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“Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations,
Advantages, and Disadvantages”
• Male Sterility – A condition in which the pollen/ gametes either absent or non function in flowering plant.
Types of Male Sterility
Chemically
Induced
Cytoplasmic
- Genetic
Cytoplasmic
Genetic
Temperature Sensitive
Photoperiodic
Transgenic
• Features/ Importance of Male sterility
1. Produce – Seed only on cross pollination. (when Pollen grains are functional)
2. Leads to heterozygosity and reduce homozygosity.
3. Caused due to pollen and anther abortion.
4. Induced Artificially
5. Occurs in all diploid Spp.
S.N
.
GCA CMS CGMS
1. Pollen sterility Caused by
Nuclear gene
Controlled by
Cytoplasm
gene
Controlled by
Cytoplasm &
nuclear genes
2. Used for Production of
hybrid
Seed and
vegetables
self-pollinating
crop species
All Seed crops
3. E.g. Tur (1st India
), Safflower,
Maize,
Bajra, Castor
(1st USA)
cabbage,
Palak.
Onion
(Joaes & Davis 1994)
4. Maintain Line A and B A and B A, B and R
A line – Male Sterile line.
B line - Isogenic line/ Male fertile line/ Maintainer line
R line – Restore line
Genetic Male Sterility
1. Male sterile line maintained by Crossing it with ----- Heterozygous male fertile
plants.
2. Mating Produce 1 : 1 Male sterile and male fertile plants.
Cytoplasmic Male Sterility
Two Types
Normal Cytoplasm Sterile / formation of new pollen grain
Cytoplasmic- Genetic Male
Sterility
Transfer of male sterility to new strain
1. Easy to transfer one genotype to
another genotype by backcross
methods.
2. Generally 6-7 B-C-M sufficient.
Transfer of CMS to new strain
• ADVANTAGES –
1. Simplify the procedure of hybrid seed production.
2. Multiple and diverse germplasm available as parent.
3. Any line of bread could be used as female (97% 2-line and 5% 3-line).
4. Changes increases of developing and hetrortic hybrids.
5. Multiple cytoplasm used as female parent.
 Disadvantage
1. Caused the environmental effect on sterility caused as seed purity problem.
Limitations
1. In some crops, sterile cytoplasm has adverse effect on yield.
2. Restore of fertility is unsatisfactory.
3. In GMS, the difficult to identify.
4. Poor pollination occurs.

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  • 1. “Define Male Sterility, Types, transfer of CMS to the new strain, Limitations, Advantages, and Disadvantages” • Male Sterility – A condition in which the pollen/ gametes either absent or non function in flowering plant. Types of Male Sterility Chemically Induced Cytoplasmic - Genetic Cytoplasmic Genetic Temperature Sensitive Photoperiodic Transgenic
  • 2. • Features/ Importance of Male sterility 1. Produce – Seed only on cross pollination. (when Pollen grains are functional) 2. Leads to heterozygosity and reduce homozygosity. 3. Caused due to pollen and anther abortion. 4. Induced Artificially 5. Occurs in all diploid Spp.
  • 3. S.N . GCA CMS CGMS 1. Pollen sterility Caused by Nuclear gene Controlled by Cytoplasm gene Controlled by Cytoplasm & nuclear genes 2. Used for Production of hybrid Seed and vegetables self-pollinating crop species All Seed crops 3. E.g. Tur (1st India ), Safflower, Maize, Bajra, Castor (1st USA) cabbage, Palak. Onion (Joaes & Davis 1994) 4. Maintain Line A and B A and B A, B and R A line – Male Sterile line. B line - Isogenic line/ Male fertile line/ Maintainer line R line – Restore line
  • 4. Genetic Male Sterility 1. Male sterile line maintained by Crossing it with ----- Heterozygous male fertile plants. 2. Mating Produce 1 : 1 Male sterile and male fertile plants.
  • 5. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Two Types Normal Cytoplasm Sterile / formation of new pollen grain Cytoplasmic- Genetic Male Sterility
  • 6. Transfer of male sterility to new strain 1. Easy to transfer one genotype to another genotype by backcross methods. 2. Generally 6-7 B-C-M sufficient.
  • 7. Transfer of CMS to new strain
  • 8. • ADVANTAGES – 1. Simplify the procedure of hybrid seed production. 2. Multiple and diverse germplasm available as parent. 3. Any line of bread could be used as female (97% 2-line and 5% 3-line). 4. Changes increases of developing and hetrortic hybrids. 5. Multiple cytoplasm used as female parent.  Disadvantage 1. Caused the environmental effect on sterility caused as seed purity problem. Limitations 1. In some crops, sterile cytoplasm has adverse effect on yield. 2. Restore of fertility is unsatisfactory. 3. In GMS, the difficult to identify. 4. Poor pollination occurs.