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Nanotechnology and 
its Application
Outline of Presentation 
• Nanotechnology 
• Size of a Nanoparticle 
• Behaviour of Nanomaterials 
• History of nanotech 
• Applications of Nanotech 
• Nanotech and Space 
• Health and environmental impacts 
• References
What is Nanotechnology? 
Nanotechnology or the “nanotech”, is engineering at the 
molecular 
(groups of atoms) level. It is the collective term for 
a range of technologies, techniques and processes 
that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest 
scale (from 1 to 100 nm^2).
Size of a Nanoparticle 
• One nanometre (1 nm) is defined as one billionth of a metre 
(10^-9 m). 
• This is the diameter of several atoms. 
On the scale of individual molecules: 
• A human hair is approximately 80, 000 nm wide. 
• A red blood cell is 7000 nm wide. 
• A DNA molecule is approximately 2 nm wide.
An interesting behaviour 
• The classical laws of physics and chemistry do not readily 
apply at this very small scale for two reasons. 
• Firstly, the electronic properties of very small particles can be 
very different from their larger cousins. 
• Secondly, the ratio of surface area to volume becomes much 
higher, and since the surface atoms are generally most 
reactive, the properties of a material change in unexpected 
ways. 
• For example: 
a) When silver is turned into very small particles, it takes on 
anti-microbial properties. 
b) Gold particles become any colour we choose.
History of nanomaterials 
• For the very first time, in his talk, Feynman presented ideas 
for creating nanoscale machines to manipulate, control and 
image matter at the atomic scale,in 1959. 
• In 1974, Norio Taniguchi introduced the term 
‘nanotechnology’ to represent extra-high precision and ultra-fine 
dimensions, and also predicted improvements in 
integrated circuits, optoelectronic devices, mechanical devices 
and computer memory devices.
Examples of exciting applications 
of nanotechnology 
• Nanopowders 
• Carbon nanotubes 
• Nanomembrane filtration systems 
• Molecular electronic‘cross bar latches’ 
• Quantum dots devices 
• Efficient energy generation.
Nano Technology and it's Applications
Nano Technology and it's Applications
Nano Technology and it's Applications
Nano Technology and it's Applications
Nano Technology and it's Applications
Nano Technology and it's Applications
Advantages of Nanotechnology 
products 
• Improved communication performance 
• Instruments and sensors breakthroughs 
• Innovative components and materials 
• Intelligent space systems operation 
• Lowering of Mission risks
Nano Technology and it's Applications
Health and environmental 
impacts 
A UK report released in 2004 by the Royal Society and the Royal 
Academy of Engineering concluded that many applications of 
nanotechnologies pose no new health or safety risks. 
However, some nanoparticles — those which are freely mobile 
and not incorporated into a material — may have the potential 
for negative health and environmental impacts by virtue of their 
size or particular chemical properties. The UK report therefore 
recommended that in the specific case of free nanoparticles and 
free nanotubes, existing regulatory frameworks need to be 
modified.
References 
• Nanotechnology by Dr Deborah Rathjen 
• Nano Science and Technology in Pakistan by N. M. Butt, F. A. Khalid , S. 
K. Hasanain , M. Mehmood, A. Rauf and Shakeel Akbar. 
• Carbon based Nanotechnology by Sabih-ud-Din Khan, PINSTECH 
• A news clipping by by Ineke Malsch 
• Applications of Nanotechnology in Space Developments and Systems 
By Dr. Axel Zweck and Dr. Wolfgang Luther
Questions?
Thank you…

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Nano Technology and it's Applications

  • 2. Outline of Presentation • Nanotechnology • Size of a Nanoparticle • Behaviour of Nanomaterials • History of nanotech • Applications of Nanotech • Nanotech and Space • Health and environmental impacts • References
  • 3. What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology or the “nanotech”, is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nm^2).
  • 4. Size of a Nanoparticle • One nanometre (1 nm) is defined as one billionth of a metre (10^-9 m). • This is the diameter of several atoms. On the scale of individual molecules: • A human hair is approximately 80, 000 nm wide. • A red blood cell is 7000 nm wide. • A DNA molecule is approximately 2 nm wide.
  • 5. An interesting behaviour • The classical laws of physics and chemistry do not readily apply at this very small scale for two reasons. • Firstly, the electronic properties of very small particles can be very different from their larger cousins. • Secondly, the ratio of surface area to volume becomes much higher, and since the surface atoms are generally most reactive, the properties of a material change in unexpected ways. • For example: a) When silver is turned into very small particles, it takes on anti-microbial properties. b) Gold particles become any colour we choose.
  • 6. History of nanomaterials • For the very first time, in his talk, Feynman presented ideas for creating nanoscale machines to manipulate, control and image matter at the atomic scale,in 1959. • In 1974, Norio Taniguchi introduced the term ‘nanotechnology’ to represent extra-high precision and ultra-fine dimensions, and also predicted improvements in integrated circuits, optoelectronic devices, mechanical devices and computer memory devices.
  • 7. Examples of exciting applications of nanotechnology • Nanopowders • Carbon nanotubes • Nanomembrane filtration systems • Molecular electronic‘cross bar latches’ • Quantum dots devices • Efficient energy generation.
  • 14. Advantages of Nanotechnology products • Improved communication performance • Instruments and sensors breakthroughs • Innovative components and materials • Intelligent space systems operation • Lowering of Mission risks
  • 16. Health and environmental impacts A UK report released in 2004 by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering concluded that many applications of nanotechnologies pose no new health or safety risks. However, some nanoparticles — those which are freely mobile and not incorporated into a material — may have the potential for negative health and environmental impacts by virtue of their size or particular chemical properties. The UK report therefore recommended that in the specific case of free nanoparticles and free nanotubes, existing regulatory frameworks need to be modified.
  • 17. References • Nanotechnology by Dr Deborah Rathjen • Nano Science and Technology in Pakistan by N. M. Butt, F. A. Khalid , S. K. Hasanain , M. Mehmood, A. Rauf and Shakeel Akbar. • Carbon based Nanotechnology by Sabih-ud-Din Khan, PINSTECH • A news clipping by by Ineke Malsch • Applications of Nanotechnology in Space Developments and Systems By Dr. Axel Zweck and Dr. Wolfgang Luther