Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Integrated Farming System PDF

113,982 views

Published on

IFS and its scopes and models and success stories

Published in: Environment
  • Did you try ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐?. They know how to do an amazing essay, research papers or dissertations.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • My brother found Custom Writing Service ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ and ordered a couple of works. Their customer service is outstanding, never left a query unanswered.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • My brother found Custom Writing Service ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐ and ordered a couple of works. Their customer service is outstanding, never left a query unanswered.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • What will you do with your winnings? An extra £3,000 per week goes a very long way... And of course WE DO ALL THE WORK FOR YOU. When we know EXACTLY how you should bet, we pass that information onto you and then you make money. It really is that easy! From just two minutes betting each morning you'll be making more than £400 every single day! ▶▶▶ https://url.cn/ycUAbdYm
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I am really happy with the car I got at auction. What a great deal. Thanks for your service and for your help. ☀☀☀ https://bit.ly/3h0ICqP
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Integrated Farming System PDF

  1. 1. welcome Master Seminar Series 2015-16
  2. 2. Master Seminar on Integrated Farming System ASPEE Agribusiness Management Institute Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari Guided by: Dr. Mehul G. Thakkar Associate Professor AABMI, NAU, Navsari Presented By: S.Sabarinathan 2070515027 2nd Sem. MBA (ABM), AABMI, NAU, Navsari
  3. 3. Challenge Current status Rate of changes (per year) Population World 7.2 billion + 1.3% India 1.2 billion + 1.95% Food insecure population 194 million 1.0% Soil degradation 120.40mha 5-10 Mha Desertification 105.19 mha 6 Mha Irrigated area per person 0.245 ha -1.3% Grain harvested area per person 0.22 ha -0.55% Forested area per capita 0.59 ha -0.78% Atmospheric concentration of GHGs CO2 370 ppm +0.5% CH4 1.74 ppm +0.75% N2O 311 ppb +0.25% Challenges 3
  4. 4. Crops/item Requirement (gm/capita/day) Requirement in million tons 2000 2010 2020 Cereals and millets 420 198.70 234.40 280.99 Pulses and legumes 70 18.92 22.61 26.76 Fats and oils 22 10.41 12.44 14.72 Vegetables 125 91.66 109.52 129.62 Roots and tubers 75 35.48 42.39 50.18 Fruits 50 36.66 43.81 51.85 Milk 250 70.96 84.79 100.35 Sugar 30 14.19 16.36 20.07 Egg 45 21.29 25.44 30.11 Fish 25 11.83 14.13 16.73 Requirement by 2020 to meet the balanced diet as per norms prescribed by ICMR Source :http://www.icmr.nic.in/) 4
  5. 5. What is the solution? Problems of present agriculture  Decline in agriculture growth rate  Decline in factor productivity  Static or decline in food production  Increasing malnutrition  Shrinkage in net cultivable area  Increasing environmental pollution  Depleting ground water table  Increasing cost of production  Low farm income  Problems of Farm labours due to large scale migration “Integrated Farming System” Source: http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/1st/1planch18.html 5
  6. 6.  Introduction  Farming system-components  IFS definition  Why IFS  Objectives  Scope of IFS  IFS determinants  Integrated farming systems components  Types of integrated farming system  IFS proposed models of ICAR institutes  Success stories  SWOT analysis of small land holding farmers in India  Advantages of IFS  Limitations of IFS  Conclusion  References Flow of seminar 6
  7. 7. Introduction In recent years, food security, livelihood security, water security as well as natural resources conservation and environment protection have emerged as major issues worldwide. Developing countries are struggling to deal with these issues and also have to contend with the dual burden of climate change and globalization. It has been accepted by everyone across the globe that sustainable development is the only way to promote rational utilization of resources and environmental protection without hampering economic growth. Developing countries around the world are promoting sustainable development through sustainable agricultural practices which will help them in addressing socio economic as well as environmental issues simultaneously. Source :http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_ifs_anintroduction.html 7
  8. 8. Within the broad concept of sustainable agriculture “Integrated Farming Systems” hold special position as in this system nothing is wasted, the by-product of one system becomes the input for other. It is an integrated approach to farming as compared to existing monoculture approaches. It refers to agricultural systems that integrate livestock and crop production. Moreover, the system help poor small farmers, who have very small land holding for crop production and a few heads of livestock to diversify farm production, increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced and exploitation of unutilized resources. Source :http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_ifs_anintroduction.html 8
  9. 9. Farming system It is a complex inter-related matrix of soil, plants, animals, implements, power, labour, capital, and other inputs controlled in parts by farming families and influenced to varying degrees by political, economic, institutional and social forces that operate at many levels ( Mahapatra et al, 1992). Features of diversified farming in sustainable agriculture Maintain vegetative cover Provide regular supply of organic matter Enhance nutrient recycling mechanism Pest control through enhanced bio-control activity Source : http://www.agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=1&topicid=643 9
  10. 10. Water Soil Labour Livestock Crops Farming System-Components FARM Family Source :http://www.agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=1&topicid=682 10
  11. 11. Integrated Farming (IF) is a whole farm management system which aims to deliver more sustainable agriculture. It refers to agricultural systems that integrate livestock and crop production. Integrated farming systems has revolutionized conventional farming of livestock, aquaculture, horticulture, agro-industry and allied activities. It is sometimes called as Integrated Biosystems or Integrated Agriculture. … … 11 Source :Manjunatha (2014)
  12. 12.  Acc. to Paul Harris, “It is a system which comprises of inter-related set of enterprises with crop activity as base, will provide ways to recycle produces and “waste” from one component becomes an input for another part of the system, which reduces cost and improves soil health and production and/or income.” 12
  13. 13. Concept  An arrangement of recycling products/by-products of one component as input to another linked component  Reduction in cost of production  Increase in productivity per unit area Increase in total income of farm  Effective utilization of family labours around the year Source :http://www.rroij.com/open-access/integrated-farming-system--an-holistic-approach-a-review.pdf 13
  14. 14. Why IFS is needed?  For reducing the risks due to biotic and abiotic stresses  High input costs  For meeting the rising need of food, feed, fibre, fuel and fertilizer  Nutritional requirement of family  Increased demand of soil nutrients  For increasing the income  Employment  Standard of living  Sustainability 14 Source :http://www.rroij.com/open-access/integrated-farming-system--an-holistic-approach-a-review.pdf
  15. 15. Holding size (ha) and number of farm families in India (as per 2010-11 Agricultural census)  85% of total holdings are under small and marginal farmer having the operational area of 44%  Marginal farmers have no marketable surplus due to their holding and family size Source : http://agcensus.dacnet.nic.in/NL/nationalt1sizetable4.aspx 15
  16. 16. Objectives  To integrate different production systems like dairy, poultry, livestock, fishery, horticulture, sericulture, apiculture, etc. with agricultural crops production as the base.  To increase farm resource use efficiency (land, labour and production/by- products) so as to increase farm income and gainful employment opportunity.  To promote multi-cropping (out of the total cropped areas of 2,65,816 ha only 46,697 ha (18%) is sown more than once), for multi-layered crops of economic value so as to sustain land productivity.  To maintain environmental quality and ecological stability. 16Source :http://www.rroij.com/open-access/integrated-farming-system--an-holistic-approach-a-review.pdf
  17. 17. Integrated Farming enterprises include crop, livestock, poultry, fish, tree crops, plantation crops, etc. A combination of one or more enterprises with cropping, when carefully chosen, planned and executed, gives greater dividends than a single enterprise, especially for small and marginal farmers. 1. Soil and climatic features of the selected area. 2. Availability of resources, land, labour and capital. 3. Present level of utilization of resources. Scope of Integrated farming systems 17
  18. 18. Goals of Integrated Farming Systems  Maximization of yield of all component enterprises to provide steady and stable income.  Rejuvenation of system's productivity and achieve agro- ecological equilibrium.  Avoid build-up of insect-pests, diseases and weed population through natural cropping system management and keep them at low level of intensity.  Reducing the use of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) to provide chemical free healthy produce and environment to the society. 18
  19. 19. Ideal situations for introduction of IFS  The farmer wishes to improve the soil quality  The farm household is struggling to buy food or below the poverty line  Water is stored on-farm in ponds or river-charged overflow areas  Soil salinity has increased as a result of inorganic fertilizer use  The farmer is seeking to maximize profits on existing holding  The farm is being eroded by wind or water  The farmer is looking to reduce chemical control methods  The farmer wants to reduce pollution or waste disposal costs Source :http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261219406002651 19
  20. 20. Elements Of Integrated Farming System  Watershed  Farm ponds  Bio-pesticides  Bio-fertilizers  Bio-gas  Solar energy  Vermicompost making  Green manuring  Rain water harvesting Source :http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261219406002651 20
  21. 21. IFS Determinants Physical Economic Social Environment 21 Objective
  22. 22. Factors determining type of farming  Physical factor (Climate, soil, topography)  Economic factor  Marketing cost  Labour availability  Capital  Land value  Consumer demand  Prevalent pest and diseases  Social factor (type of community, easy transport, marketing facilities)  Objective (income, production, minimizing cost etc.)  Environment (availability of resources and components ) Source :Manjunatha (2014) 22
  23. 23. Factor deciding nature and size of enterprises  Farm size  Marketing facilities  Climate  Technologies available  Soil type and condition  Income level  Credit facility  Skill/Knowledge 23 Source :Manjunatha (2014)
  24. 24. Integrated Farming System  Crop husbandry  Livestock production  Poultry  Duckery  Horticulture  Aquaculture  Apiculture  Sericulture  Mushroom cultivation  Agro-forestry  Biogas plants Source : http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_ifs_componentsl.html 24
  25. 25. Integrated-farming systems for different agroeco-system  Irrigated low and uplands  Rainfed and dryland areas  Hill regions 25 Source :Manjunatha (2014)
  26. 26. Enterprises linked in different agro- ecosystem Dry land Garden land Wet land  Dairy  Dairy  Dairy  Poultry  Poultry  Poultry  Goat /Sheep  Mushroom  Mushroom  Agro forestry  Apiary  Apiary  Farm pond  Piggery  Fishery  Sericulture  Duckery 26
  27. 27. Source :http://www.tnau.ac.in/scms/agr/res.html 27
  28. 28. Source :http://www.tnau.ac.in/scms/agr/res.html 28
  29. 29. Source :http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_ifs_ressourceflow_wetland 29
  30. 30. Source : http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_ifs_ressourceflow_gardenland 30
  31. 31. Source :http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_ifs_ressourceflow_rainfed 31
  32. 32. Types of Integrated farming systems  Crop-live stock farming system  Crop-live stock -fishery farming system  Crop-live stock -poultry - fishery farming system  Crop-poultry-fishery - mushroom farming system  Crop-fishery-duckery farming system  Crop- livestock-fishery-vermicomposting farming system  Crop-live stock-forestry farming system  Agri-silvi-apiary system  Agri-horti-silvi-pastoral system Source http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/ac155e/AC155E05.htm 32
  33. 33. Crop-live stock –fishery farming system 33
  34. 34. Crop-live stock – poultry - fishery farming system 34
  35. 35. Crop- livestock-fishery-vermicomposting farming system 35
  36. 36. Bamboo + toria + apiculture Agri-silvi-apiary system 36
  37. 37. Integrated Farming Systems Research Network Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research was established by ICAR, at Modipuram, Meerut (Uttar Pradesh). Earlier, in 1968-69 it was named as Project Directorate for cropping System Research and the project was operating as All India Coordinated Agronomic Research Project (AICARP). During the year 2009-10 the PDCSR was re-named as Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research (PDFSR). Source: http://pdfsr.ernet.in/at-a-glance/about-institute 37
  38. 38. Integrated Farming Systems Research Network AICRP-IFS :74 Main Centres:31 Sub Centres :11 On-farm :32 Source :http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/annual.html (AICRP annual report on IFS -2013-2014) 38
  39. 39. Way Forward Vision Management of natural resources for holistic improvement of small and marginal farmers through Integrated Farming Systems. Mission Improve food, nutrition, livelihood and financial security of small and marginal households through Integrated Farming Systems (to make marginal and small households as bountiful). Source :http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/aicrp_cs_objective.html Vision 2050 39 Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research (IIFSR)
  40. 40. Source :http://agriodisha.nic.in/pdf/Integrated%20Farming%20System.pdf Sl.no Components Total cost in Rs.(approximate) Financial assistance from state plan Rs. Farmers contribution (Rs.) 1 Pisciculture in the Pond 15,000 10,000 5000 2 Duckery 5000 4000 1000 3 Poultry colour birds and desi birds with living space 3000 3000 0 4 Cost of cross breed 32,000 28,000 4000 5 Apiculture 7000 7000 0 6 Vermicompost 10000 6000 4000 7 Land development work 30,000 10,000 20,000 8 Boundary plantation 10,000 4000 6000 9 Fruit plants on farm pond bund and other areas 3000 3000 0 10 Vegetable cultivation 15,000 10,000 5000 11 Rice cultivation 5000 2000 3000 12 Maize cultivation 4000 2000 2000 13 Pulses and oil seeds 13,000 7000 6000 14 Green fodder culture 6000 4000 2000 Total 1,58,000 1,00,000 58,000 Approximate cost structure and financial assistance by Government from state plan for development of IFS 40
  41. 41. State-wise Area Approved for Integrated Farming System (IFS) Activities and Amount Released for Rainfed Area Development (RAD) Component of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture in India (2014-15 to 2015-16 upto 07.12.2015) States Total area approved for IFS activities (Hectare) 2014-2015 (Rs in lakhs) 2015-16 upto 07.12.2015 (Rs in lakhs) Andhra Pradesh 4150.00 1300.00 700.00 Bihar 1434.00 500.00 250.00 Chattisgarh 5105.90 1143.86 550.00 Gujarat 10,590.00 2250.00 500.00 Karnataka 7963.00 1500.00 500.00 Kerala 2965.00 500.00 150.00 Maharashtra 9345.00 4000.00 1500.00 Mizoram 862.00 488.00 150.00 Rajasthan 10,757.00 2500.00 150.00 Sikkim 927.00 460.00 78.92 Tamil Nadu 34,470.00 3000.00 1250.00 Telangana 4230.00 1000.00 500.00 Uttar Pradesh 7820 2000.00 900.00 West Bengal 1893.00 500.00 225.00 Source:www.indiastat.com 41
  42. 42. IFS PROPOSED MODELS OF ICAR INSTITUTES 42
  43. 43. Crop-livestock – poultry - fishery farming system Source :http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/agriculture/integrating-poultry-fish-and-rice-to-triple-income/article5265328.ece 43
  44. 44. Source : icarmizoram.nic.in Model developed at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region,Mizoram Centre Crop-fishery-livestock farming system Crop  Upland paddy  Maize Horticulture  Leechi  Guava  Papaya Livestock  Dairy cattle  Pig  Chicken  Duck  Rabbit Fish  Rohu  Catla  mrigal 44
  45. 45. Source : http:// icarmizoram.nic.in Dairy-agri-horti-silvi-pastoral Farming System Model developed at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region,Mizoram Centre Livestock  Dairy cattle Agri  Maize, soyabean  Horti  Banana Silvi  Teak Pastoral  Congo signal  Setaria guinea grass 45
  46. 46. Farming system Component productivity (Kg/ha) Rice-grain equivalent yield (Kg/ha) Crop Poultry Mushroom Rice – fallow (Existing system) 4,311 - - 4,311 Rice-Groundnut + Mushroom+ poultry 6,557 6,060 4,305 16,922 Rice-Cowpea+ Mushroom+ poultry 7,662 6,060 4,305 18,027 Rice-Brinjal+ Mushroom+ poultry 11,122 6,060 4,305 21,487 Rice-Sunn hemp+ Mushroom+ poultry 4,993 6,060 4,305 15,358 (Manjunath & Itnal, 2003) Productivity of Rice-based IFS Experiment conducted at the ICAR Res. Complex, Goa Source :http://icargoa.res.in/ifs0613.html 46
  47. 47. Farming system RGEY (kg/ha) Cost of production (Rs/ha) Gross return (Rs/ha) Net return (Rs/ha) Per day Return (Rs/ha) Cropping alone 12,222 24,922 61,112 36,190 167 Crop +fish + poultry 31,858 44,627 159,292 1,14,665 436 Crop + fish + pigeon 32,554 43,310 161,772 1,18,462 443 Crop + fish + goat 39,610 51,483 1,78,047 1,12,564 493 Productivity and economic analysis of different integrated farming systems Experiment conducted at TNAU,Coimbatore. 47 Source: (Saravanan et al., 2015)
  48. 48. Farming system Crop Poultry Pigeon Fish Goat Total system employment generation Cropping alone 369 - - - - 369 Crop +fish + poultry 420 61 - 34 - 515 Crop + fish + pigeon 420 - 61 34 - 515 Crop + fish + goat 420 - - 34 122 576 Employment generation (man-days) Source: (Saravanan et al., 2015) 48 Experiment conducted at TNAU,Coimbatore.
  49. 49. On-Farm IFS, Kendrapara district, Odisha under AICRP Source :http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/annual.html (AICRP annual report on IFS -2013-2014) Fram Holding size 0.70 ha 49 48,196 92,480 8700
  50. 50. On-farm Integrated Farming Systems: Case Study AICRP-IFS: On-farm (PDFSR) Kawardha district, Chattisgarh Source :http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/annual.html (AICRP annual report on IFS -2013-2014) 50 68,842 1,04,510
  51. 51. Source :http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/annual.html (AICRP annual report on IFS -2013-2014) Increase in net returns of various farming systems due to on-farm interventions in farming systems approach 51
  52. 52. SWOT analysis of small land holding farmers in India Source :http://hau.ernet.in/research/pdf/lravisankar. Strength 1. Sufficient Manpower 2. Hardworking nature 3. Mostly fulltime farming Weakness 1. Fragmented Holdings 2. Poverty ,Low literacy 3. Low risk bearing ability Threats 1. Weather related adversities 2. Technology failure would affect economy Opportunities 1.Loans with low interest 2.Subsidies for livestock addition 3.Presence of more than one enterprise 52
  53. 53.  Productivity gains : 2-3 times  Gain in net returns : 3 to 5 times  Resource saving : 40 to 50%  Average regular net daily income : Rs 800/household of 1ha  Additional Employment generation : 70 to 80%  Lower emissions of GHG : 50%  House hold nutritional security :100%  Gender empowerment Expected Output Source :http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/aicrp_cs_objective.html Vision 2050 53
  54. 54. Source :http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/aicrp_cs_objective.html Vision 2050 54
  55. 55. Advantages of Integrated Farming Systems  Regular income and year round employment  Provides food and nutritional security  Eco- recycling of agriculture residues/by-products/wastes  Better soil quality for sustainable agriculture  Minimization in pollution hazards  Improves micro climate  Conservation of natural resources  Minimizes the risk of failure in productivity 55 Source :http://www.rroij.com/open-access/integrated-farming-system--an-holistic-approach-a-review.pdf
  56. 56. Limitations of IFS Lack of awareness about sustainable farming systems Unavailability of varied farming system models Lack of credit facilities at easy and reasonable interest rate Non-availability of ensured marketing facilities specially for perishable commodities Lack of deep freezing and storage facilities Lack of timely availability of inputs Lack of knowledge/education among farming community specially of rural youth 56 Source :http://www.rroij.com/open-access/integrated-farming-system--an-holistic-approach-a-review.pdf
  57. 57. The further thrust of IFS  There is a need to create the database on farming system in relation to type of farming system, infrastructure, economics, sustainability, etc. under different farming situation.  Need to develop research modules of farming system under different holding size with economically viable and socially acceptable systems.  The assessment and refinement of the technologies developed at research station at cultivators' field.  Need to prepare a contingent planning to counteract the weather / climate threats under different farming situation. 57 Source :http://www.rroij.com/open-access/integrated-farming-system--an-holistic-approach-a-review.pdf
  58. 58. Conclusion 58  Sustainable development is the only way to promote rational utilization of resources and environmental protection without hampering economic growth and Integrated Farming Systems hold special position as in this system nothing is wasted, the by-product of one system becomes the input for other. India has a considerable livestock, poultry population and crop wastes. IFS is a promising approach for increasing over all productivity and profitability through recycling the farm by- products and efficient utilization of available resources. About 95% of nutritional requirement of the system is self sustained through resource recycling. As the number of enterprises are increased, the profit margin also increases. It could further generate employment opportunities to the farming communities round the year and provide a better economic and nutritional security. This can go long way uplift rural life through increased income .
  59. 59. Further, it is evident that profit margin varied with the ecosystem (rainfed/irrigated), management skill and socio-economic conditions. The farmers having sufficient land and other farm resources can prefer for integration of horticultural crops viz; fruits, vegetables and floriculture as an additional enterprise along with prevailing ones. Whereas, marginal farmers or land less farmers living nearby fruit orchards can integrate apiary and mushroom in to their existing farming systems. Farmers having sufficient irrigation water or living in low lying riverbed areas can choose fishery as an additional enterprise. Similarly, farmers living in vicinity of the towns and cities can grow vegetables and green fodders as per market demand and availability. 59
  60. 60. Small is beautiful, can be bountiful • Requires attention in integrated manner. • Integrated Farming system approach is a powerful tool for improving livelihood security of small farm holders. 60
  61. 61. References: 61  Desai, B. K., Rao, S. and Chittapur, B. M. (2014). A Strategy for Sustainable Farm Production and Livelihood Security . Udaipur : AGROTECH PUBLISHING ACADEMY  Mahapatra et al, (1992). Integrated Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture. New Delhi :Publications  Manjunatha (2014). Integrated Farming System - An Holistic Approach. J. Agric and Allied Sci. 3(4)  Panda, S.C. (2010).Crop Management and Integrated Farming. Jodhpur : AGROBIOS (INDIA)  Saravanan et al, (2015). A Review On Integrated Farming Systems. Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary 3(7):319-328  Sarkar, A. K., Singh, R. S., Yadav, M. S. and Singh, C. S. (2011). Integrated Farming Systems For Sustainable Production. Udaipur : AGROTECH PUBLISHING ACADEMY  61
  62. 62. Webportals:  http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/1st/1planch18.html accessed on 24th April, 2016  http://www.agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=1&topicid=643 accessed on 1st May ,2016  http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/ accessed on 18th April ,2016  http://agcensus.dacnet.nic.in/NL/nationalt1sizetable4.aspx accessed on 24th April ,2016  http://pdfsr.ernet.in accessed on 26th April, 2016  http://www.indiastat.com accessed on 211th April ,2016  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261219406002651.pdf accessed on 28th April, 2016  http://agriodisha.nic.in/pdf/Integrated%20Farming%20System.pdf accessed on 1st May ,2016  http://pdfsr.ernet.in/AICRP/aicrp_cs_objective.html Vision 2050 accessed on 30th April ,2016  http://www.icmr.nic.in/) accessed on 1st May ,2016 References: 62
  63. 63. 63 “Farming looks mighty easy when your plow is a pencil, and you’re a thousand miles from the corn field” -President Dwight D. EIsenhower

×