready for release to farmers. • They often contain valuable gene combinations.
  • 7. 5. Wild forms of cultivated species • Wild forms of cultivated species are available in many crop plants. Such plants have generally high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and are utilized in breeding programmes. • They can easily cross with cultivated species. 6. Wild Relatives / Wild species. • Sources of valuable genes for biotic and abiotic stress and for quality traits and yield. 7. Mutants • An organism that is different from others of its type of permanent change in its genes. • They are useful in breeding programmes.
  • 8. • The gene pool system of classification  The pool of a crop includes all cultivars, wild species and wild relatives containing all the genes available for breeding use. Based on degree of relationship, the gene pool of crops can be divided into three groups. 1. Primary gene pool (GP1) : The gene pool in which intermating is easy and leads to production of fertile hybrids is known as primary gene pool. 2. Secondary gene pool (GP2) :The genetic material that leads to partial fertility on crossing with GP1 is referred to as secondary gene pool. 3. Tertiary gene pool (GP3) : The genetic material which leads to production of sterile hybrids on crossing with primary gene pool is termed as tertiary gene pool or gene pool three (GP3). Gene pool is the basic material with which a plant breeder has to initiate his breeding programme.
  • 9.  Germplasm Conservation It refers to protection of genetic diversity of crop plants from genetic erosion. There are two important methods. 1. In situ conservation ;- • Conservation of germplasm under natural habitat. • This is achieved by protecting this area from human interference : such an area is often called as natural park, biosphere reserve or gene sanctuary. 2. Ex situ conservation • Conservation of germplasm away from its natural habitat . • Preservation in the form of seed is the most common and easy method, relatively safe, requires minimum space and easy to maintain. Glass, tin or plastic containers are used for preservation and storage of seeds. The seed can be conserved under long term, medium term and short term storage conditions
  • 10.  Utilization • it refers to use of germplasm in crop improvement programmes. The germplasm can be utilized in various ways.  Cultivated Germplasm It can be used in three main ways: (1) as a variety. (2) as a parent in the hybridization. (3) as a variant in the gene pool. • Wild Germplasm: it is used to transfer resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, wider adaptability and sometimes quality such as fibre strength in cotton.  Organizations associated with germplasm • IPGRI – International Plant Genetic Resources Institute • NBPGR – National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources