SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 10
Topic
on
“Genetic deterioration / Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of Genetic
Purityduringseed Production andsafeguard of seed”
Department of AgricultureBotany
Genetic Deterioration
• Genetic purity of a variety is lost or deteriorated during seed multiplication.
• Due to natural crossing with undesirable types, diseased plants or off types.
• An irreversible, cumulative (increasing) and inexorable (stop) process that can
cause the build up of cellular damages, and result in delayed seedling
emergence, reduced ability to withstand stresses, and ultimately loss of
viability.
 Factors/ Causes that are responsible for loss of genetic purity
1. Developmental Variation
2. Mechanical Mixtures
3. Mutations
4. Natural Crossing
5. Genetic drift
6. Minor Genetic Variation
7. Selective influence of Diseases
8. Techniques of the Breeder
9. Breakdown of male sterility
10. Improper / defective seed certification
System.
1. Developmental Variation:
 Seed grown in difficult environmental conditions such as (different soil and fertility
conditions, under saline or alkaline conditions or under different photo-periods
different stress conditions ) for several consecutive generations the developmental
variations may arise as differential growth response.
 The variety should always be grown in adaptable area or in the area for which it has
been released.
2. Mechanical Mixtures:
 Major source of contamination of the variety during seed production.
• Mechanical mixtures may take place right from sowing to
harvesting and processing in different ways such as;
a. Contamination through field – self sown seed or volunteer plants
b. Seed drill – if same seed drill is used for sowing 2 or 3 varieties
c. Carrying 2 different varieties adjacent to each other.
d. Growing 2 different varieties adjacent to each other.
e. Threshing floor
f. Combine or threshers
g. Bags or seed bins
h. During seed processing
3. Mutations:
• It is not of much importance as the occurrence of spontaneous
mutations is very low i.e. 10-7.
• If any visible mutations are observed they should be removed by rouging.
• In case of vegetatively propagated crops periodic increase of true to type stock
would eliminate the mutants.
4. Natural Crossing:
• It is an important source of contamination in sexually propagated crops due to
introgression of genes from unrelated stocks/genotypes.
• The extent of contamination depends upon the amount of natural cross
fertilization, which is due to natural crossing with undesirable types, offtypes, and
diseased plants.
• On the other hand natural crossing is main source of contamination in cross-
fertilized or often cross-fertilized crops.
• The extent of genetic contamination in seed fields is due to natural crossing
depends on breeding system of the species, isolation distance, varietal mass and
pollinating agent.
• To overcome the problem of natural crossing isolation distance has to be
maintained.
• Increase in isolation distance decreases the extent of contamination.
• The extent of contamination depends on the direction of the wind flow, number of
insects presents and their activity.
5. Genetic drift:
• When seed is multiplied in large areas only small quantities of seed is taken and
preserved for the next years sowing.
• Because of such sub-sampling all the genotypes will not be represented in the next
generation and leads to change in genetic composition.
• This is called as genetic drift.
6. Minor Genetic variation:
• It is not of much importance, it occur during production cycles due to difference in
environment.
• Due to these changes the yields may be affected.
• To avoid such minor genetic variations periodic testing of the varieties must be
done from breeder’s seed and nucleus seed in self-pollinated crops Minor genetic
variation.
• It is a common feature in often cross-pollinated species; therefore care should be
taken during maintenance of nucleus and breeder seed.
7. Selective influence of Disease:
Proper plant protection measures much be taken against major pests and diseases other
wise the plant as well as the seeds get infected.
a. In case of foliar diseases the size of the seed gets affected due to poor supply
of carbohydrates from infected photosynthetic tissue.
b. In case of seed and soil borne diseases like downy mildew and ergot of Jowar,
smut of Bajra and bunt of wheat, it is dangerous to use seeds for commercial
purpose once the crop gets infected.
c. New crop varieties may often become susceptible to new races of diseases are
out of seed production programms.
E.g. Surekha and Phalguna became susceptible to gall midge biotype 3.
8. Techniques of the Breeder :
• Instability may occur in a variety due to genetic irregulaeities if it is not properly
assessed at the time of release.
• Flowing stage select by the breeders.
9. Breakdown of male sterility:
Generally in hybrid seed production if there is any
breakdown of male sterility in may lead to a mixture of F1 hybrids and selfers.
10. Improper Seed Certification :
It is not a factor that deteriorates the crops varieties, but is there is any lacuna in any
of the above factors and if it has not been checked it may lead to deterioration of
crop varieties.
 Safe guards for maintenance of genetic purity
1. Control of seed source ( 4 classes i.e. N-B-F-C seeds from breeder seed,
defined by Association of Official Seed Certification agency (AOSCA).
2. Preceding crop requirement (fixed to avoid contamination through volunteer
plants and also the soil borne diseases.)
3. Isolation (Avoid natural crossing with other undesirable types, off types in the fields
and mechanical mixtures at the time of sowing, threshing,
processing and contamination due to seed borne diseases from nearby fields).
4. Rouging of seed fields (Removal of off types is referred to as roughing)
5. Seed certification (objective of seed certification is to make available seeds of good
quality to farmers. And SCAAgency plays an important role).
6. Grow out test (Tested for genetic purity)
• compulsory for hybrids produced by manual emasculation and pollination and for
testing the purity of parental lines used in hybrid seed production.
 Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production
Horne (1953) had suggested the following methods for maintenance of genetic
purity;
1. Use of approved seed in seed multiplication
2. Inspection of seed fields prior to planting
3. Field inspection and approval of the Crop at critical stages for verification of
genetic purity, detection of mixtures, weeds and seed borne diseases.
4. Sampling and sealing of cleaned lots
5. Growing of samples with authentic stocks or Grow -out test
 Various steps suggested by Hartman and Kestar (1968) for maintaining genetic
purity are as follows;
1. Providing isolation to prevent cross fertilization or mechanical mixtures
2. Rouging of seed fields prior to planting
3. Periodic testing of varieties for genetic purity
4. Grow in adapted areas only to avoid genetic shifts in the variety
5. Certification of seed crops to maintain genetic purity and quality
6. Adopting generation system

More Related Content

Similar to Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production and safeguard of seed.pptx

1606583756-lec.pptx
1606583756-lec.pptx1606583756-lec.pptx
1606583756-lec.pptxtahirabibi13
 
Unit 9 Principle of seed production.pptx
Unit 9 Principle of seed production.pptxUnit 9 Principle of seed production.pptx
Unit 9 Principle of seed production.pptxGovinda Raj Sedai
 
30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdf
30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdf30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdf
30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdfSatendraShroti
 
maintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testing
maintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testingmaintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testing
maintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testingMPKV, RAHURI
 
General Principles of Seed Production Technology
General Principles of Seed Production TechnologyGeneral Principles of Seed Production Technology
General Principles of Seed Production TechnologyRoshan Parihar
 
General principles of seed production
General principles of seed productionGeneral principles of seed production
General principles of seed productionRoshan Parihar
 
Principles of seed production 2.pdf
Principles of seed production 2.pdfPrinciples of seed production 2.pdf
Principles of seed production 2.pdfVanangamudiK1
 
Seed type and characterstics
Seed type and charactersticsSeed type and characterstics
Seed type and charactersticsAnkush Singh
 
Quality seed production of pulses
Quality seed production of pulsesQuality seed production of pulses
Quality seed production of pulsessandeshGM
 
Maintenance breeding
Maintenance breedingMaintenance breeding
Maintenance breedingPawan Nagar
 
Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.
Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.
Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.Komal Jalan
 
Quality Seed Production in Agriculture
Quality Seed Production in AgricultureQuality Seed Production in Agriculture
Quality Seed Production in AgricultureRamyajit Mondal
 
Final weed seed production pdf
Final weed seed production pdfFinal weed seed production pdf
Final weed seed production pdfAbhishek Malpani
 
General production of seed
General production of seedGeneral production of seed
General production of seedZaidi Malik
 
Seed Deterioration and Longevity.pptx
Seed Deterioration and Longevity.pptxSeed Deterioration and Longevity.pptx
Seed Deterioration and Longevity.pptxNethra Jagarlamudi
 
Strategies for enhancement in food production ii
Strategies for enhancement in food production iiStrategies for enhancement in food production ii
Strategies for enhancement in food production iiShubhadeep Bhattacharjee
 
IPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptx
IPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptxIPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptx
IPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptxPlant Disease Control Hub
 

Similar to Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production and safeguard of seed.pptx (20)

1606583756-lec.pptx
1606583756-lec.pptx1606583756-lec.pptx
1606583756-lec.pptx
 
Unit 9 Principle of seed production.pptx
Unit 9 Principle of seed production.pptxUnit 9 Principle of seed production.pptx
Unit 9 Principle of seed production.pptx
 
30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdf
30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdf30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdf
30032020194456Principles_of_Seed_Technology_Dr_Rudrasen_Singh.pdf
 
Principles of vegetable seed production
 Principles of vegetable seed production  Principles of vegetable seed production
Principles of vegetable seed production
 
maintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testing
maintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testingmaintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testing
maintainance of genetic purity methods of genetic purity testing
 
General Principles of Seed Production Technology
General Principles of Seed Production TechnologyGeneral Principles of Seed Production Technology
General Principles of Seed Production Technology
 
General principles of seed production
General principles of seed productionGeneral principles of seed production
General principles of seed production
 
Genetic principles of seed production
Genetic principles of seed productionGenetic principles of seed production
Genetic principles of seed production
 
Principles of seed production 2.pdf
Principles of seed production 2.pdfPrinciples of seed production 2.pdf
Principles of seed production 2.pdf
 
Seed type and characterstics
Seed type and charactersticsSeed type and characterstics
Seed type and characterstics
 
mutation breeding
 mutation breeding  mutation breeding
mutation breeding
 
Quality seed production of pulses
Quality seed production of pulsesQuality seed production of pulses
Quality seed production of pulses
 
Maintenance breeding
Maintenance breedingMaintenance breeding
Maintenance breeding
 
Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.
Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.
Plant tissue culture,its methods, advantages,disadvantages and applications.
 
Quality Seed Production in Agriculture
Quality Seed Production in AgricultureQuality Seed Production in Agriculture
Quality Seed Production in Agriculture
 
Final weed seed production pdf
Final weed seed production pdfFinal weed seed production pdf
Final weed seed production pdf
 
General production of seed
General production of seedGeneral production of seed
General production of seed
 
Seed Deterioration and Longevity.pptx
Seed Deterioration and Longevity.pptxSeed Deterioration and Longevity.pptx
Seed Deterioration and Longevity.pptx
 
Strategies for enhancement in food production ii
Strategies for enhancement in food production iiStrategies for enhancement in food production ii
Strategies for enhancement in food production ii
 
IPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptx
IPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptxIPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptx
IPM strategies for plant-parasitic nematodes_R.Akinrinlola.pptx
 

More from AKSHAYMAGAR17

DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptxMitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptxChromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptxModes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...
Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...
Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptxSeed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptxSeed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 

More from AKSHAYMAGAR17 (20)

DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
DNA and RNA , Structure, Functions, Types, difference, Similarities, Protein ...
 
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptxMitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
Mitosis and Meiosis Stages, Structure and Difference.pptx
 
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptxChromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
Chromosome Structure, Types and Function.pptx
 
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
cell, cell structure and function, Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell , Pla...
 
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptxModes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
Modes of Reproduction in crop plant.pptx
 
Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...
Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...
Genetics, Heredity, Variation, history, its roles, Scope, Importance, and Bra...
 
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptxSeed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
Seed Quality and Characters of good quality Seeds.pptx
 
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptxSeed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
Seed Marketing, structure of essential marketing cell and major components.pptx
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
 
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,...
 
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
Define Hybrid. Features and Method of Maintained Nucleus and Breeder Seed in ...
 
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
Seed storage, types and describe factors affecting longevity of seed storage....
 
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
Seed processing, Principles and movement and steps in seed processing - Copy....
 
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and  its Physiology and its Im...
“Absorption Theory Involved In Nutrient Uptake and its Physiology and its Im...
 
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approac...
 
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
“Transcription factor as signaling regulatory tools for improving growth proc...
 
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx
 
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEDust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEaurabinda banchhor
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4MiaBumagat1
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptxmary850239
 
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptxMillenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptxJanEmmanBrigoli
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataBabyAnnMotar
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptshraddhaparab530
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
 
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxLEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEDust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
 
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptxMillenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
Millenials and Fillennials (Ethical Challenge and Responses).pptx
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
 
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
 

Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production and safeguard of seed.pptx

  • 1. Topic on “Genetic deterioration / Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of Genetic Purityduringseed Production andsafeguard of seed” Department of AgricultureBotany
  • 2. Genetic Deterioration • Genetic purity of a variety is lost or deteriorated during seed multiplication. • Due to natural crossing with undesirable types, diseased plants or off types. • An irreversible, cumulative (increasing) and inexorable (stop) process that can cause the build up of cellular damages, and result in delayed seedling emergence, reduced ability to withstand stresses, and ultimately loss of viability.  Factors/ Causes that are responsible for loss of genetic purity 1. Developmental Variation 2. Mechanical Mixtures 3. Mutations 4. Natural Crossing 5. Genetic drift 6. Minor Genetic Variation 7. Selective influence of Diseases 8. Techniques of the Breeder 9. Breakdown of male sterility 10. Improper / defective seed certification System.
  • 3. 1. Developmental Variation:  Seed grown in difficult environmental conditions such as (different soil and fertility conditions, under saline or alkaline conditions or under different photo-periods different stress conditions ) for several consecutive generations the developmental variations may arise as differential growth response.  The variety should always be grown in adaptable area or in the area for which it has been released. 2. Mechanical Mixtures:  Major source of contamination of the variety during seed production. • Mechanical mixtures may take place right from sowing to harvesting and processing in different ways such as; a. Contamination through field – self sown seed or volunteer plants b. Seed drill – if same seed drill is used for sowing 2 or 3 varieties c. Carrying 2 different varieties adjacent to each other. d. Growing 2 different varieties adjacent to each other. e. Threshing floor f. Combine or threshers g. Bags or seed bins h. During seed processing
  • 4. 3. Mutations: • It is not of much importance as the occurrence of spontaneous mutations is very low i.e. 10-7. • If any visible mutations are observed they should be removed by rouging. • In case of vegetatively propagated crops periodic increase of true to type stock would eliminate the mutants. 4. Natural Crossing: • It is an important source of contamination in sexually propagated crops due to introgression of genes from unrelated stocks/genotypes. • The extent of contamination depends upon the amount of natural cross fertilization, which is due to natural crossing with undesirable types, offtypes, and diseased plants. • On the other hand natural crossing is main source of contamination in cross- fertilized or often cross-fertilized crops. • The extent of genetic contamination in seed fields is due to natural crossing depends on breeding system of the species, isolation distance, varietal mass and pollinating agent.
  • 5. • To overcome the problem of natural crossing isolation distance has to be maintained. • Increase in isolation distance decreases the extent of contamination. • The extent of contamination depends on the direction of the wind flow, number of insects presents and their activity. 5. Genetic drift: • When seed is multiplied in large areas only small quantities of seed is taken and preserved for the next years sowing. • Because of such sub-sampling all the genotypes will not be represented in the next generation and leads to change in genetic composition. • This is called as genetic drift.
  • 6. 6. Minor Genetic variation: • It is not of much importance, it occur during production cycles due to difference in environment. • Due to these changes the yields may be affected. • To avoid such minor genetic variations periodic testing of the varieties must be done from breeder’s seed and nucleus seed in self-pollinated crops Minor genetic variation. • It is a common feature in often cross-pollinated species; therefore care should be taken during maintenance of nucleus and breeder seed.
  • 7. 7. Selective influence of Disease: Proper plant protection measures much be taken against major pests and diseases other wise the plant as well as the seeds get infected. a. In case of foliar diseases the size of the seed gets affected due to poor supply of carbohydrates from infected photosynthetic tissue. b. In case of seed and soil borne diseases like downy mildew and ergot of Jowar, smut of Bajra and bunt of wheat, it is dangerous to use seeds for commercial purpose once the crop gets infected. c. New crop varieties may often become susceptible to new races of diseases are out of seed production programms. E.g. Surekha and Phalguna became susceptible to gall midge biotype 3. 8. Techniques of the Breeder : • Instability may occur in a variety due to genetic irregulaeities if it is not properly assessed at the time of release. • Flowing stage select by the breeders.
  • 8. 9. Breakdown of male sterility: Generally in hybrid seed production if there is any breakdown of male sterility in may lead to a mixture of F1 hybrids and selfers. 10. Improper Seed Certification : It is not a factor that deteriorates the crops varieties, but is there is any lacuna in any of the above factors and if it has not been checked it may lead to deterioration of crop varieties.
  • 9.  Safe guards for maintenance of genetic purity 1. Control of seed source ( 4 classes i.e. N-B-F-C seeds from breeder seed, defined by Association of Official Seed Certification agency (AOSCA). 2. Preceding crop requirement (fixed to avoid contamination through volunteer plants and also the soil borne diseases.) 3. Isolation (Avoid natural crossing with other undesirable types, off types in the fields and mechanical mixtures at the time of sowing, threshing, processing and contamination due to seed borne diseases from nearby fields). 4. Rouging of seed fields (Removal of off types is referred to as roughing) 5. Seed certification (objective of seed certification is to make available seeds of good quality to farmers. And SCAAgency plays an important role). 6. Grow out test (Tested for genetic purity) • compulsory for hybrids produced by manual emasculation and pollination and for testing the purity of parental lines used in hybrid seed production.
  • 10.  Maintenance of Genetic Purity during seed Production Horne (1953) had suggested the following methods for maintenance of genetic purity; 1. Use of approved seed in seed multiplication 2. Inspection of seed fields prior to planting 3. Field inspection and approval of the Crop at critical stages for verification of genetic purity, detection of mixtures, weeds and seed borne diseases. 4. Sampling and sealing of cleaned lots 5. Growing of samples with authentic stocks or Grow -out test  Various steps suggested by Hartman and Kestar (1968) for maintaining genetic purity are as follows; 1. Providing isolation to prevent cross fertilization or mechanical mixtures 2. Rouging of seed fields prior to planting 3. Periodic testing of varieties for genetic purity 4. Grow in adapted areas only to avoid genetic shifts in the variety 5. Certification of seed crops to maintain genetic purity and quality 6. Adopting generation system