SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 10
GPB-121
Department of Agriculture Botany
“Fundamentals of Genetics”
Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and
Branches
• Genetics (Greek world) – 1900.
 It is the science that deals with the study of heredity and
variation.
• Genetics came from the word gen,
1) genetikos meaning generative and,
2) genesis meaning beginning.
o Concept/ term – Batson
o Discover/ Father by – G. J. Mendel
 Heredity - (Transamination from G-G.)
 Transmission of traits/ characteristics from generation to generation
OR (Parent to offspring).
 Heredity, the sum of all biological processes by which particular characteristics
are transmitted from parents to their offspring.
E.g. Possibility of having breast cancer based on family history.
 Inheritance is the process by which genetic information is passed on from
parent to child.
Variation- Similarities and differences.
• Variation is the differences between individuals within a species.
• Caused by -environmental factors.
• Variation can be continuous or discontinuous.
E.g. Humans have different colored eyes, and dogs have different length tails.
 Genotype – Genetic makeup.
 Gene – Unit of inheritance.
 Phenotype – F (genotype + environment).
 Recon – Smallest unit of for recombination.
 Mutton – Smallest unit mutation.
 Allele – Alternative from of gene.
 Genome – Haploid (n) from of gene.
 Anthesis – First opening of flower.
 Homozygous – An individual having identical alleles of genes.
 Emasculation – Removal of male part of flower / anther.
Theory/ Concept Discover by / Year
Heredity / Mutation Hung De Vries (1901)
Genotype/ Phenotype Johannsen (1909)
Gene Johannson
Pre-formation Swammerdam and Bonnet
Chromosomes Straubeg
Mitosis Flemming (1882)
Meiosis Farmer and Moore (1905)
Linkage T.H. Morgan
DNA Model Watson and Crick (1953)
• Muller H.J. – Production of mutants by using X-ray.
• Morgan T.H. – Role of Chromosome in transmission of Heredity.
• Beadle and Jatum – One gene and one enzyme.
Role / Application
 Genetic diversity allows agricultural plant and animal breeders to adapt to
changing variables.
 Plant breeders utilize genetic diversity to create improved crop varieties
with traits such as yield, pest resistance and environment stress.
Importance
 The study of plant genetics has major economic impacts.
 many staple crops are genetically modified to increase yields.
 pest and disease resistance ,
 provide resistance to herbicides,
 to increase their nutritional value.
 improved crop varieties with traits such as yield,
 Environment stress.
SCOPE
 It aims at meeting the ever growing needs of food grains and other plant
based raw materials of the world by improving the genetic makeup of the
crop.
 Improved varieties are developed through plant breeding.
 It is useful for plant improvement & economical importance.
 Preformation theory was proposed by - Swammerdam and Bonnet (1720-
1793).
 This theory states that a miniature human called homunculus was already
present in the egg and sperm.
 Epigenesis theory - C. F. Wolff (1734- 1794).
 epigenesis theory claimed that structures arise during development that are not
already (pre-) formed .
 Germ-Plasm theory proposed by, Weismann .
 theory of heredity based on the concept of the germ plasm, a substance in the
germ cell that carries hereditary information.
• J.B. Lamarck proposed inheritance of acquired characters.
 Acquired characters individuals of one generation are transmitted to next
generation.
• In 1868 Charles Darwin proposed Pangenesis.
 Production & development of Pangenesis i.e. small invisible bodies produced
from part of bodies.
 (PAN- SMALL, GENESIS – ORIGINATING )

More Related Content

Similar to Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Branches.pptx

Lecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdf
Lecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdfLecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdf
Lecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdfGideon Cavida
 
Intraspecific variation
Intraspecific variationIntraspecific variation
Intraspecific variationMacVasquez
 
Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.
Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.
Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.Garima
 
Project genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahoo
Project genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahooProject genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahoo
Project genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahooSubhrajyotisahoo6
 
Heridity and evolution
Heridity and evolutionHeridity and evolution
Heridity and evolutionRajatKumar471
 
Food and hunger ppt
Food and hunger pptFood and hunger ppt
Food and hunger pptBobby Diohen
 
genetic engineering
genetic engineeringgenetic engineering
genetic engineeringcbsua
 
Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...
Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...
Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...Farming Futures
 
GMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptx
GMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptxGMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptx
GMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptxaafaq ali
 
Genetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organisms9931
 
Genetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organisms9931
 
Genetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organisms9931
 
Heredity and evolution of biology topic b
Heredity and evolution of biology topic bHeredity and evolution of biology topic b
Heredity and evolution of biology topic bDevegowdaKt1
 
EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION
 EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION
EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTIONSANDEEP PATRE
 
Understanding the basic principles of population genetics and its application
Understanding the basic principles of population genetics and its applicationUnderstanding the basic principles of population genetics and its application
Understanding the basic principles of population genetics and its applicationAlexander Decker
 
What influences natural selection
What influences natural selectionWhat influences natural selection
What influences natural selectionAlice Herman
 

Similar to Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Branches.pptx (19)

Lecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdf
Lecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdfLecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdf
Lecture1_Genetics_Science-of-Heredity-and-Variation.pdf
 
Intraspecific variation
Intraspecific variationIntraspecific variation
Intraspecific variation
 
Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.
Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.
Transgenic organisms and methods of their production.
 
Project genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahoo
Project genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahooProject genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahoo
Project genetical modified organisms. By subhrajyoti sahoo
 
Heridity and evolution
Heridity and evolutionHeridity and evolution
Heridity and evolution
 
Food and hunger ppt
Food and hunger pptFood and hunger ppt
Food and hunger ppt
 
genetic engineering
genetic engineeringgenetic engineering
genetic engineering
 
Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...
Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...
Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Res...
 
plant genom.pdf
plant genom.pdfplant genom.pdf
plant genom.pdf
 
GMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptx
GMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptxGMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptx
GMO EFFECT ON ENV..pptx
 
Genetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organisms
 
Genetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organisms
 
Genetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organismsGenetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organisms
 
Heredity and evolution of biology topic b
Heredity and evolution of biology topic bHeredity and evolution of biology topic b
Heredity and evolution of biology topic b
 
5. Genetics in Orthodontics.pptx
5. Genetics in  Orthodontics.pptx5. Genetics in  Orthodontics.pptx
5. Genetics in Orthodontics.pptx
 
EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION
 EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION
EVOLUTION AND MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION
 
Understanding the basic principles of population genetics and its application
Understanding the basic principles of population genetics and its applicationUnderstanding the basic principles of population genetics and its application
Understanding the basic principles of population genetics and its application
 
Ogm
OgmOgm
Ogm
 
What influences natural selection
What influences natural selectionWhat influences natural selection
What influences natural selection
 

More from AKSHAYMAGAR17

DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptxMitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptxChromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptxModes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptxSeed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptxSeed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 

More from AKSHAYMAGAR17 (20)

DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
 
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptxMitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
 
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptxChromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
 
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
 
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptxModes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
 
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptxSeed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
 
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptxSeed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
 
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
 
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
 
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
 
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
 
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...
 
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
 
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
 
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
 
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Seán Kennedy
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxMichelleTuguinay1
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemChristalin Nelson
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4JOYLYNSAMANIEGO
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17Celine George
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptxJonalynLegaspi2
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 

Recently uploaded (20)

HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
 
FINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
FINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxFINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
FINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 

Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Branches.pptx

  • 1. GPB-121 Department of Agriculture Botany “Fundamentals of Genetics” Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Branches
  • 2. • Genetics (Greek world) – 1900.  It is the science that deals with the study of heredity and variation. • Genetics came from the word gen, 1) genetikos meaning generative and, 2) genesis meaning beginning. o Concept/ term – Batson o Discover/ Father by – G. J. Mendel
  • 3.  Heredity - (Transamination from G-G.)  Transmission of traits/ characteristics from generation to generation OR (Parent to offspring).  Heredity, the sum of all biological processes by which particular characteristics are transmitted from parents to their offspring. E.g. Possibility of having breast cancer based on family history.  Inheritance is the process by which genetic information is passed on from parent to child. Variation- Similarities and differences. • Variation is the differences between individuals within a species. • Caused by -environmental factors. • Variation can be continuous or discontinuous. E.g. Humans have different colored eyes, and dogs have different length tails.
  • 4.  Genotype – Genetic makeup.  Gene – Unit of inheritance.  Phenotype – F (genotype + environment).  Recon – Smallest unit of for recombination.  Mutton – Smallest unit mutation.  Allele – Alternative from of gene.  Genome – Haploid (n) from of gene.  Anthesis – First opening of flower.  Homozygous – An individual having identical alleles of genes.  Emasculation – Removal of male part of flower / anther.
  • 5. Theory/ Concept Discover by / Year Heredity / Mutation Hung De Vries (1901) Genotype/ Phenotype Johannsen (1909) Gene Johannson Pre-formation Swammerdam and Bonnet Chromosomes Straubeg Mitosis Flemming (1882) Meiosis Farmer and Moore (1905) Linkage T.H. Morgan DNA Model Watson and Crick (1953) • Muller H.J. – Production of mutants by using X-ray. • Morgan T.H. – Role of Chromosome in transmission of Heredity. • Beadle and Jatum – One gene and one enzyme.
  • 6. Role / Application  Genetic diversity allows agricultural plant and animal breeders to adapt to changing variables.  Plant breeders utilize genetic diversity to create improved crop varieties with traits such as yield, pest resistance and environment stress.
  • 7. Importance  The study of plant genetics has major economic impacts.  many staple crops are genetically modified to increase yields.  pest and disease resistance ,  provide resistance to herbicides,  to increase their nutritional value.  improved crop varieties with traits such as yield,  Environment stress. SCOPE  It aims at meeting the ever growing needs of food grains and other plant based raw materials of the world by improving the genetic makeup of the crop.  Improved varieties are developed through plant breeding.  It is useful for plant improvement & economical importance.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.  Preformation theory was proposed by - Swammerdam and Bonnet (1720- 1793).  This theory states that a miniature human called homunculus was already present in the egg and sperm.  Epigenesis theory - C. F. Wolff (1734- 1794).  epigenesis theory claimed that structures arise during development that are not already (pre-) formed .  Germ-Plasm theory proposed by, Weismann .  theory of heredity based on the concept of the germ plasm, a substance in the germ cell that carries hereditary information. • J.B. Lamarck proposed inheritance of acquired characters.  Acquired characters individuals of one generation are transmitted to next generation. • In 1868 Charles Darwin proposed Pangenesis.  Production & development of Pangenesis i.e. small invisible bodies produced from part of bodies.  (PAN- SMALL, GENESIS – ORIGINATING )