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Department of Soil science& Agril. Chemistry.
“Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic
Approaches to Nutrient Supply and Uptake By Plants ; Models for
Transformation and Movement of Major and Micronutrient in Soils”
Nutrient movement in Soils
• Two ways – either the roots grow to the nutrient or the nutrient gets to the
roots via soil water.
• The movement of nutrients throughout the soil profile is dependent on several
factors.
• Soil Structure:- Soil structure plays a large role in how nutrients get to
plants.
• Nutrient Concentration:- The overall concentration of nutrients in the soil
impacts movement of nutrients to the root system.
• Nutrient Absorption:-
• Nutrient Mobility:-The speed at which nutrients can move throughout the
soil profile impacts nutrient uptake, as well. Mobility varies from nutrient to
nutrient.
Mechanism of Nutrient movement in soil
1. Root Interception:-
 Occurs when growth of a root causes contact with soil colloids
which contain nutrients.
 It is the process in which roots grow through the soil profile to
come in contact with nutrients.
 This process is dependent on the roots to do the work and grow
throughout the soil to seek out nutrients.
 As the root grows through the soil it generally only comes in
contact with about 1% of soil volume.
 Good soil structure is especially important in the process of root
interception.
.
2. Mass Flow:-
• Nutrient movement to the roots via water is called mass flow.
• Mass flow accounts for nutrient uptake of mobile nutrients, such as nitrogen
and sulfur.
• Nutrient concentration plays a huge role in the amount of nutrients taken up
through mass flow – more nutrients available throughout the soil profile, the
more nutrients that are moved by water to the root system.
3. Diffusion:-
• During diffusion, roots grow throughout the profile and use up nutrients
directly around the root system and the root hairs.
• They only move a small distance, though. Potassium (K) and phosphorus
(P) mostly move through diffusion.
• And, since P and K aren‘t extremely mobile, it is important to have a high
concentration of those nutrients throughout the soil, and to apply those
nutrients as close to the root zone as possible.
Absorption of nutrient into plant cell.
 Plant cells contain barriers (plasma membrane and tono-plast) that
selectively regulate the movement of water and nutrients into and
out of the cell. These cell barriers are:
 Permeable to oxygen, carbon dioxide, as well as certain
compounds. semi-permeable to water.
 Selectively permeable to inorganic ions and organic compounds,
such as amino acids and sugars.
 Nutrient ions may move across these barriers actively or passively
 Passive transport is the diffusion of an ion along a concentration
gradient. When the interior of the cell has a lower concentration of a
specific nutrient than the outside of the cell, the nutrient can diffuse
into the cell. This type of transport requires no energy
 Active transport is the movement of a nutrient ion into the cell that
occurs against a concentration gradient. Unlike passive transport,
this type of movement requires energy.
 An important characteristic of some nutrients is the ability to move
within the plant tissue.
 In general, when certain nutrients are deficient in the plant tissue,
that nutrient is able translocate from older leaves to younger leaves
where that nutrient is needed for growth.
 Nutrients with this ability are said to be mobile nutrients, and
include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and
molybdenum.
 In contrast, immobile nutrients do not have the ability to translocate
from old to new growth.
 Immobile nutrients include calcium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron,
manganese, and zinc.
 Nutrient mobility OR immobility provides us with special clues
when diagnosing deficiency symptoms. If the deficiency symptom
appears first in the old growth, we know that the deficient nutrient
is mobile.
 On the other hand, if the symptom appears in new growth, the
deficient nutrient is immobile.
Nutrient Mobility Within Plant:-
Nutrient Mobility Within Soil:-
 Mobility of a nutrient within the soil is closely related to the
chemical properties of the soil, such as CEC and AEC, as well as
the soil conditions, such as moisture.
 When there is sufficient moisture in the soil for leaching to occur,
the percolating water can carry dissolved nutrients which will be
subsequently lost from the soil profile.
 The nutrients which are easily leached are usually those nutrients
that are less strongly held by soil particles. For instance, in a soil
with a high CEC and low AEC, nitrate (an anion) will leach much
more readily than calcium (an cation).
 Additionally, in such a soil, potassium (a monovalent cation) will
leach more readily than calcium (divalent cation) since calcium is
more strongly held to the soil particles than potassium.
 Silica from minerals also dissolves and leaches from the soil profile
during the processes of weathering.
Mechanisms approach to nutrient supply and uptake and uptake by
plant:-
• Passive ion uptake: The iron moving down a concentration or electo-
chemical gradience and without expenditure of metabolic energy is side to be
passive ion uptake.
• Active ion uptake: The uptake of ions agents a concentration of gradient
requires metabolic energy is termed as active.
• Physical or passive ion uptake:
• The mass flow iron hypothesis.
• Diffusion along conc. Gradients
• Molecular silver hypotheses.
• Lipid stability hypothesis
• Ion Hypothesis
• Donan equilibrium
• Adsorption.
.
 PLANT NUTRIENTS AND THE SOIL
 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients
 Essential elements are those that a plant must obtain to complete its life cycle
of growth and reproductive success
 There are 17 elements essential to plant growth and reproduction.
 Macronutrients—plants require relatively large amounts of these
elements.
 Micronutrients—plants require relatively small amounts of these
elements.
Transformation and movement of major and micronutrient in soils.
• Classification of essential nutrients:
Essential nutrients
Macro-nutrients/Major-nutrients
(required in large quantities) (9
Elements)
(C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S)
Micro-nutrients/Minor-nutrients
(required in very small quantities) (8
Elements)
(Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl, Ni)
From air & water
(C,H, O)
From soil (N, P, K, Ca, Mg,
S)
Primary nutrients
(required in relatively more
quantity)
Secondary nutrients
(required in relatively less
quantity)
N, P, K Ca, Mg, S
Cont....
 Nitrogen:- N compounds in the atmosphere are returned to the earth
in rainfall as NH3, NO3-, NO2-, nitrous oxide (N2O) and organic N.
 Forms of N absorbed by plants :- Plants absorbed N as both
ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-).
 N Transformation in Soils N mineralization :-
N mineralization is the conversion of organic N to ammonium (NH4+).
Mineralization of organic N involves two reactions..
1. Aminization : Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi are responsible for
one or more steps in the reactions in organic matter decomposition.
2. Ammonification : The amines and amino acids produced by
aminization of organic N are decomposed by other heterotrophs, with the
release of NH4+.
Cont….
 Phosphorus
 P is absorbed by plants largely as orthophosphate ions (H2PO4- and
HPO42-), which are present in the soil solution.
 Mineralization and Immobilization : In general, P mineralization and
immobilization are similar to those of N. Phosphatase enzymes play a
major role in the mineralization of organic phosphates in soil.
Phosphatase activity of a soil is due to the combined functioning of the
soil micro flora and any free enzymes present.
 Potassium
 Soil K exists in four forms, each differing in its availability to crop.
 These forms, in increasing order of availability are as Mineral K, Non-
exchangeable K, Exchangeable K and Solution K.
 K Fixation :- Fixation of K is the result of re-entrapment of K+ ions
between the layer of the 2:1 clays. The 1:1 type minerals such as
kaolinite do not fix K.
.
K.
Sulphur :-
• Calcium
• Magnesium
• Mg occurs predominantly as exchangeable and solution Mg2+.
Mg occurs in soils in a slowly available form, which is in equilibrium with
exchangeable Mg2+.
• Iron
 Forms of Soil Fe :
Fe occurs in four major forms in soils
Primary and secondary mineral Fe
Adsorbed Fe
Organic Fe
Solution Fe
• Zinc
 Forms of Soil Zn :
The forms of Zn in soils are
Solution Zn2+
Adsorbed Zn2+
Organically complexed Zn2+
Zn2+ substituted for Mg2
• Copper
 Forms of Soil Cu :-
• In addition to the Cu in primary and secondary minerals, it exists in the
following forms
1. In the soil solution - ionic and complexed.
2. On cation exchange sites of clays and OM.
3. Occluded and co-precipitated in soil oxide material.
4. On specific adsorption sites.
5. In OM and living organisms.
6. Solubility of Cu is pH dependent and it increases 100 fold for each unit
decrease in pH.
• Manganese
 Forms of Soil Mn :
• Mn exists as solution Mn2+, exchangeable Mn2+, organically bound Mn and as
various Mn minerals.
• The principal species in solution is Mn2+, which decreases 100 fold for each
unit increase in pH.
• Boron
 Forms of Soil B : B exists in four major forms in soil.
• In rocks and minerals.
• Adsorbed on clay surfaces and Fe and Al oxides.
• Combined with OM.
• As boric acid (H3BO30) in the soil solution.
• Chloride
• The Cl- anion is very soluble in most soils.
• However, appreciable exchangeable Cl- can occur in acid, kaolinite
soils which have significant pH dependent positive charges.
• Molybdenum
• Mo in solution occurs predominantly as MoO42-, HMoO4- and
H2MoO40.
Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approaches to Nutrient Supply and Uptake By Plants ; Models for Transformation and Movement of Major and Micronutrient in Soils”.pptx

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Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approaches to Nutrient Supply and Uptake By Plants ; Models for Transformation and Movement of Major and Micronutrient in Soils”.pptx

  • 1. Topic on Department of Soil science& Agril. Chemistry. “Nutrient Movement in Soils- Nutrient Absorption By Plants Mechanistic Approaches to Nutrient Supply and Uptake By Plants ; Models for Transformation and Movement of Major and Micronutrient in Soils”
  • 2. Nutrient movement in Soils • Two ways – either the roots grow to the nutrient or the nutrient gets to the roots via soil water. • The movement of nutrients throughout the soil profile is dependent on several factors. • Soil Structure:- Soil structure plays a large role in how nutrients get to plants. • Nutrient Concentration:- The overall concentration of nutrients in the soil impacts movement of nutrients to the root system. • Nutrient Absorption:- • Nutrient Mobility:-The speed at which nutrients can move throughout the soil profile impacts nutrient uptake, as well. Mobility varies from nutrient to nutrient.
  • 3. Mechanism of Nutrient movement in soil 1. Root Interception:-  Occurs when growth of a root causes contact with soil colloids which contain nutrients.  It is the process in which roots grow through the soil profile to come in contact with nutrients.  This process is dependent on the roots to do the work and grow throughout the soil to seek out nutrients.  As the root grows through the soil it generally only comes in contact with about 1% of soil volume.  Good soil structure is especially important in the process of root interception.
  • 4. .
  • 5. 2. Mass Flow:- • Nutrient movement to the roots via water is called mass flow. • Mass flow accounts for nutrient uptake of mobile nutrients, such as nitrogen and sulfur. • Nutrient concentration plays a huge role in the amount of nutrients taken up through mass flow – more nutrients available throughout the soil profile, the more nutrients that are moved by water to the root system.
  • 6. 3. Diffusion:- • During diffusion, roots grow throughout the profile and use up nutrients directly around the root system and the root hairs. • They only move a small distance, though. Potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) mostly move through diffusion. • And, since P and K aren‘t extremely mobile, it is important to have a high concentration of those nutrients throughout the soil, and to apply those nutrients as close to the root zone as possible.
  • 7. Absorption of nutrient into plant cell.  Plant cells contain barriers (plasma membrane and tono-plast) that selectively regulate the movement of water and nutrients into and out of the cell. These cell barriers are:  Permeable to oxygen, carbon dioxide, as well as certain compounds. semi-permeable to water.  Selectively permeable to inorganic ions and organic compounds, such as amino acids and sugars.  Nutrient ions may move across these barriers actively or passively  Passive transport is the diffusion of an ion along a concentration gradient. When the interior of the cell has a lower concentration of a specific nutrient than the outside of the cell, the nutrient can diffuse into the cell. This type of transport requires no energy  Active transport is the movement of a nutrient ion into the cell that occurs against a concentration gradient. Unlike passive transport, this type of movement requires energy.
  • 8.  An important characteristic of some nutrients is the ability to move within the plant tissue.  In general, when certain nutrients are deficient in the plant tissue, that nutrient is able translocate from older leaves to younger leaves where that nutrient is needed for growth.  Nutrients with this ability are said to be mobile nutrients, and include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and molybdenum.  In contrast, immobile nutrients do not have the ability to translocate from old to new growth.  Immobile nutrients include calcium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc.  Nutrient mobility OR immobility provides us with special clues when diagnosing deficiency symptoms. If the deficiency symptom appears first in the old growth, we know that the deficient nutrient is mobile.  On the other hand, if the symptom appears in new growth, the deficient nutrient is immobile. Nutrient Mobility Within Plant:-
  • 9. Nutrient Mobility Within Soil:-  Mobility of a nutrient within the soil is closely related to the chemical properties of the soil, such as CEC and AEC, as well as the soil conditions, such as moisture.  When there is sufficient moisture in the soil for leaching to occur, the percolating water can carry dissolved nutrients which will be subsequently lost from the soil profile.  The nutrients which are easily leached are usually those nutrients that are less strongly held by soil particles. For instance, in a soil with a high CEC and low AEC, nitrate (an anion) will leach much more readily than calcium (an cation).  Additionally, in such a soil, potassium (a monovalent cation) will leach more readily than calcium (divalent cation) since calcium is more strongly held to the soil particles than potassium.  Silica from minerals also dissolves and leaches from the soil profile during the processes of weathering.
  • 10. Mechanisms approach to nutrient supply and uptake and uptake by plant:- • Passive ion uptake: The iron moving down a concentration or electo- chemical gradience and without expenditure of metabolic energy is side to be passive ion uptake. • Active ion uptake: The uptake of ions agents a concentration of gradient requires metabolic energy is termed as active. • Physical or passive ion uptake: • The mass flow iron hypothesis. • Diffusion along conc. Gradients • Molecular silver hypotheses. • Lipid stability hypothesis • Ion Hypothesis • Donan equilibrium • Adsorption.
  • 11. .  PLANT NUTRIENTS AND THE SOIL  Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients  Essential elements are those that a plant must obtain to complete its life cycle of growth and reproductive success  There are 17 elements essential to plant growth and reproduction.  Macronutrients—plants require relatively large amounts of these elements.  Micronutrients—plants require relatively small amounts of these elements.
  • 12. Transformation and movement of major and micronutrient in soils. • Classification of essential nutrients: Essential nutrients Macro-nutrients/Major-nutrients (required in large quantities) (9 Elements) (C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) Micro-nutrients/Minor-nutrients (required in very small quantities) (8 Elements) (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl, Ni) From air & water (C,H, O) From soil (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) Primary nutrients (required in relatively more quantity) Secondary nutrients (required in relatively less quantity) N, P, K Ca, Mg, S
  • 13. Cont....  Nitrogen:- N compounds in the atmosphere are returned to the earth in rainfall as NH3, NO3-, NO2-, nitrous oxide (N2O) and organic N.  Forms of N absorbed by plants :- Plants absorbed N as both ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-).  N Transformation in Soils N mineralization :- N mineralization is the conversion of organic N to ammonium (NH4+). Mineralization of organic N involves two reactions.. 1. Aminization : Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi are responsible for one or more steps in the reactions in organic matter decomposition. 2. Ammonification : The amines and amino acids produced by aminization of organic N are decomposed by other heterotrophs, with the release of NH4+.
  • 14. Cont….  Phosphorus  P is absorbed by plants largely as orthophosphate ions (H2PO4- and HPO42-), which are present in the soil solution.  Mineralization and Immobilization : In general, P mineralization and immobilization are similar to those of N. Phosphatase enzymes play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphates in soil. Phosphatase activity of a soil is due to the combined functioning of the soil micro flora and any free enzymes present.  Potassium  Soil K exists in four forms, each differing in its availability to crop.  These forms, in increasing order of availability are as Mineral K, Non- exchangeable K, Exchangeable K and Solution K.  K Fixation :- Fixation of K is the result of re-entrapment of K+ ions between the layer of the 2:1 clays. The 1:1 type minerals such as kaolinite do not fix K.
  • 15. . K.
  • 18. • Magnesium • Mg occurs predominantly as exchangeable and solution Mg2+. Mg occurs in soils in a slowly available form, which is in equilibrium with exchangeable Mg2+. • Iron  Forms of Soil Fe : Fe occurs in four major forms in soils Primary and secondary mineral Fe Adsorbed Fe Organic Fe Solution Fe • Zinc  Forms of Soil Zn : The forms of Zn in soils are Solution Zn2+ Adsorbed Zn2+ Organically complexed Zn2+ Zn2+ substituted for Mg2
  • 19. • Copper  Forms of Soil Cu :- • In addition to the Cu in primary and secondary minerals, it exists in the following forms 1. In the soil solution - ionic and complexed. 2. On cation exchange sites of clays and OM. 3. Occluded and co-precipitated in soil oxide material. 4. On specific adsorption sites. 5. In OM and living organisms. 6. Solubility of Cu is pH dependent and it increases 100 fold for each unit decrease in pH. • Manganese  Forms of Soil Mn : • Mn exists as solution Mn2+, exchangeable Mn2+, organically bound Mn and as various Mn minerals. • The principal species in solution is Mn2+, which decreases 100 fold for each unit increase in pH.
  • 20. • Boron  Forms of Soil B : B exists in four major forms in soil. • In rocks and minerals. • Adsorbed on clay surfaces and Fe and Al oxides. • Combined with OM. • As boric acid (H3BO30) in the soil solution. • Chloride • The Cl- anion is very soluble in most soils. • However, appreciable exchangeable Cl- can occur in acid, kaolinite soils which have significant pH dependent positive charges. • Molybdenum • Mo in solution occurs predominantly as MoO42-, HMoO4- and H2MoO40.