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“Modes of Reproduction in crop plant”
Department of Agriculture Botany
Reproduction
 It is the process by which plants give rise to offspring and which
fundamentally consists of the segregation of a portion of the parental
body by a sexual or an asexual process and its subsequent growth and
differentiation into a new individual.
OR
 The process through which plants produce new offspring. This can be
either asexual reproduction, where a plant creates a replica or itself, or
sexual reproduction.
 It may be by seeds, sexual, or by vegetative parts, asexual.
 In crop plants may be by seeds, sexual, or by vegetative parts, asexual.
 With sexual reproduction specialized reproductive cells called gametes are
formed, a process known as gametogenesis.
 Fusion of the male and female gametes leads to the development of an
embryo and eventually the seed.
Modes of Reproduction
A)Asexual Reproduction/ Vegetative –
 It occurs through budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation, and spore
formation.
 No flowers are required for this method.
 The plants produced by asexual reproduction thrive well in stable environments.
 Does not involved male and female gametes.
A)Sexual Reproduction -
 Flowering plants reproduce sexually through a process called pollination.
 Flowers contain male sex organs called stamens and female sex organs called
pistils.
 The anther is the part of the stamen that contains pollen. Pollen contains the male
gametes.
 In sexual reproduction male (pollen) and female (ovules) gametes diffuse to
produce a new plant.
 Female flowers contain a swollen vase-like
structure called a pistil.
 Male flowers have long, thin filament or
pin-like structures called stamens.
Asexual Reproduction
• New plants may be develop from vegetative part of the plant (Vegetative
reproduction / may develop from embryos without fertilization).
A) Vegetative
Reproduction
B) Apomixis
i) Adventive
Embryony
ii) Apospory
iii) Diplospory
a) Parthenogenesis
1. Natural-
Selection
2. Artificial-
Selection
b) Apogamy
A) Vegetative Reproduction
 The most common forms of vegetative propagation are grafting, cutting, layering,
tuber, bulb or stolon formation, suckering and tissue culture.
B) Apomixis
 Apomixis in flowering plants.
 Asexual formation of a seed from the maternal tissues of the ovule, avoiding the
processes of meiosis and fertilization, leading to embryo development.
 The process of formation of the plant from a seed without fertilization or normal
sexual reproduction.
• What is the difference between apomixis and Parthenocarpy ?
• Both apomixis and parthenocarpy are asexual modes of reproduction.
• Apomixis is the formation of seeds.
• Parthenocarpy is the formation of fruits without fertilization.
• Apomixis produces genetically identical mother cells.
• Parthenocarpy produces genetically identical offsprings.
• Apomixis is seen in angiosperms and gymnosperms.
• But parthenocarpy is seen in plants and animals.
• Parthenocarpy in animals is called as parthenogenesis.
Similarities
• In both apomixis and parthenocarpy, there is no fertilization involved. So, both
produce offsprings similar to parents.
• In both cases, there is no chance of diversity in genes.
• Since both the types of phenomenon do not involve fertilization, they are both used
as asexual means or vegetative propagation methods.
•Though both methods are asexual, they still use the sexual organs of the plant- the
ovary and the ovules.
a) Adventive embryony is an asexual reproduction that forms seeds without
fertilisation and produce a maternal clone in plants.
• In adventitive embryony, embryos develop directly from vegetative cells of the
ovule, such as nucellus, integument and chalaza.
• Adventitive embryony occurs in citrus and mango.
b) Apospory - A new plant is formed from an already mature spore.
c) Diplospory – It is the kind of gametophytic Apomixis in which nucellar cells of
the ovule divide mitotically and form an unreduced embryo sac.
 the method by which the megaspore mother cells divide by mitosis thrice to give
rise to 8 progeny plants.
 In this process no sexual reproduction or mixing of genes are involved. This
process is similar to asexual reproduction.
 The genes of the parent plant and the progeny are identical.
a) Parthenogenesis
 A reproductive strategy that involves development of a female (rarely a male)
gamete (sex cell) without fertilization.
 What is the difference between parthenogenesis and Parthenocarpy in plants?
1. Parthenocarpy development
of fruit takes place without
fertilisation.
2. In Parthenocarpy seedless
fruits are produced.
1. Parthenogenesis
development of a new
organism takes place
without fertilisation of an
ovum.
2. Parthenogenesis female
clones are produced and
cannot reproduce sexually
1. Natural-
Selection
 It occurs in plants, algae, invertebrate animal species (including nematodes, some
tardigrades, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some mites, some bees, some
Phasmatodea, and parasitic wasps), and a few vertebrates (such as some fish,
amphibians, reptiles, and birds).
2. Artificial-
Selection
 The fertilised eggs might sometimes develop parthenogenetically by various
chemical and physical means. This is known as artificial parthenogenesis.
B) Apogamy –
 Asexual method of reproduction in plants where the gametophyte develops from
the sporophyte.
 Apospory is also an asexual method of reproduction where sporophyte develops
from the gametophyte.
 Ploidy Produces a diploid gametophyte. Produces a haploid embryo.
Sexual Reproduction
a) Isogamy b) Heterogamy
 It involves the fusion of
morphologically similar gametes,
having similar shapes and sizes.
 the fusion of male and female
gametes which are similar in size.
 the male gametes are smaller than
the female gametes, or the
gametes are flagellated or non-
flagellated.
 Also called distinct gametes/ Anisogamy
/cross-fertilization
 Involving the fusion of different
gametes.
 In plants, Heterogamy can lead to the
production of offspring with more
diverse genetic makeup and greater
adaptability to changing environmental
conditions.
 it carries at least two different types of
flowers in regard to their reproductive
structures.

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Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx

  • 1. Topic on “Modes of Reproduction in crop plant” Department of Agriculture Botany
  • 2. Reproduction  It is the process by which plants give rise to offspring and which fundamentally consists of the segregation of a portion of the parental body by a sexual or an asexual process and its subsequent growth and differentiation into a new individual. OR  The process through which plants produce new offspring. This can be either asexual reproduction, where a plant creates a replica or itself, or sexual reproduction.  It may be by seeds, sexual, or by vegetative parts, asexual.  In crop plants may be by seeds, sexual, or by vegetative parts, asexual.  With sexual reproduction specialized reproductive cells called gametes are formed, a process known as gametogenesis.  Fusion of the male and female gametes leads to the development of an embryo and eventually the seed.
  • 3. Modes of Reproduction A)Asexual Reproduction/ Vegetative –  It occurs through budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation, and spore formation.  No flowers are required for this method.  The plants produced by asexual reproduction thrive well in stable environments.  Does not involved male and female gametes. A)Sexual Reproduction -  Flowering plants reproduce sexually through a process called pollination.  Flowers contain male sex organs called stamens and female sex organs called pistils.  The anther is the part of the stamen that contains pollen. Pollen contains the male gametes.  In sexual reproduction male (pollen) and female (ovules) gametes diffuse to produce a new plant.
  • 4.  Female flowers contain a swollen vase-like structure called a pistil.  Male flowers have long, thin filament or pin-like structures called stamens.
  • 5. Asexual Reproduction • New plants may be develop from vegetative part of the plant (Vegetative reproduction / may develop from embryos without fertilization). A) Vegetative Reproduction B) Apomixis i) Adventive Embryony ii) Apospory iii) Diplospory a) Parthenogenesis 1. Natural- Selection 2. Artificial- Selection b) Apogamy
  • 6. A) Vegetative Reproduction  The most common forms of vegetative propagation are grafting, cutting, layering, tuber, bulb or stolon formation, suckering and tissue culture.
  • 7.
  • 8. B) Apomixis  Apomixis in flowering plants.  Asexual formation of a seed from the maternal tissues of the ovule, avoiding the processes of meiosis and fertilization, leading to embryo development.  The process of formation of the plant from a seed without fertilization or normal sexual reproduction. • What is the difference between apomixis and Parthenocarpy ? • Both apomixis and parthenocarpy are asexual modes of reproduction. • Apomixis is the formation of seeds. • Parthenocarpy is the formation of fruits without fertilization. • Apomixis produces genetically identical mother cells. • Parthenocarpy produces genetically identical offsprings. • Apomixis is seen in angiosperms and gymnosperms. • But parthenocarpy is seen in plants and animals. • Parthenocarpy in animals is called as parthenogenesis.
  • 9. Similarities • In both apomixis and parthenocarpy, there is no fertilization involved. So, both produce offsprings similar to parents. • In both cases, there is no chance of diversity in genes. • Since both the types of phenomenon do not involve fertilization, they are both used as asexual means or vegetative propagation methods. •Though both methods are asexual, they still use the sexual organs of the plant- the ovary and the ovules. a) Adventive embryony is an asexual reproduction that forms seeds without fertilisation and produce a maternal clone in plants. • In adventitive embryony, embryos develop directly from vegetative cells of the ovule, such as nucellus, integument and chalaza. • Adventitive embryony occurs in citrus and mango. b) Apospory - A new plant is formed from an already mature spore. c) Diplospory – It is the kind of gametophytic Apomixis in which nucellar cells of the ovule divide mitotically and form an unreduced embryo sac.
  • 10.  the method by which the megaspore mother cells divide by mitosis thrice to give rise to 8 progeny plants.  In this process no sexual reproduction or mixing of genes are involved. This process is similar to asexual reproduction.  The genes of the parent plant and the progeny are identical.
  • 11. a) Parthenogenesis  A reproductive strategy that involves development of a female (rarely a male) gamete (sex cell) without fertilization.  What is the difference between parthenogenesis and Parthenocarpy in plants? 1. Parthenocarpy development of fruit takes place without fertilisation. 2. In Parthenocarpy seedless fruits are produced. 1. Parthenogenesis development of a new organism takes place without fertilisation of an ovum. 2. Parthenogenesis female clones are produced and cannot reproduce sexually
  • 12. 1. Natural- Selection  It occurs in plants, algae, invertebrate animal species (including nematodes, some tardigrades, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some mites, some bees, some Phasmatodea, and parasitic wasps), and a few vertebrates (such as some fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds). 2. Artificial- Selection  The fertilised eggs might sometimes develop parthenogenetically by various chemical and physical means. This is known as artificial parthenogenesis. B) Apogamy –  Asexual method of reproduction in plants where the gametophyte develops from the sporophyte.  Apospory is also an asexual method of reproduction where sporophyte develops from the gametophyte.  Ploidy Produces a diploid gametophyte. Produces a haploid embryo.
  • 13.
  • 14. Sexual Reproduction a) Isogamy b) Heterogamy  It involves the fusion of morphologically similar gametes, having similar shapes and sizes.  the fusion of male and female gametes which are similar in size.  the male gametes are smaller than the female gametes, or the gametes are flagellated or non- flagellated.  Also called distinct gametes/ Anisogamy /cross-fertilization  Involving the fusion of different gametes.  In plants, Heterogamy can lead to the production of offspring with more diverse genetic makeup and greater adaptability to changing environmental conditions.  it carries at least two different types of flowers in regard to their reproductive structures.