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Department of Plant Physiology
“ Seed and Fruit development and
Seed and Fruit Abortion ”
• What is Seed ?
 A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
 A fertilized mature ovule consisting of embryo, stored material and
protective coats.
 What is Seed Development ?
 The process by which seeds are formed from the end of fertilization
to the production of a mature seed body.
 Flower is used for formation of fruits & seeds.
 Flower is site of sexual reproduction.
 Stamen & carpels are the male & female reproductive whorls.
 Anther of stamen & ovule of carpel produce microspores (pollen grains) &
megaspore which is develop into male & female gametophyte.
 After pollination and fertilization, formation of fruits & seed take place & form
seed new plant is produce.
 Androecium is male reproductive floral whorl
 Structure of Anther :-
 Anther is fertile part of stamen & it consist 4 chambers called
microsporangia or pollen sacs or pollen chamber.
 Microsporogenesis :- formation of microspores i.e. formation of
microspores take place inside the microsporangia or pollen grain.
 Pollen grain & development of male gametophyte :-
 Pollen are unicellular, uninucleate, spherical or oval haploid structure.
 The development of male gametophyte is endosporic (within microspore).
 It involves only two mitotic division at two different places i.e.
Before pollination in pollen sac (in-situ) & After pollination on stigma
 Gynoecium is female reproductive floral whorl having individual membrane carpels.
 An ovule is inteugumeted megasporagium of seed bearing plants.
 Megasporogenesis :- formation of megaspore & development of female gametophyte take
Place inside the ovule.
 The diploid MMC megaspore mother cell (2n) undergoes meiosis to form a tetrad of haploid
megaspores (n). This process is called megasporogenesis & they arranged in linear tetrad.
 Functional megaspore remain function while remaining three degenerate gradually.
 Functional megaspore is the first cell of female gametophyte.
 It undergoes enlargement & developed into female gametophyte.
 The haploid nucleus of functional megaspore undergoes three successive free-nuclear mitotic
divisions.
 First mitotic division results in formation of two nuclei both the nuclei undergo two
successive divisions.
 This results information of four nuclei at each pole comes to the center & they function as
polar nuclei.
 This is followed by cellular organization to from 3 celled egg apparatus at micropylar end ,
three antipodal at chalazal end & two polar nuclei remain in the center.
 Thus 8 nucleated,7 celled female gametophyte is formed within the functional megaspore
therefore the development is called endosporic.
 Only one megaspore take part in the formation of embryo sac is called monosporic.
 Angiosperm (flowering plants) seeds consist of three genetically distinct
constituents:
(1) the embryo formed from the zygote,
(2) the endosperm, which is normally triploid,
(3) the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule.
In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double
fertilization.
 Fertilization :- The process of fusion of male gamete with the female
gamete to form the diploid zygote (2n).
 Double fertilization :- The fusion of one male gamete with egg and that
of another male gamete with secondary nucleus.
 Discover by :- S.G. Nawaschin (1889) in Lillium & Fritillaria spp.
• The Pollen grains germinate on the stigma to form pollen tube.
• The Pollen tube grows down towards the ovule in ovary.
• It carried out 2 non-motile male gametes, thin cytoplasm & degenerating tube
nucleus with it.
• Growth of pollen tube occurs at its tip where most of the cytoplasm is
concentrated .
• The pollen tube mostly enter in an ovule through micropyle (Porogamy) ,
sometimes it may be enter through mesogamy or chalaza.
• The pollen tube always enters the embryo sac near the egg apparatus.
• Filiform apparatus of synergids attract the pollen tube towards egg apparatus.
• The tip of pollen tube absorb water form one of the synergids &bursts open to
release the two male gametes.
• The tube nucleus degenerates by this time.
• The released male gametes bring about double fertilization as follows,
A) Syngamy or first fertilization :- Male gametes fuses with egg to form diploid
zygote.
B) Triple fusion or Second fertilization :-the other male gamete fuses with the
diploid secondary nucleus to form the triploid primary endosperm nucleus
(PEN).
CONT…
• The fertilization process in which non motile male gametes are
transported up to the female gamete through a pollen tube is called
Siphonogamy.
• The first fertilization restores diploidy in life cycle.
• Diploid zygote develops into embryo which subsequently develops
into new plant.
• PEN develops to form nutritive tissue called endosperm for
developing embryo.
• The triploid endosperm give better nutrition to developing embryo,
therefore seeds are more viable in Angiosperms.
• In Gymnosperms, multicellular, haploid, female gametophyte
nourishes the developing embryo is called endosperm.
• Seeds are also developed but there is no double fertilization.
• Thus it is the characteristic feature of only Angiosperms.
I Zygote, II Pro-embryo, III Globular, IV Heart, V Torpedo, VI Mature
Embryo.
1. Endosperm 2. Zygote 3. Embryo 4. Suspensor 5. Cotyledons 6. Shoot
Apical Meristem 7. Root Apical Meristem 8. Radicle 9. Hypocotyl 10.
Epicotyl 11. Seed Coat.
 Stages of seed development:
 Development of Embryo.
 The zygote forms a wall around it and is converted into oospore (egg
cell).
 The oospore divides transversely to form a large basal cell i.e.
suspensor cell towards the micropyle & small apical cell i.e. embryonal
cell towards the interior of embryo sac.
 Form this 2 celled stage, until the formation of organ the embryo is
commonly called as pro-embryo.
 The basal cell divides transversely to form a row of cell called suspend
or the suspensor pushes the developing embryo deeper in the
endosperm for its proper nutrition.
 The apical cell of 2 celled pro-embryo undergoes a transverse & two
vertical divisions at right angles to each other to form an octant stage.
 The eight cells of octant pro-embryo undergo many divisions to form a
spherical mass of cell.
 Gradually this mass becomes heart shaped and then horse shaped.
 Finally it gates differentiated to form an embryonal axis with plumule,
radicle, and two cotyledons in dicots & single cotyledons in monocots.
 Endosperm (Post fertilization product)
• It is internal white part of grain .
• It is nutritive tissue for the nourishment of developing embryo.
• In Angiosperm , PEN developed into endosperm.
• It is triploid tissue.
• In some cases, endosperm is totally consumed during embryo development so that
the mature seeds are non-endospermic.
e.g. Pea, Bean, Gram, Ground nut etc….
• In some case, endosperm persists in mature seeds and it continue to support the
growth of embryo during seed germination are endospermic.
e.g. castor, coconut, sunflower, whet, rice etc…
 Cotyledons:- the seed leaves, attached to the embryonic axis.
There may be one (Monocotyledons), or two (Dicotyledons).
• It is source of nutrients in the non-endospermic cotyledons.
• In endospermic seeds the cotyledons are thin and papery.
 Epicotyl the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon.
 Plumule the tip of the epicotyl, and has a feathery appearance due to the
presence of young leaf primordia at the apex, and will become the shoot upon
germination.
 Hypocotyl the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the
cotyledon, connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, being the stem-root
transition zone.
 Radicle the basal tip of the hypocotyl, grows into the primary root.
 What is fruit ?
 Fruit is a mature, ripened ovary, along with the contents of the ovary.
 What is fruit development ?
 It is initiated by growth regulating hormones produced by developing seeds.
Because carpels ultimately develop into fruit tissue, the number of carpels in a
flower determines the degree to which pollination and seed development is
required to produce fruit.
 Fruit development involves three basic phases.
1) First phase :- development of the ovary and the initiation of the cell division,
together called a fruit set.
2) Second phase:- cell division is the predominant feature.
3) Third phase:- fruit increases in size mainly by cell expansion. Once the fruit
cells have fully expanded and the fruit matured, the ripening process ensues .
 Seed abortion in fis-class mutants results from a failure in both endosperm
and embryo development.
 It form of non-random, premature termination of embryonic development in
plant.
 Concept was described by botanist John T. Buchholz in 1922. which
referred to selective embryo abortion as “inter-ovular selection.”
 fruit and immature seed abortion was studied in seven self-incompatible
species of trees in a tropical lowland semi-deciduous forest.
 fruit abortion results in low fruit set and thus seed production.
 Premature termination of the development of pollen, gametes, embryos,
seeds, fruits, flowers etc.
 Abortion of reproductive organs diminishes yields in many crops.
 Examples of calcium and boron deficiency causing flower bud abortion.
• It is a conceptual model of the complex factors that are hypothesized to be involved
in wild blueberry fruit drop based.
• Figure shows how early blooming clones (flowering phenology) may be more at risk
to fruit drop due to frosts.
• It is also hypothesized that stresses due to low soil fertility interact with high fruit
density to cause fruit drop.
• Insect pest attack and disease infestation can result in fruit drop.
• Nitrogen fertilizer can cause fruit drop by resulting in increased vegetative growth
and competition for nutrients with reproductive tissue .
• Frost conditions have the potential to cause fruit drop by resulting in the death of
embryos .
• High air temperatures and drought can affect plant resources and cause physiological
stress (optimal threshold for wild blueberry synthesis photosynthesis is 25 ◦C .
• High numbers of fruits per stem or fruit per unit leaf area may result in fruit drop
and it is hypothesized that plant resources, such as water and nutrients, may enhance
fruit drop at high fruit densities.
• The endogenous effect of genotype or clone is most likely a major causal agent of
fruit drop.
• It can be mediated through the physiological/genetic incompatibility of outcrossed
pollen during fertilization .
• Incompatibility not only results in embryo abortion , but also in reduced viable
seed numbers per fruit .
• Pollen number and sterility appears to be a clone characteristic, as does ovule
number and can have an effect on the pollination level and the seeds .
• Seed number has been shown to be a result of the bee species’ pollination
efficiency (number of pollen tetrads place/stigma in a single visit .
• Auxins produced by seeds have been shown to increase yields and reduce
premature fruit drop .
• Major mechanisms
 it result in drop characterized either by abortion of flowers/embryos or by
abscission of fruit (fruit drop).
 Green-colored text represents the plant hormones and bioactive plant growth
regulating compounds that may be involved in the physiological mechanism of
abortion of embryos or fruit drop.
 The research reported here on patterns of fruit drop in wild blueberry was
conducted to help explain why fruit set does not always translate into realized
yield and to provide growers with a possible explanation for experiencing high
fruit set levels, but only moderate yield.
 This is important because pollination is the most expensive capital investment
in production, and some growers tend to over invest in honey bee rentals or
bumble bee purchases to obtain high fruit set , but they do not always
maximize yield this way, in part because of fruit drop
.
• Related Articles:
• Avtar Handa et.al.,(2011) Fruit development and ripening, Plant Biotechnology and
Agriculture. Oxford: pp. 405-424. ISBN: 978-0-12-381466-1.
• Rashmi Shakya and Satish C Bhatla., (2018). Pollination, Fertilization and Seed
Development. pp 821-856.
• Celia Baroux et. al., (2002). Seed Abortion.
• Andrew G S(2011) FLOWER AND FRUIT ABORTION: PROXIMATE CAUSES AND
ULTIMATE FUNCTIONS.88.
• Francis A. Drummond (2020). Wild Blueberry Fruit Drop: A
Consequence of Seed Set. Agronomy, 10, 939

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“ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”.pptx

  • 1. Topic on Department of Plant Physiology “ Seed and Fruit development and Seed and Fruit Abortion ”
  • 2. • What is Seed ?  A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.  A fertilized mature ovule consisting of embryo, stored material and protective coats.  What is Seed Development ?  The process by which seeds are formed from the end of fertilization to the production of a mature seed body.
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  • 4.  Flower is used for formation of fruits & seeds.  Flower is site of sexual reproduction.  Stamen & carpels are the male & female reproductive whorls.  Anther of stamen & ovule of carpel produce microspores (pollen grains) & megaspore which is develop into male & female gametophyte.  After pollination and fertilization, formation of fruits & seed take place & form seed new plant is produce.  Androecium is male reproductive floral whorl
  • 5.  Structure of Anther :-  Anther is fertile part of stamen & it consist 4 chambers called microsporangia or pollen sacs or pollen chamber.  Microsporogenesis :- formation of microspores i.e. formation of microspores take place inside the microsporangia or pollen grain.
  • 6.  Pollen grain & development of male gametophyte :-  Pollen are unicellular, uninucleate, spherical or oval haploid structure.  The development of male gametophyte is endosporic (within microspore).  It involves only two mitotic division at two different places i.e. Before pollination in pollen sac (in-situ) & After pollination on stigma
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  • 8.  Gynoecium is female reproductive floral whorl having individual membrane carpels.  An ovule is inteugumeted megasporagium of seed bearing plants.  Megasporogenesis :- formation of megaspore & development of female gametophyte take Place inside the ovule.  The diploid MMC megaspore mother cell (2n) undergoes meiosis to form a tetrad of haploid megaspores (n). This process is called megasporogenesis & they arranged in linear tetrad.  Functional megaspore remain function while remaining three degenerate gradually.  Functional megaspore is the first cell of female gametophyte.  It undergoes enlargement & developed into female gametophyte.  The haploid nucleus of functional megaspore undergoes three successive free-nuclear mitotic divisions.  First mitotic division results in formation of two nuclei both the nuclei undergo two successive divisions.  This results information of four nuclei at each pole comes to the center & they function as polar nuclei.  This is followed by cellular organization to from 3 celled egg apparatus at micropylar end , three antipodal at chalazal end & two polar nuclei remain in the center.  Thus 8 nucleated,7 celled female gametophyte is formed within the functional megaspore therefore the development is called endosporic.  Only one megaspore take part in the formation of embryo sac is called monosporic.
  • 9.  Angiosperm (flowering plants) seeds consist of three genetically distinct constituents: (1) the embryo formed from the zygote, (2) the endosperm, which is normally triploid, (3) the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization.  Fertilization :- The process of fusion of male gamete with the female gamete to form the diploid zygote (2n).  Double fertilization :- The fusion of one male gamete with egg and that of another male gamete with secondary nucleus.  Discover by :- S.G. Nawaschin (1889) in Lillium & Fritillaria spp.
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  • 11. • The Pollen grains germinate on the stigma to form pollen tube. • The Pollen tube grows down towards the ovule in ovary. • It carried out 2 non-motile male gametes, thin cytoplasm & degenerating tube nucleus with it. • Growth of pollen tube occurs at its tip where most of the cytoplasm is concentrated . • The pollen tube mostly enter in an ovule through micropyle (Porogamy) , sometimes it may be enter through mesogamy or chalaza. • The pollen tube always enters the embryo sac near the egg apparatus. • Filiform apparatus of synergids attract the pollen tube towards egg apparatus. • The tip of pollen tube absorb water form one of the synergids &bursts open to release the two male gametes. • The tube nucleus degenerates by this time. • The released male gametes bring about double fertilization as follows, A) Syngamy or first fertilization :- Male gametes fuses with egg to form diploid zygote. B) Triple fusion or Second fertilization :-the other male gamete fuses with the diploid secondary nucleus to form the triploid primary endosperm nucleus (PEN).
  • 12. CONT… • The fertilization process in which non motile male gametes are transported up to the female gamete through a pollen tube is called Siphonogamy. • The first fertilization restores diploidy in life cycle. • Diploid zygote develops into embryo which subsequently develops into new plant. • PEN develops to form nutritive tissue called endosperm for developing embryo. • The triploid endosperm give better nutrition to developing embryo, therefore seeds are more viable in Angiosperms. • In Gymnosperms, multicellular, haploid, female gametophyte nourishes the developing embryo is called endosperm. • Seeds are also developed but there is no double fertilization. • Thus it is the characteristic feature of only Angiosperms.
  • 13. I Zygote, II Pro-embryo, III Globular, IV Heart, V Torpedo, VI Mature Embryo. 1. Endosperm 2. Zygote 3. Embryo 4. Suspensor 5. Cotyledons 6. Shoot Apical Meristem 7. Root Apical Meristem 8. Radicle 9. Hypocotyl 10. Epicotyl 11. Seed Coat.  Stages of seed development:
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  • 15.  Development of Embryo.  The zygote forms a wall around it and is converted into oospore (egg cell).  The oospore divides transversely to form a large basal cell i.e. suspensor cell towards the micropyle & small apical cell i.e. embryonal cell towards the interior of embryo sac.  Form this 2 celled stage, until the formation of organ the embryo is commonly called as pro-embryo.  The basal cell divides transversely to form a row of cell called suspend or the suspensor pushes the developing embryo deeper in the endosperm for its proper nutrition.  The apical cell of 2 celled pro-embryo undergoes a transverse & two vertical divisions at right angles to each other to form an octant stage.  The eight cells of octant pro-embryo undergo many divisions to form a spherical mass of cell.  Gradually this mass becomes heart shaped and then horse shaped.  Finally it gates differentiated to form an embryonal axis with plumule, radicle, and two cotyledons in dicots & single cotyledons in monocots.
  • 16.  Endosperm (Post fertilization product) • It is internal white part of grain . • It is nutritive tissue for the nourishment of developing embryo. • In Angiosperm , PEN developed into endosperm. • It is triploid tissue. • In some cases, endosperm is totally consumed during embryo development so that the mature seeds are non-endospermic. e.g. Pea, Bean, Gram, Ground nut etc…. • In some case, endosperm persists in mature seeds and it continue to support the growth of embryo during seed germination are endospermic. e.g. castor, coconut, sunflower, whet, rice etc…
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  • 18.  Cotyledons:- the seed leaves, attached to the embryonic axis. There may be one (Monocotyledons), or two (Dicotyledons). • It is source of nutrients in the non-endospermic cotyledons. • In endospermic seeds the cotyledons are thin and papery.  Epicotyl the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon.  Plumule the tip of the epicotyl, and has a feathery appearance due to the presence of young leaf primordia at the apex, and will become the shoot upon germination.  Hypocotyl the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon, connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, being the stem-root transition zone.  Radicle the basal tip of the hypocotyl, grows into the primary root.
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  • 20.  What is fruit ?  Fruit is a mature, ripened ovary, along with the contents of the ovary.  What is fruit development ?  It is initiated by growth regulating hormones produced by developing seeds. Because carpels ultimately develop into fruit tissue, the number of carpels in a flower determines the degree to which pollination and seed development is required to produce fruit.
  • 21.  Fruit development involves three basic phases. 1) First phase :- development of the ovary and the initiation of the cell division, together called a fruit set. 2) Second phase:- cell division is the predominant feature. 3) Third phase:- fruit increases in size mainly by cell expansion. Once the fruit cells have fully expanded and the fruit matured, the ripening process ensues .
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  • 23.  Seed abortion in fis-class mutants results from a failure in both endosperm and embryo development.  It form of non-random, premature termination of embryonic development in plant.  Concept was described by botanist John T. Buchholz in 1922. which referred to selective embryo abortion as “inter-ovular selection.”  fruit and immature seed abortion was studied in seven self-incompatible species of trees in a tropical lowland semi-deciduous forest.  fruit abortion results in low fruit set and thus seed production.  Premature termination of the development of pollen, gametes, embryos, seeds, fruits, flowers etc.  Abortion of reproductive organs diminishes yields in many crops.  Examples of calcium and boron deficiency causing flower bud abortion.
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  • 25. • It is a conceptual model of the complex factors that are hypothesized to be involved in wild blueberry fruit drop based. • Figure shows how early blooming clones (flowering phenology) may be more at risk to fruit drop due to frosts. • It is also hypothesized that stresses due to low soil fertility interact with high fruit density to cause fruit drop. • Insect pest attack and disease infestation can result in fruit drop. • Nitrogen fertilizer can cause fruit drop by resulting in increased vegetative growth and competition for nutrients with reproductive tissue . • Frost conditions have the potential to cause fruit drop by resulting in the death of embryos . • High air temperatures and drought can affect plant resources and cause physiological stress (optimal threshold for wild blueberry synthesis photosynthesis is 25 ◦C . • High numbers of fruits per stem or fruit per unit leaf area may result in fruit drop and it is hypothesized that plant resources, such as water and nutrients, may enhance fruit drop at high fruit densities. • The endogenous effect of genotype or clone is most likely a major causal agent of fruit drop. • It can be mediated through the physiological/genetic incompatibility of outcrossed pollen during fertilization .
  • 26. • Incompatibility not only results in embryo abortion , but also in reduced viable seed numbers per fruit . • Pollen number and sterility appears to be a clone characteristic, as does ovule number and can have an effect on the pollination level and the seeds . • Seed number has been shown to be a result of the bee species’ pollination efficiency (number of pollen tetrads place/stigma in a single visit . • Auxins produced by seeds have been shown to increase yields and reduce premature fruit drop .
  • 27. • Major mechanisms  it result in drop characterized either by abortion of flowers/embryos or by abscission of fruit (fruit drop).  Green-colored text represents the plant hormones and bioactive plant growth regulating compounds that may be involved in the physiological mechanism of abortion of embryos or fruit drop.  The research reported here on patterns of fruit drop in wild blueberry was conducted to help explain why fruit set does not always translate into realized yield and to provide growers with a possible explanation for experiencing high fruit set levels, but only moderate yield.  This is important because pollination is the most expensive capital investment in production, and some growers tend to over invest in honey bee rentals or bumble bee purchases to obtain high fruit set , but they do not always maximize yield this way, in part because of fruit drop
  • 28. . • Related Articles: • Avtar Handa et.al.,(2011) Fruit development and ripening, Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture. Oxford: pp. 405-424. ISBN: 978-0-12-381466-1. • Rashmi Shakya and Satish C Bhatla., (2018). Pollination, Fertilization and Seed Development. pp 821-856. • Celia Baroux et. al., (2002). Seed Abortion. • Andrew G S(2011) FLOWER AND FRUIT ABORTION: PROXIMATE CAUSES AND ULTIMATE FUNCTIONS.88. • Francis A. Drummond (2020). Wild Blueberry Fruit Drop: A Consequence of Seed Set. Agronomy, 10, 939