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What is it? 
1
Eigler et al. NATURE 363, 1993 
Nanoscience and nanotechnology 
are the study and application of 
extremely small things and can be 
used across all the other science 
fields, such as chemistry, biology, 
physics, materials science, and 
engineering. 
How is nanoscience different than 
•Chemistry 
•Biology 
•Physics 
What distinguishes nanoscience 
from other sciences? 
2
Richard Feynman is the father of nanotechnology. 
with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the 
Bottom” at an American Physical Society meeting at the 
California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 
29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. 
Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate 
and control individual atoms and molecules. 
Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, 
Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't 
until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope 
that could "see" individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began. 
3
4
is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its 
development in 1981 earned its inventors, Gerd 
Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (at IBM Zürich), the Nobel Prize 
in Physics in 1986 
For an STM, good resolution is considered to be 
0.1 nm lateral resolution and 0.01 nm depth 
resolution.[3]With this resolution, individual atoms within 
materials are routinely imaged and manipulated. The STM 
can be used not only in ultra-high vacuum but also in air, 
water, and various other liquid or gas ambients, and at 
temperatures ranging from near zero kelvin to a few 
hundred degrees Celsius.[4] 
The STM is based on the concept of quantum tunneling. 
When a conducting tip is brought very near to the surface to 
be examined, abias (voltage difference) applied between 
the two can allow electrons to tunnel through the vacuum 
between them. The resulting tunneling current is a function 
of tip position, applied voltage, and the local density of 
states (LDOS) of the sample.[4] Information is acquired by 
monitoring the current as the tip's position scans across the 
surface, and is usually displayed in image form. 5
DEFINITION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 
Nanotechnology is the creation 
of functional materials, devices, 
and systems through control of 
matter on an atomic or 
molecular scale. 
The creation and use of 
structures, devices and systems 
that have novel properties and 
functions because of their small 
and/or intermediate size. 
PLAR - Nanotechnology
Nano: The Middle Ground 
? ? ?
UNIQUENESS OF NANOMATERIALS 
• Grains, pores, interface thickness and defects are of 
similar dimensions. 
• Nanomaterials have a large surface area but their 
volume is very small. 
• Improve mechanical properties (increased strength, 
toughness etc.,) 
• High melting point compounds.
INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH REQUIRED 
Engineering 
NANOTECHNOLOGY 
Bioscience Physical Sciences
nanotechnology were developed for many current 
challenges facing the international community, including: 
• Clean, secure, affordable energy; 
• Stronger, lighter, more durable materials; 
• Low-cost filters to provide clean drinking water; 
• Medical devices and drugs to detect and treat diseases more effectively 
with fewer side effects; 
• Lighting that uses a fraction of the energy associated with conventional 
systems; 
• Sensors to detect and identify harmful chemical and biological agents; 
andTechniques to clean up harmful chemicals in the environment. 
10
FIELDS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 
Nanotechnology 
Nanomedicine 
Nanobiotechnology 
Nanolithography 
Nanoelectronics 
Nanomagnetics 
Nano Biodevices 
Nano Biomimetic materials 
NEMS (nano electro 
mechanical sys) 
Nano Pulp & Paper Technology
Applications of Nanomaterial 
Based Products 
Automotive industry 
Engineering 
Medicine 
Cosmetics 
Textile 
Sports 
Chemical industry 
Electronic industry
Applications of Nanotechnology in industrial and technical fields: 
13 
• ExxonMobil is using zeolites, minerals with pore sizes of less than 1 nm, as a 
more efficient catalyst to break down or crack large hydrocarbon molecules to 
form gasoline. 
• IBM has added nanoscale layering to disk drives, thus exploiting the giant 
magnetoresistive effect to attain highly dense data storage. 
• Gilead Sciences is using nanotechnology in the form of lipid spheres, also known 
as liposomes, which measure about 100 nm in diameter, to encase an anticancer 
drug to treat the AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. 
• Carbon Nanotechnologies, a company co-founded by buckyball discoverer 
Richard E. Smalley, is making carbon nanotubes more affordable by using a new 
and more efficient manufacturing process. 
• Nanophase Technologies is utilizing nanocrystalline particles, incorporated into 
other materials, to produce tough ceramics, transparent sun blocks, and catalysts 
for environmental uses, among other applications.
What is Nanotechnology? 
The Space 
Elevator? 
Ultra high 
strength 
materials allow 
tower to be 
built into space 
!(?) 
14
What is Nanotechnology? 
Tiny machines 
in your body 
curing cancer? 
15
What is Nanotechnology? 
DNA Computers in a beaker that 
vastly outperform our fastest 
supercomputers? 
16
TECHNOLOGIES 
Nanomaterials 
Nanolithography 
Scanning Probe 
Microscopy 
Self-Assembly 
APPLICATIONS 
Super fast/small computers 
Super strong materials 
Super Slippery Materials 
Tissue Engineering 
Drug Delivery 
Sensors 
17
Materials Science: Nanomaterials 
Human Made 
Materials 
Biologically 
made materials 
18
Silica Calcium Carbonate 
Calcium phosphate 
Hydroxyapatite 
Calcite 
19
Superhydrophobic Surfaces: 
The Lotus Effect 
20
NANO- TEXTILE APPLICATIONS 
Nano Jacket 
Nano tie and scarf 
Student’s uniform
NANOTECHNOLOGY – FUEL CELL 
Atlantic – Aprilia fuel cell bike 
Photovoltaic cell 
Hydrogen 
Fuel Cell
Carbon 
Nanotubes 
CHIN WEE SHONG : AgS2 cubes 
National University of Singapore 
Department of Chemistry 
Quantum dots 
23
Carbon Nanotubes 
Buckminster Fullerene C60 
Smalley, Curl, Kroto. 
Nobel Prize 
24
The Forms of Carbon 
Diamond 
Graphite 
Graphein: (Greek) to write 
Nanotube 
Buckyball 
25
What’s the big deal about carbon 
nanotubes??? 
• Amazing Mechanical Properties 
• Amazing Electrical Properties: 
– Can be conductors or semiconductors 
– Could be the building block of nanocomputing 
26
Applications: 
Composite Materials 
nanotubes poking out of fractured 
edge of polymer composite 
27
Applications: Field Emission 1 
Samsung prototype carbon 
nanotube display 
28
Applications: Field Emission 2 
Otto Zhou. UNC Physics 
Cold Cathode X-ray machine 
The potential advantages of the 
future CNT X-ray devices are fast 
response time, programmable 
xray 
intensity, programmable spatial 
distribution (Figure 3), ultra-fine 
focal spot, rapid pulsation 
capacity, long lifetime, low 
energy consumption, 
miniaturization, and low cost. 
29
Quantum Dots 
30
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 
31
Synthesis of Nanomaterials 
Synthesis of 
Nanomaterials 
Top - down method 
(Destruction) 
Bottom-up method 
(Construction)
Synthesis of Nanomaterials 
Top - Down 
method 
High energy 
Ball Milling Lithography 
Gas 
condensation 
Severe plastic 
deformation
SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS 
Bottom 
Up 
method 
Physical 
Vapor 
Deposition 
Chemical 
Vapor 
Deposition 
Plasma 
Processes 
Sol-gel 
Processing 
Soft- 
Lithography 
Self- 
Assembly
CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION 
TECHNIQUES 
• Essential requirements for the development, manufacturing and 
commercialization of nanomaterials is their physical, chemical 
and biological properties on a nanoscale level 
• For determination of atomic structure and chemical 
composition of solid or liquid nanomaterials – spectroscopic 
methods, X-ray and Neutron diffraction 
• For determination of size and shape – Electron microcopies 
(SEM or TEM)
HIGH DEPTH OF FIELD 
NANOMATERIAL 
Optical Microscope Scanning Electron 
Microscope 
transmission electron 
microscope
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AFM 
www.shef.ac.uk/~htsl/afm.htm 
Atomic Force Microscope 
Photo detector 
Force 
Laser Beam 
Tip Atoms 
Surface Atoms 
Tip 
Cantilever 
Line Scan 
Surface

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Nanophysics lec (1)

  • 1. Lec. (1) What is it? 1
  • 2. Eigler et al. NATURE 363, 1993 Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. How is nanoscience different than •Chemistry •Biology •Physics What distinguishes nanoscience from other sciences? 2
  • 3. Richard Feynman is the father of nanotechnology. with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see" individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its development in 1981 earned its inventors, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (at IBM Zürich), the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 For an STM, good resolution is considered to be 0.1 nm lateral resolution and 0.01 nm depth resolution.[3]With this resolution, individual atoms within materials are routinely imaged and manipulated. The STM can be used not only in ultra-high vacuum but also in air, water, and various other liquid or gas ambients, and at temperatures ranging from near zero kelvin to a few hundred degrees Celsius.[4] The STM is based on the concept of quantum tunneling. When a conducting tip is brought very near to the surface to be examined, abias (voltage difference) applied between the two can allow electrons to tunnel through the vacuum between them. The resulting tunneling current is a function of tip position, applied voltage, and the local density of states (LDOS) of the sample.[4] Information is acquired by monitoring the current as the tip's position scans across the surface, and is usually displayed in image form. 5
  • 6. DEFINITION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on an atomic or molecular scale. The creation and use of structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. PLAR - Nanotechnology
  • 7. Nano: The Middle Ground ? ? ?
  • 8. UNIQUENESS OF NANOMATERIALS • Grains, pores, interface thickness and defects are of similar dimensions. • Nanomaterials have a large surface area but their volume is very small. • Improve mechanical properties (increased strength, toughness etc.,) • High melting point compounds.
  • 9. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH REQUIRED Engineering NANOTECHNOLOGY Bioscience Physical Sciences
  • 10. nanotechnology were developed for many current challenges facing the international community, including: • Clean, secure, affordable energy; • Stronger, lighter, more durable materials; • Low-cost filters to provide clean drinking water; • Medical devices and drugs to detect and treat diseases more effectively with fewer side effects; • Lighting that uses a fraction of the energy associated with conventional systems; • Sensors to detect and identify harmful chemical and biological agents; andTechniques to clean up harmful chemicals in the environment. 10
  • 11. FIELDS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology Nanomedicine Nanobiotechnology Nanolithography Nanoelectronics Nanomagnetics Nano Biodevices Nano Biomimetic materials NEMS (nano electro mechanical sys) Nano Pulp & Paper Technology
  • 12. Applications of Nanomaterial Based Products Automotive industry Engineering Medicine Cosmetics Textile Sports Chemical industry Electronic industry
  • 13. Applications of Nanotechnology in industrial and technical fields: 13 • ExxonMobil is using zeolites, minerals with pore sizes of less than 1 nm, as a more efficient catalyst to break down or crack large hydrocarbon molecules to form gasoline. • IBM has added nanoscale layering to disk drives, thus exploiting the giant magnetoresistive effect to attain highly dense data storage. • Gilead Sciences is using nanotechnology in the form of lipid spheres, also known as liposomes, which measure about 100 nm in diameter, to encase an anticancer drug to treat the AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. • Carbon Nanotechnologies, a company co-founded by buckyball discoverer Richard E. Smalley, is making carbon nanotubes more affordable by using a new and more efficient manufacturing process. • Nanophase Technologies is utilizing nanocrystalline particles, incorporated into other materials, to produce tough ceramics, transparent sun blocks, and catalysts for environmental uses, among other applications.
  • 14. What is Nanotechnology? The Space Elevator? Ultra high strength materials allow tower to be built into space !(?) 14
  • 15. What is Nanotechnology? Tiny machines in your body curing cancer? 15
  • 16. What is Nanotechnology? DNA Computers in a beaker that vastly outperform our fastest supercomputers? 16
  • 17. TECHNOLOGIES Nanomaterials Nanolithography Scanning Probe Microscopy Self-Assembly APPLICATIONS Super fast/small computers Super strong materials Super Slippery Materials Tissue Engineering Drug Delivery Sensors 17
  • 18. Materials Science: Nanomaterials Human Made Materials Biologically made materials 18
  • 19. Silica Calcium Carbonate Calcium phosphate Hydroxyapatite Calcite 19
  • 21. NANO- TEXTILE APPLICATIONS Nano Jacket Nano tie and scarf Student’s uniform
  • 22. NANOTECHNOLOGY – FUEL CELL Atlantic – Aprilia fuel cell bike Photovoltaic cell Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  • 23. Carbon Nanotubes CHIN WEE SHONG : AgS2 cubes National University of Singapore Department of Chemistry Quantum dots 23
  • 24. Carbon Nanotubes Buckminster Fullerene C60 Smalley, Curl, Kroto. Nobel Prize 24
  • 25. The Forms of Carbon Diamond Graphite Graphein: (Greek) to write Nanotube Buckyball 25
  • 26. What’s the big deal about carbon nanotubes??? • Amazing Mechanical Properties • Amazing Electrical Properties: – Can be conductors or semiconductors – Could be the building block of nanocomputing 26
  • 27. Applications: Composite Materials nanotubes poking out of fractured edge of polymer composite 27
  • 28. Applications: Field Emission 1 Samsung prototype carbon nanotube display 28
  • 29. Applications: Field Emission 2 Otto Zhou. UNC Physics Cold Cathode X-ray machine The potential advantages of the future CNT X-ray devices are fast response time, programmable xray intensity, programmable spatial distribution (Figure 3), ultra-fine focal spot, rapid pulsation capacity, long lifetime, low energy consumption, miniaturization, and low cost. 29
  • 32. Synthesis of Nanomaterials Synthesis of Nanomaterials Top - down method (Destruction) Bottom-up method (Construction)
  • 33. Synthesis of Nanomaterials Top - Down method High energy Ball Milling Lithography Gas condensation Severe plastic deformation
  • 34. SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS Bottom Up method Physical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Plasma Processes Sol-gel Processing Soft- Lithography Self- Assembly
  • 35. CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION TECHNIQUES • Essential requirements for the development, manufacturing and commercialization of nanomaterials is their physical, chemical and biological properties on a nanoscale level • For determination of atomic structure and chemical composition of solid or liquid nanomaterials – spectroscopic methods, X-ray and Neutron diffraction • For determination of size and shape – Electron microcopies (SEM or TEM)
  • 36. HIGH DEPTH OF FIELD NANOMATERIAL Optical Microscope Scanning Electron Microscope transmission electron microscope
  • 37. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AFM www.shef.ac.uk/~htsl/afm.htm Atomic Force Microscope Photo detector Force Laser Beam Tip Atoms Surface Atoms Tip Cantilever Line Scan Surface