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Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops—Which way for Africa?

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Presented by Margaret Karembu (Director, ISAAA Africenter) at the Launching of Bio-Innovate Programme, ILRI, Nairobi, 16 March 2011.

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Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops—Which way for Africa?

  1. 1. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops – Which way for Africa? Margaret Karembu PhD Director, ISAAA Africenter [email_address] International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA) BioInnovate Launch 16 th March 2011 I S A A A
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>The Global Challenge and Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Global Adoption and Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Overview and Trends in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Future of GM/Biotech Crops </li></ul>
  3. 3. ISAAA key mission Poverty alleviation and knowledge sharing on crop biotech with global society Annual Review -Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops Weekly e-newsletter – Crop Biotech Updates >1 million subscribers Local languages – 10 in Africa Note: Expansive references and diverse information sources Flagship communication products
  4. 4. ISAAA’s Global Knowledge Center Network of Biotechnology Information Centers (BICs) Philippines ISAAA’s Global KC Indonesia Malaysia Brazil China India Egypt Kenya South Africa Thailand Mali Pakistan Russia Bulgaria Sri Lanka Spain Italy Japan Burkina Faso Bangladesh ISAAA AmeriCenter Vietnam Knowledge and Experience Sharing
  5. 5. 2010 Adoption Highlights
  6. 6. The Philanthropic European co-sponsors of 2010 ISAAA Report <ul><li>Fondazione Bussolera-Branca, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>– supports sharing of knowledge to aid global society to make knowledge-based decisions about biotech crops </li></ul><ul><li>Ibercaja, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>– Spain’s fourth largest bank - based in the country’s maize growing area where Bt maize is successfully grown </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Global Challenge <ul><li>World population will grow from current 6.5B to 8B by 2025 and 9.2B by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>Affluence in emerging economies will drive meat, cereals, edible oil consumption up </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change will limit water availability; introduce new pests </li></ul><ul><li>Increased consumption of biofuel </li></ul>Increased demand for F ood, F eed, F iber and F uel 4Fs
  8. 8. <ul><li>NO SINGLE APPROACH will allow production of 4Fs to be doubled SUSTAINABLY by 2050 for 9 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional crop improvement ALONE will not – GM/BIOTECH CROPS NOT A PANACEA but IMPORTANT </li></ul><ul><li>Successful strategy must have MULTIPLE APPROACHES that address all the principal issues that include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved food distribution systems </li></ul></ul>Global Strategy Double 4Fs Production by 2050
  9. 9. … .a technology component that integrates the BEST OF CONVENTIONAL and the BEST OF BIOTECH TOOLS to optimize productivity and CONTRIBUTE to food-feed-fuel-fiber security Importantly…
  10. 10. There are different OPTIONS to improve the agriculture sector Some tools in agriculture Organic farming Indigenous knowledge Plant breeding Biotechnology Variety selection Sustainable resource management Integrated pest management Conservation tillage Note: Biotechnology provides tools; NOT a SYSTEM and will not replace traditional agriculture
  11. 11. <ul><li>Can biotech crops produce more affordable food - feed-fiber-fuel, and, are they safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Can biotech crops contribute to sustainability ? </li></ul><ul><li>Can biotech crops help with climate change by decreasing CO 2 emissions ? </li></ul><ul><li>Can biotech crops contribute to food security and to the alleviation of poverty and hunger ? </li></ul>Questions on Biotech Crops Globally
  12. 12. 2010 Adoption Highlights A record 15.4 million farmers, in 29 countries, planted 148 million hectares (365 million acres) in 2010, a sustained increase of 10% or 14 million hectares (35 million acres) over 2009. Source: Clive James, 2010. GLOBAL AREA OF BIOTECH CROPS Million Hectares (1996 to 2010) 29 Biotech Crop Countries Total Hectares Industrial Developing 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  13. 13. <ul><li>Accumulated global area of biotech Crops,1996/2010 </li></ul><ul><li>estimated over 1 Billion hectares in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>29 countries: 3 new: Pakistan, Myanmar and Sweden ; 19 were developing, 10 industrial </li></ul><ul><li>15.4 million biotech farmers – 90% or 14.4 million small and resource-challenged farmers </li></ul><ul><li>148 million hectares up from 134 million hectares in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Continued progress in Africa: </li></ul><ul><li>*Burkina Faso biotech cotton rose to 260,000 from 115,000has in 2009; 65% of country’s total cotton area </li></ul><ul><li>*Egypt: biotech maize from 1,000ha to 2,000 </li></ul><ul><li>* South Africa: Maize, cotton, soybean </li></ul><ul><li>8 European countries planted biotech crops up from 6 in 2009 </li></ul>SUMMARY – 2010 HIGHLIGHTS
  14. 14. Principal Biotech/GM crops - Globally Cotton Canola Maize Soybean
  15. 15. M Acres Global Adoption Rates (%) for Principal Biotech Crops (Million Hectares, Million Acres), 2010 Source: Clive James, 2010 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 81% Soybean 64% Cotton 29% Maize 23% Canola 90 33 158 31 Conventional Biotech 0 49 99 148 198 247 296 346 395 445
  16. 16. Global Area of Biotech Crops, 1996 to 2010: By Trait (Million Hectares, Million Acres) Source: Clive James, 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 0 25 49 74 99 124 148 173 198 222 100 Herbicide Tolerance Insect Resistance (Bt) Herb Tolerance/Insect resistance M Acres
  17. 17. Top 10 Biotech Crop Adopting Nations 2010 and > 1million hectares each Industrialized Hectares USA 66.8 million Canada 8.8 million Developing Hectares Brazil 25.4 million Argentina 22.9 million India 9.4 million China 3.5 million Paraguay 2.6 million Pakistan 2.4 million South Africa 2.2 million Uruguay 1.1 million
  18. 18. <ul><li>Sustainable Economic Benefits – $10.7 billion, $5.7 bill in developing & $5.0 billion in industrial countries </li></ul><ul><li>Food, Feed & Fiber Security + 42 million metric tons </li></ul><ul><li>Conserving Biodiversity – 12 million hectares saved </li></ul><ul><li>Alleviation of Poverty – helped 14 million small farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Env Footprint – 10% less pesticides = 39 mill kg </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigating Climate Change & GHG – 18 billion kg less CO 2 emissions = 8 million fewer cars on the road </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Brookes and Barfoot, forthcoming, and Clive James 2011 </li></ul>IMPACT OF BIOTECH CROPS
  19. 19. Africa Overview Biotech Crops planting 2010 Biotech commercial South Africa - Maize, cotton, soybean Egypt - Maize Burkina Faso - Cotton Biotech crops on trial RSA - potatoes, sugarcane, WEMA – RSA Kenya – cotton, maize, SP Egypt – cotton, potato, wheat, cucumber, melon Uganda - banana, cotton, cassava, maize Nigeria - cowpea, cassava
  20. 20. Case Study – Biotech cotton in Burkina Faso <ul><li>In 2010, ~260,000 hectares Bt cotton planted up from 115,000 hectares in 2009, 65% adoption </li></ul><ul><li>~ 80,000 farmers planted Bt cotton compared to 4,500 farmers 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Bt cotton seed produced in 2010 can plant > 70% of all cotton in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated economic benefit from Bt cotton - over US$100 million/yr based on yield increases of close to 30%, plus at least 50% reduction in insecticides sprays, from a total of 8 sprays to only 2 to 4 sprays for Bt cotton </li></ul>
  21. 21. Trends in regional collaboration in biosafety <ul><li>Africa RECs have placed emphasis on harmonization of biosafety policies </li></ul><ul><li>3 main RECs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMESA: Eastern and Southern Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SADC: Southern Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECOWAS: Western Africa States </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Predicted Growth in Africa by 2015 Main Drivers – regulations for enabling, not blocking Innovation, Farmer satisfaction 2010 ( 3 countries ) South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt 2015 ( up to 10 countries ) South Africa, Burkina Faso, Egypt, Mali, Togo, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania , Malawi EGYPT BURKINA FASO SOUTH AFRICA NIGERIA KENYA UGANDA MALAWI BURKINA FASO TOGO SOUTH AFRICA EGYPT TANZANIA MALI
  23. 23. FUTURE PROSPECTS
  24. 24. Products nearing commercialization Drought tolerant corn - USA Insect resistant eggplant India, Philippines, Bangladesh Insect resistant rice China, Iran Biofortified rice Philippines, India, Indonesia Bangladesh, Vietnam Blue rose Japan
  25. 25. <ul><li>Political will and support from lead countries, governments and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing responsible and efficient regulatory regimes, that are appropriate for Africa with limited resources </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with Society transparently and accurately </li></ul>Three requirements for growth of Biotech/GM crops in Africa
  26. 26. Africa in need of Technology Intervention not a “Victim” <ul><li>Interventions from science and biotechnology tools are key to increased productivity & enhanced food security – it is URGENT! </li></ul>“ Responsible biotechnology is not the enemy, but starvation is the enemy” Late Norman Borlaug
  27. 27. <ul><li>Thank You and.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congratulations to BioInnovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HONGERA!!!!!! </li></ul></ul>

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