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“Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice, Maize,Sorghum and
Cotton”
• IDEOTYPE CONCEPT;-
1. To model plants or ideal plant type for a specific environment.
2. “In broad sense an ideotype is a biological model which is expected to
perform or behave in a predictable manner within a defined
environment”.
3. crop ideotype is a plant model which is expected to yield greater quantity
of grains, fibre, oil or other useful product when developed as a cultivar.
4. The term ideotype was first proposed by Donald in 1968 working on
wheat.
• Ideotype Breeding :-
A method of crop improvement which is use to
enhance genetic yield potential through genetic manipulation of individual
plant character.
Main features of ideotype breeding are:-
1. Emphasis on individual trait
2. Includes yield enhancing traits
3. Exploits physiological variation
4. Slow progress
5. Selection
6. Designing of model
7. Interdisciplinary approach
8. A continuous process
Features of crop ideotypes
The crop ideotype consists of several morphological and physiological traits
which contribute for enhanced yield or higher yield than currently prevalent crop
cultivars.
The morphological and physiological features of crop ideotype differ from crop to
crop and sometimes within the crop also depending upon whether the ideotype is
required for irrigated cultivation or rainfed cultivation.
Ideal plant types or model plants have been discussed in several crops like wheat,
rice, maize, barley, cotton and beans.
 The important features of ideotype from some crops are
 WHEAT
The term ideotype was coined by Donald in 1968 working on wheat. He proposed
ideotype of wheat with following main features:
1. A short strong stem.
2. It imparts lodging resistance and reduces the losses due to lodging.
3. Erect leaves. Such leaves provide better arrangement for proper light distribution
resulting in high photosynthesis or CO2 fixation.
4. Few small leaves. Leaves are the important sites of photosynthesis, respiration and
transpiration. Few and small leaves reduce water loss due to transpiration.
5. Larger ear. It will produce more grains per ear.
6. An erect ear. It will get light from all sides resulting in proper grain development.
7. Presence of awns. Awns contribute towards photosynthesis.
8. A single culm.
RICE
The concept of plant type was introduced in rice
breeding by Jennings in 1964, through the term
ideotype was coined by Donald in 1968. He
suggested that in rice an ideal or model plant
type consists of
Semi dwarf stature
High tillering capacity and
Short, erect, thick and highly angled leaves
More panicles /m2,
High (55% ore more) harvest index.
Now emphasis is also given on physiological
traits in the development of rice ideotype.
MAIZE
In 1975, Mock and Pearce proposed ideal plant type of
maize.
Stiff-vertically-oriented leaves above the ear.
Maximum photosynthetic efficiency.
Efficient translocation of photosynthate into grain.
Short interval between pollen shed and silk
emergence.
Small tassel size.
Photoperiod insensitivity
 Cold tolerance
Long Grain -filling period
SORGHUM
IN Dr. Swaminathan 1972 proposed ideal plant type of Sorghum.
High grain yield.
Harvest index greater than 30.
High ear head exertion.
Panical DM of total Dm: >50%
Higher relative water content.
COTTON
Ideotype for irrigated cultivation
Short stature (90-120 cm).
Compact and sympodial plant habit making
pyramidal shape.
Determinate in fruiting habit with unimodal
distribution of bolling.
Short duration (150-165 days).
Responsive to high fertilizer dose.
High degree of inter plant competitive ability.
High degree of resistance to insect pests and
diseases, and
High physiological efficiency.
Rainfed conditions (Singh and Narayanan 1993)
Earliness (150-165 days).
Fewer small and thick leaves.
Compact and short stature, indeterminate habit.
Sparse hairiness,.
Medium to big boll size.
Synchronous bolling.
High response to nutrients.
Resistance to insects and diseases.

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Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice, Maize,Sorghum and Cotton.pptx

  • 1. “Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice, Maize,Sorghum and Cotton”
  • 2. • IDEOTYPE CONCEPT;- 1. To model plants or ideal plant type for a specific environment. 2. “In broad sense an ideotype is a biological model which is expected to perform or behave in a predictable manner within a defined environment”. 3. crop ideotype is a plant model which is expected to yield greater quantity of grains, fibre, oil or other useful product when developed as a cultivar. 4. The term ideotype was first proposed by Donald in 1968 working on wheat. • Ideotype Breeding :- A method of crop improvement which is use to enhance genetic yield potential through genetic manipulation of individual plant character.
  • 3. Main features of ideotype breeding are:- 1. Emphasis on individual trait 2. Includes yield enhancing traits 3. Exploits physiological variation 4. Slow progress 5. Selection 6. Designing of model 7. Interdisciplinary approach 8. A continuous process
  • 4.
  • 5. Features of crop ideotypes The crop ideotype consists of several morphological and physiological traits which contribute for enhanced yield or higher yield than currently prevalent crop cultivars. The morphological and physiological features of crop ideotype differ from crop to crop and sometimes within the crop also depending upon whether the ideotype is required for irrigated cultivation or rainfed cultivation. Ideal plant types or model plants have been discussed in several crops like wheat, rice, maize, barley, cotton and beans.
  • 6.  The important features of ideotype from some crops are  WHEAT The term ideotype was coined by Donald in 1968 working on wheat. He proposed ideotype of wheat with following main features: 1. A short strong stem. 2. It imparts lodging resistance and reduces the losses due to lodging. 3. Erect leaves. Such leaves provide better arrangement for proper light distribution resulting in high photosynthesis or CO2 fixation. 4. Few small leaves. Leaves are the important sites of photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration. Few and small leaves reduce water loss due to transpiration. 5. Larger ear. It will produce more grains per ear. 6. An erect ear. It will get light from all sides resulting in proper grain development. 7. Presence of awns. Awns contribute towards photosynthesis. 8. A single culm.
  • 7. RICE The concept of plant type was introduced in rice breeding by Jennings in 1964, through the term ideotype was coined by Donald in 1968. He suggested that in rice an ideal or model plant type consists of Semi dwarf stature High tillering capacity and Short, erect, thick and highly angled leaves More panicles /m2, High (55% ore more) harvest index. Now emphasis is also given on physiological traits in the development of rice ideotype.
  • 8. MAIZE In 1975, Mock and Pearce proposed ideal plant type of maize. Stiff-vertically-oriented leaves above the ear. Maximum photosynthetic efficiency. Efficient translocation of photosynthate into grain. Short interval between pollen shed and silk emergence. Small tassel size. Photoperiod insensitivity  Cold tolerance Long Grain -filling period
  • 9. SORGHUM IN Dr. Swaminathan 1972 proposed ideal plant type of Sorghum. High grain yield. Harvest index greater than 30. High ear head exertion. Panical DM of total Dm: >50% Higher relative water content.
  • 10. COTTON Ideotype for irrigated cultivation Short stature (90-120 cm). Compact and sympodial plant habit making pyramidal shape. Determinate in fruiting habit with unimodal distribution of bolling. Short duration (150-165 days). Responsive to high fertilizer dose. High degree of inter plant competitive ability. High degree of resistance to insect pests and diseases, and High physiological efficiency.
  • 11. Rainfed conditions (Singh and Narayanan 1993) Earliness (150-165 days). Fewer small and thick leaves. Compact and short stature, indeterminate habit. Sparse hairiness,. Medium to big boll size. Synchronous bolling. High response to nutrients. Resistance to insects and diseases.