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Role of Seed in
Transforming the
Agriculture in the
Philippines:
A Focus on Rice
Mercedita A. Sombilla
Karen P. Quilloy
Outline of the Presentation
I. Objectives
II. The Philippine seed system
III. Seed pricing policy and scheme
IV. Seed development, production and distribution
V. Seed adoption trends
VI. Issues and constraints
VII. Recommendations
Objectives of the study
 Describe the Philippine seed system and regulation;
 Describe the evolution of the rice seed varieties
and analyze the trend in seed adoption;
 Identify issues and constraints in the seed industry;
and
 Identify some key recommendations to overcome
issues in enhancing the supply of high-quality seeds
The Philippine Seed System: Governance
Mandate of the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) of the
Department of Agriculture:
 Crop Production Division, Crop Research Division
 National Crop Research and Development Centers
National Seed Industry Council (NSIC)
National Seed Quality Control and Services (NSQCS)
Plant Quarantine Services (PQS) Office
Biotech Office
SeedNet, UPLB, PhilRice, BOI, and the
Private sector
The Philippine Seed System: Laws and Other
Regulations
Seed Industry Act of 1992 (RA 7308)
R&D an IPR
Republic Act (RA) 100055 known as Philippine
Technology Transfer Act of 2009
Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) support on
protection, patenting and licensing
AOs
pricing, production and marketing quality control
Rice Seed Pricing Policy and Scheme
 Prior to 2010
 50% of the price of seed is subsidized
 Cash incentives and discounts
 Guaranteed prices
 Plant Now-Pay Later scheme
 Mandated fixed price for publicly bred seeds
 Starting 2010: removal of seed subsidies
Seed Development Flow
Inbred Seed Production and Distribution System
Source: Adapted from PhilRice. 1996. The Philippine Rice Seed Industry and the National Rice Seed Production
Network. Rice Technology Bulletin No. 16. Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
Hybrid Seed Production and Distribution System
Number of released rice varieties by NSIC,
Philippines, 1968-2011
Rice
Ecosystem
Irrigated
Lowland
Irrigated
Lowland-
Hybrid
Irrigated
Lowland-
Glutinous
Irrigated
Lowland-
Saline prone
Rainfed
Lowlandb
Cool-
elevated Upland TOTAL
1966-1975 14 1 1 1 17
1976-1985 17 4 3 6 30
1986-1995 18 1 2 8 2 1 32
1996-2005 21 7 4 6 7 4 5 54
2006-2011 25 36 1 9 11 82
Total 95 44 10 17 30 6 13 215
a
Varieties approved for release by the National Seed Industry Council, previously the Philippine Seed Board
b
From 1985, releases for rainfed-lowland were specified for transplanted, direct-seeded, drought-prone or flood-prone;
Most are released for transplanted; 7 varieties were released for dry-seeded; 1 drought-prone; and 1 for flood-prone
ecosystem
Source: Table 1 of Launio and Manalili (2013)
Number of NSIC-approved rice seed varieties by
breeding agency, Philippines, 1990-2012
Source of basic data: National Seed Industry Council Seed Catalogue
Yield performance of various rice varieties
Source: Malasa et al. (2012)
3.37
3.95
4.57
3.55
4.57
5.13
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
low quality
seeds
high
quality
seeds
(inbred)
high
quality
seeds
(hybrid)
low quality
seeds
high
quality
seeds
(inbred)
high
quality
seeds
(hybrid)
2006 WS 2007 DS
Yield(t/ha)
Variables Irrigated Rainfed Upland
Season (1= dry season, 0=wet season) 38.2ns
9.4ns
241.2ns
Seed type
Hybrid seed (1=yes, 0=No) 875.5*** 1512.2*** 2526.7***
Certified seed (1=yes, 0=No) 335.8*** 432.8*** 493.2**
Good seed (1=yes, 0=No) - - -
Farmer’s seed (1=yes, 0=No) -273.2*** -139.6*** 139.9ns
Total quantity of seeds (kg) -1.3*** -1.6*** -1.7ns
Total quantity of solid inorganic fertilizer (kg) 1.8*** 1.7*** 1.5***
Total quantity of labor (manday) -0.4ns
0.3ns
0.3ns
Sex (1=male, 0=female) -136.5** 173.5** -325.5ns
Age 0.5ns
-0.8ns
-14.5*
Tenurial status (1=tenanted, 0 otherwise) -35.7ns
-46.6ns
-359.1**
Farming experience (years) -0.7ns
-1.3ns
12.5ns
Training (1=received training, 0 otherwise) -136.9** 23.0ns
-261.5ns
Extension (1=received extension service, 0 otherwise) 353.9*** 237.9ns
204.1ns
Credit access (1=avail credit, 0 otherwise) 218.8*** 383.0*** 261.0*
Effects Seed Quality and Other Factors on Yield
Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
-
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
Areaharvested(Mha)
PercentAreaHarvestedwithModernVarieties
Year
Irrigated (%MV)
Rainfed (%MV)
Upland (%MV)
Total area harvested
All ecosystems (%MV)
Note: Data is from BAS.
Source: Figure 2 of Launio and Manilili (2013)
Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties
1992 1993 1996 1997 2001 2002 2006 2007
Total area n=2088 n=1731 n=2155 n=1840 n=1557 n=1291
MV1 na na 6 6 9 15 4 3
MV2 na na 21 21 17 11 2 2
MV3 na na 61 65 65 63 76 77
Hybrid Variety na na - - - - 7 8
High quality na na 10 10 19 20 30 29
Irrigated n=1337 n=1230 n=1368 n=1275 n=1060 n=1037
MV1 14 24 6 6 9 14 3 3
MV2 66 69 20 22 15 12 2 2
MV3 6 7 62 65 69 65 78 78
Hybrid Variety - - - - - - 8 9
High quality na na 12 12 20 23 34 31
Rainfed n=751 n=483 n=787 n=565 n=497 n=254
MV1 11 71 7 7 8 16 4 6
MV2 69 19 23 19 20 9 4 1
MV3 2 0 59 66 59 58 72 73
Hybrid Variety - - - - - - 5 6
High quality na na 6 7 16 12 23 19
Sources: For 1992/93, Review of PhilRice; 1996 to 2007 are drawn from Table 2.5, Bordey 2010; Varietal
groups fromEstudillo and Otsuka, 2002.
MV3: IR64-IR72 (IRRI), PSB Rc sereis (IRRI), PhilRice (mid-1980s to present), NSIC RC series (IRRI, PhilRice,
UPLB)
MV2: IR36-IR62 (IRRI, mid-1970s to mid-1980s),
Notes:
Hybrid Mestiso series (IRRI, PhilRice, Bayer Phil: 1998 to present, SL Agritech, HyRice Inc., Bioseed Inc)
MV1: IR5 to IR34 (IRRI), UPL and C series (UPLB, mid 1960s to mid-1970s), BPI Ri series (BPI)
Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties
Farmers’ adoption of rice varieties by breeding agency, Philippines 2011-2012
(n=2,500 farmers)
2011 Wet Season 2012 Dry Season
1
Include UPLB
2
Include SL Agritech, Pioneer, Hyrice, Monsanto, Bioseed, Devgen, Bayer, and Syngenta
PhilRice,
29.1%
IRRI,
64.2%
Other
Public1,
2.4%
Traditional
0.5%
Other
Private2,
3.8%
PhilRice,
26.5%
IRRI,
61.0%
Other
Public1,
2.8%
Traditional
0.3%
Other
Private2,
9.5%
Source of basic data: Rice-Based Farming System Surveys of PhilRice ,as cited in Malasa et al. 2012
Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties
Adoption of rice seed varieties, by seed class, Philippines, 1996-2007
Note: High quality seeds refer to inbred seeds (registered seeds and certified seeds) and hybrid seeds while low quality
seeds include good seeds and home-saved/farmers’ seeds.
Source: Malasa et al. 2012
Key Issues and ConstraintsKey Issues and Constraints
1. Seed production and distribution issues
Major constraints in making new seed varieties of selected crops available in the market
Constraints Rice Yellow
Corn
White
Corn
Grain
Legumes
Root
Crops
Vegetables Tropical
Fruits
Coconut Sugar
cane
Insufficient availability of
disease-free planting material
X X X
Insufficient availability of
basic/foundation seed
X X X X
Insufficient availability of
commercial seed
X X X X X X X X X
Insufficient availability of
registered/certified seed
X X X
Inadequate seed production
systems
X X X X X
Inadequate seed distribution
systems
X X X X X X X X
Distance to seed supplier X X X X X X X
Varieties poorly adapted to
local conditions
X
Availability and cost of
required production inputs
X X X X X X X
Low farm gate price X X X X X X X X
Poor seed storage facilities X X X X X
Poor seed germinability X X
Note: Adapted from Sicat, S.R. et al. 2007. FAO/Government Cooperative Programme. Final Report on the Establishment of the
National Information Sharing Mechanism (NISM) on the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action (GPA) for the Conservation
and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in the Philippines.
Key Issues and Constraints
2. Adoption issues
 Unsustained adoption due to inconsistent yield
promise as affected by inadequate knowledge of
farmers on the seed requirements:
 Varietal and ecosystem mismatch
 Poor farm management practices
 Farmers’ reluctance to try or shift to new varieties
 Varietal and cropping system mismatch
Key Issues and Constraints
3. Cost and price issues
 A relatively higher cost of inputs and labor required
in production of hybrid rice, especially of publicly
bred varieties (in kg basis) compared to inbred rice
 Limited profit of publicly bred hybrid rice due to
less competitive mandated fixed price compared to
privately bred seeds
Key Issues and Constraints
Regulatory policy issues
Existence of informal seed production system (not
controlled by NSQCS and not covered by its certification
system)
Imbalance regulations applied on private and public
hybrids (private seeds are less regulated)
Weak laws on hybrid seed export and imports (i.e.,
seed importation of private seed companies)
Conflict in existing laws that govern the seed
industry, particularly hybrid rice seed industry
Recommendations
 Improve production and distribution
system
 Continue R&D on rice seed
improvement
 Information dissemination and
capacity building
 Review the policies on seed pricing
THANKTHANK
YOU!YOU!

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The seed sector in the Philippines - Mercy Sombilla

  • 1. Role of Seed in Transforming the Agriculture in the Philippines: A Focus on Rice Mercedita A. Sombilla Karen P. Quilloy
  • 2. Outline of the Presentation I. Objectives II. The Philippine seed system III. Seed pricing policy and scheme IV. Seed development, production and distribution V. Seed adoption trends VI. Issues and constraints VII. Recommendations
  • 3. Objectives of the study  Describe the Philippine seed system and regulation;  Describe the evolution of the rice seed varieties and analyze the trend in seed adoption;  Identify issues and constraints in the seed industry; and  Identify some key recommendations to overcome issues in enhancing the supply of high-quality seeds
  • 4. The Philippine Seed System: Governance Mandate of the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) of the Department of Agriculture:  Crop Production Division, Crop Research Division  National Crop Research and Development Centers National Seed Industry Council (NSIC) National Seed Quality Control and Services (NSQCS) Plant Quarantine Services (PQS) Office Biotech Office SeedNet, UPLB, PhilRice, BOI, and the Private sector
  • 5. The Philippine Seed System: Laws and Other Regulations Seed Industry Act of 1992 (RA 7308) R&D an IPR Republic Act (RA) 100055 known as Philippine Technology Transfer Act of 2009 Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) support on protection, patenting and licensing AOs pricing, production and marketing quality control
  • 6. Rice Seed Pricing Policy and Scheme  Prior to 2010  50% of the price of seed is subsidized  Cash incentives and discounts  Guaranteed prices  Plant Now-Pay Later scheme  Mandated fixed price for publicly bred seeds  Starting 2010: removal of seed subsidies
  • 8. Inbred Seed Production and Distribution System Source: Adapted from PhilRice. 1996. The Philippine Rice Seed Industry and the National Rice Seed Production Network. Rice Technology Bulletin No. 16. Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
  • 9. Hybrid Seed Production and Distribution System
  • 10. Number of released rice varieties by NSIC, Philippines, 1968-2011 Rice Ecosystem Irrigated Lowland Irrigated Lowland- Hybrid Irrigated Lowland- Glutinous Irrigated Lowland- Saline prone Rainfed Lowlandb Cool- elevated Upland TOTAL 1966-1975 14 1 1 1 17 1976-1985 17 4 3 6 30 1986-1995 18 1 2 8 2 1 32 1996-2005 21 7 4 6 7 4 5 54 2006-2011 25 36 1 9 11 82 Total 95 44 10 17 30 6 13 215 a Varieties approved for release by the National Seed Industry Council, previously the Philippine Seed Board b From 1985, releases for rainfed-lowland were specified for transplanted, direct-seeded, drought-prone or flood-prone; Most are released for transplanted; 7 varieties were released for dry-seeded; 1 drought-prone; and 1 for flood-prone ecosystem Source: Table 1 of Launio and Manalili (2013)
  • 11. Number of NSIC-approved rice seed varieties by breeding agency, Philippines, 1990-2012 Source of basic data: National Seed Industry Council Seed Catalogue
  • 12. Yield performance of various rice varieties Source: Malasa et al. (2012) 3.37 3.95 4.57 3.55 4.57 5.13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 low quality seeds high quality seeds (inbred) high quality seeds (hybrid) low quality seeds high quality seeds (inbred) high quality seeds (hybrid) 2006 WS 2007 DS Yield(t/ha)
  • 13. Variables Irrigated Rainfed Upland Season (1= dry season, 0=wet season) 38.2ns 9.4ns 241.2ns Seed type Hybrid seed (1=yes, 0=No) 875.5*** 1512.2*** 2526.7*** Certified seed (1=yes, 0=No) 335.8*** 432.8*** 493.2** Good seed (1=yes, 0=No) - - - Farmer’s seed (1=yes, 0=No) -273.2*** -139.6*** 139.9ns Total quantity of seeds (kg) -1.3*** -1.6*** -1.7ns Total quantity of solid inorganic fertilizer (kg) 1.8*** 1.7*** 1.5*** Total quantity of labor (manday) -0.4ns 0.3ns 0.3ns Sex (1=male, 0=female) -136.5** 173.5** -325.5ns Age 0.5ns -0.8ns -14.5* Tenurial status (1=tenanted, 0 otherwise) -35.7ns -46.6ns -359.1** Farming experience (years) -0.7ns -1.3ns 12.5ns Training (1=received training, 0 otherwise) -136.9** 23.0ns -261.5ns Extension (1=received extension service, 0 otherwise) 353.9*** 237.9ns 204.1ns Credit access (1=avail credit, 0 otherwise) 218.8*** 383.0*** 261.0* Effects Seed Quality and Other Factors on Yield
  • 14. Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 - 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Areaharvested(Mha) PercentAreaHarvestedwithModernVarieties Year Irrigated (%MV) Rainfed (%MV) Upland (%MV) Total area harvested All ecosystems (%MV) Note: Data is from BAS. Source: Figure 2 of Launio and Manilili (2013)
  • 15. Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties 1992 1993 1996 1997 2001 2002 2006 2007 Total area n=2088 n=1731 n=2155 n=1840 n=1557 n=1291 MV1 na na 6 6 9 15 4 3 MV2 na na 21 21 17 11 2 2 MV3 na na 61 65 65 63 76 77 Hybrid Variety na na - - - - 7 8 High quality na na 10 10 19 20 30 29 Irrigated n=1337 n=1230 n=1368 n=1275 n=1060 n=1037 MV1 14 24 6 6 9 14 3 3 MV2 66 69 20 22 15 12 2 2 MV3 6 7 62 65 69 65 78 78 Hybrid Variety - - - - - - 8 9 High quality na na 12 12 20 23 34 31 Rainfed n=751 n=483 n=787 n=565 n=497 n=254 MV1 11 71 7 7 8 16 4 6 MV2 69 19 23 19 20 9 4 1 MV3 2 0 59 66 59 58 72 73 Hybrid Variety - - - - - - 5 6 High quality na na 6 7 16 12 23 19 Sources: For 1992/93, Review of PhilRice; 1996 to 2007 are drawn from Table 2.5, Bordey 2010; Varietal groups fromEstudillo and Otsuka, 2002. MV3: IR64-IR72 (IRRI), PSB Rc sereis (IRRI), PhilRice (mid-1980s to present), NSIC RC series (IRRI, PhilRice, UPLB) MV2: IR36-IR62 (IRRI, mid-1970s to mid-1980s), Notes: Hybrid Mestiso series (IRRI, PhilRice, Bayer Phil: 1998 to present, SL Agritech, HyRice Inc., Bioseed Inc) MV1: IR5 to IR34 (IRRI), UPL and C series (UPLB, mid 1960s to mid-1970s), BPI Ri series (BPI)
  • 16. Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties Farmers’ adoption of rice varieties by breeding agency, Philippines 2011-2012 (n=2,500 farmers) 2011 Wet Season 2012 Dry Season 1 Include UPLB 2 Include SL Agritech, Pioneer, Hyrice, Monsanto, Bioseed, Devgen, Bayer, and Syngenta PhilRice, 29.1% IRRI, 64.2% Other Public1, 2.4% Traditional 0.5% Other Private2, 3.8% PhilRice, 26.5% IRRI, 61.0% Other Public1, 2.8% Traditional 0.3% Other Private2, 9.5% Source of basic data: Rice-Based Farming System Surveys of PhilRice ,as cited in Malasa et al. 2012
  • 17. Adoption of the Modern Rice Varieties Adoption of rice seed varieties, by seed class, Philippines, 1996-2007 Note: High quality seeds refer to inbred seeds (registered seeds and certified seeds) and hybrid seeds while low quality seeds include good seeds and home-saved/farmers’ seeds. Source: Malasa et al. 2012
  • 18. Key Issues and ConstraintsKey Issues and Constraints
  • 19. 1. Seed production and distribution issues Major constraints in making new seed varieties of selected crops available in the market Constraints Rice Yellow Corn White Corn Grain Legumes Root Crops Vegetables Tropical Fruits Coconut Sugar cane Insufficient availability of disease-free planting material X X X Insufficient availability of basic/foundation seed X X X X Insufficient availability of commercial seed X X X X X X X X X Insufficient availability of registered/certified seed X X X Inadequate seed production systems X X X X X Inadequate seed distribution systems X X X X X X X X Distance to seed supplier X X X X X X X Varieties poorly adapted to local conditions X Availability and cost of required production inputs X X X X X X X Low farm gate price X X X X X X X X Poor seed storage facilities X X X X X Poor seed germinability X X Note: Adapted from Sicat, S.R. et al. 2007. FAO/Government Cooperative Programme. Final Report on the Establishment of the National Information Sharing Mechanism (NISM) on the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action (GPA) for the Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in the Philippines.
  • 20. Key Issues and Constraints 2. Adoption issues  Unsustained adoption due to inconsistent yield promise as affected by inadequate knowledge of farmers on the seed requirements:  Varietal and ecosystem mismatch  Poor farm management practices  Farmers’ reluctance to try or shift to new varieties  Varietal and cropping system mismatch
  • 21. Key Issues and Constraints 3. Cost and price issues  A relatively higher cost of inputs and labor required in production of hybrid rice, especially of publicly bred varieties (in kg basis) compared to inbred rice  Limited profit of publicly bred hybrid rice due to less competitive mandated fixed price compared to privately bred seeds
  • 22. Key Issues and Constraints Regulatory policy issues Existence of informal seed production system (not controlled by NSQCS and not covered by its certification system) Imbalance regulations applied on private and public hybrids (private seeds are less regulated) Weak laws on hybrid seed export and imports (i.e., seed importation of private seed companies) Conflict in existing laws that govern the seed industry, particularly hybrid rice seed industry
  • 23. Recommendations  Improve production and distribution system  Continue R&D on rice seed improvement  Information dissemination and capacity building  Review the policies on seed pricing

Editor's Notes

  1. Mandates of BPI Ensuring continuous and stable supply of quality seeds and plant materials of improved crop varieties and cultivars; Accrediting plant nursery operators and seed growers; Registering crop varieties for commercial release; Maintaining and controlling seed quality standards; and Providing swift and effective assistance on recommended crop production technology National Seed Industry Council (NSIC) formulates policies to: stimulate plant breeding activities; encourage all sectors engaged in the industry to adopt systems and practices which improve the quality of seeds; and promote establishment of infrastructure and other support services for the industry Seed Quality Control is the mandate of NSQCS was established to control and supervise over field inspection and control services and to accredit seed testing laboratories to ensure quality of seeds stimulate plant breeding activities Implementing guidelines (AOs) on seed multiplication, production and distribution; accreditation of seed growers and seed testing laboratories; seed and field standards; seed treatment; and seed certification
  2. Seed Industry Act 1992 Mandated the promotion and accelerated development of the local seed Protects the local seed industry against unfair competition from imported seeds Prohibits the exportation of rare species, varieties, lines, and strains of plant material except for scientific and international germplasm exchange purposes Recent Administrative Orders on Rice Seed Guidelines on the Production, Regulation, Promotion, Procurement and Distribution of Seeds and Planting Materials (AO 6 s. 2006) Revised Seed and Field Standards for the Production of Hybrid (F1) Seeds and Hybrid Rice Parental Seeds (A or CMS line, B or Maintainer Line, and R for Restorer Line) (AO 18 s. 2007) Revised Guidelines on Rice Seed Certification (AO 21 s. 2007) Revising the Buying Prices of Inbred Rice Seeds (AO 8 s. 2008) Revised Prescribed Buying and Selling Price of Hybrid Rice Seeds (AO 29 s. 2008) Guidelines on Testing and Analysis of Imported Hybrid Rice and Corn Seeds (AO 4 s. 2009) Additional Guidelines on Seed Testing and Analysis of Imported Hybrid Rice and Corn Seeds (AO 4 s. 2009) Revised Guidelines on Inbred Rice Seed Certification (AO 16 s. 2010) Revised Criteria for Accreditation of Hybrid Rice Seed Growers/Producers (AO 9 s. 2012)
  3. Farmers sell theirs in times of needs.
  4. of seeds by further development of infrastructure facilities that facilitate production and efficient distribution of seeds produced. to further improve yield stability and reduce cost of production through the increased support of the government and development partners to agricultural R&D. to enhance knowledge of farmers on the use of high quality seeds to be able to adopt the most suitable or recommended varieties for them. prices of publicly bred hybrid seeds to ensure a more competitive price; and proper enforcement of quality control for public and private hybrid seeds to ensure the best quality of released varieties