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ELE GPB 244 3(1+2) Commercial Plant
breeding
1. Types of Crop: Classifications of crops.
Crop :- A plant that are grown on farms for food.
A. Type of Crop
• Plant Breeding is an science as well as art of improving genetic makeup of plant in relation to their economic use.
1. Classification Based on Growing Season
• Classification of crop (4)
2. Crop Classification Based on Climate
3. Classification Based on Life of Crops/Duration of Crops
4. Classification Based on Water Availability
5. Classification Based on Agronomic/ Use.
A. Grain/ Millets (Cereals).
• These are staple food of poor people. (editable part- Starchy grains.)
• These are also known as coarse grains, which have high nutritional
value.
• Top Millets Producing States: Rajasthan > Karnataka > Maharashtra
> Madhya Pradesh > Uttar Pradesh
• Major millets are Sorghum or Jowar, Pearl Millet or Bajra and Finger
millet or ragi.
B. Pulses or Legumes
•Pulses are major source of protein.
•Temperature: Between 20- 27°C.
•Rainfall: Around 25-60 cm.
•Soil Type: Sandy-loamy soil.
•Major pulses grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.
•Being leguminous crops, all these crops except arhar help in restoring soil
fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. Therefore, these are mostly grown in
rotation with other crops.
C. Oil Seed Crops
• Different oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12 % of
the total cropped area of the country.
• Main Oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard
coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds,
linseed and sunflower.
• Most of these are edible and used cooking mediums.
• However, some of these are also used as raw material in the
production of soap, cosmetics.
• E.g. Groundnut or peanut, sunflower, castor, linseed, rapeseed &
mustard etc.
D. Sugar cane
• It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop.
• It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature
of 21°C to 27°C.
• An annual rainfall between 75cm and 100cm.
• Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall.
E. Starch Crops or Tuber Crops/ Root Crops.
• Tuber crops consist of root crops, such as beets and carrots, and tuber
crops, such as potatoes and sweet potatoes, and the leaves of root crops,
such as beet tops.
• E.g. Potato, cassava, sweet potato, radish etc.
F. Fiber crops
• Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally
used to make paper, cloth.
• Fiber crops are characterized by having a large concentration of
cellulose, which is what gives them their strength.
• E.g. Cotton, Jute, mesta, sun hemp, sisal hemp etc.
G. Plantation Crops
• A plantation is a large farm or estate, usually in a
tropical or subtropical country, where crops that are
not consumed for food and are grown for sale in
distant markets, rather than for local consumption.
• E.g. Tea – leaf, Coffee – seed, rubber, cocoa – seed,
palm – oil, sugarcane, coconut etc.
H. Spices
• A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant
substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or
preserving food.
• E.g. Ginger, garlic, chilli, cumin onion, coriander,
cardamom, pepper, turmeric etc.
I. Forage /Fodder crops
• Primary producers at the beginning of a food chain that
supports a wide diversity of insects, invertebrates,
mammals, and birds.
• Alfalfa, which is very high in nutrient value, can support
up to 1000 species of insects, most of which do not
negatively affect its growth.
• Forage and fodder crops include forage sorghum,
millet, cowpeas, soybeans, grain sorghum and maize.
• Choice will depend on sowing time and feed quantity and
quality requirements. Other factors such as soil type,
drainage, weeds and disease may also need to be
considered.
Q.1. Define Crop/ Plant breeding and write down types of crop with their Classifications ?

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What is crop , Plant breeding ? Types of Crop Classifications of crops.pptx

  • 1. ELE GPB 244 3(1+2) Commercial Plant breeding 1. Types of Crop: Classifications of crops. Crop :- A plant that are grown on farms for food. A. Type of Crop • Plant Breeding is an science as well as art of improving genetic makeup of plant in relation to their economic use.
  • 2.
  • 3. 1. Classification Based on Growing Season • Classification of crop (4)
  • 4. 2. Crop Classification Based on Climate
  • 5. 3. Classification Based on Life of Crops/Duration of Crops
  • 6. 4. Classification Based on Water Availability
  • 7. 5. Classification Based on Agronomic/ Use. A. Grain/ Millets (Cereals). • These are staple food of poor people. (editable part- Starchy grains.) • These are also known as coarse grains, which have high nutritional value. • Top Millets Producing States: Rajasthan > Karnataka > Maharashtra > Madhya Pradesh > Uttar Pradesh • Major millets are Sorghum or Jowar, Pearl Millet or Bajra and Finger millet or ragi. B. Pulses or Legumes •Pulses are major source of protein. •Temperature: Between 20- 27°C. •Rainfall: Around 25-60 cm. •Soil Type: Sandy-loamy soil. •Major pulses grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram. •Being leguminous crops, all these crops except arhar help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. Therefore, these are mostly grown in rotation with other crops.
  • 8. C. Oil Seed Crops • Different oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12 % of the total cropped area of the country. • Main Oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower. • Most of these are edible and used cooking mediums. • However, some of these are also used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics. • E.g. Groundnut or peanut, sunflower, castor, linseed, rapeseed & mustard etc. D. Sugar cane • It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. • It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C. • An annual rainfall between 75cm and 100cm. • Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall.
  • 9. E. Starch Crops or Tuber Crops/ Root Crops. • Tuber crops consist of root crops, such as beets and carrots, and tuber crops, such as potatoes and sweet potatoes, and the leaves of root crops, such as beet tops. • E.g. Potato, cassava, sweet potato, radish etc. F. Fiber crops • Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth. • Fiber crops are characterized by having a large concentration of cellulose, which is what gives them their strength. • E.g. Cotton, Jute, mesta, sun hemp, sisal hemp etc.
  • 10. G. Plantation Crops • A plantation is a large farm or estate, usually in a tropical or subtropical country, where crops that are not consumed for food and are grown for sale in distant markets, rather than for local consumption. • E.g. Tea – leaf, Coffee – seed, rubber, cocoa – seed, palm – oil, sugarcane, coconut etc. H. Spices • A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food. • E.g. Ginger, garlic, chilli, cumin onion, coriander, cardamom, pepper, turmeric etc.
  • 11. I. Forage /Fodder crops • Primary producers at the beginning of a food chain that supports a wide diversity of insects, invertebrates, mammals, and birds. • Alfalfa, which is very high in nutrient value, can support up to 1000 species of insects, most of which do not negatively affect its growth. • Forage and fodder crops include forage sorghum, millet, cowpeas, soybeans, grain sorghum and maize. • Choice will depend on sowing time and feed quantity and quality requirements. Other factors such as soil type, drainage, weeds and disease may also need to be considered. Q.1. Define Crop/ Plant breeding and write down types of crop with their Classifications ?