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China's Food Safety regulatory system: Achievements, Challenges and Suggestions

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China's Food Safety regulatory system: Achievements, Challenges and Suggestions by Prof. Jiehong Zhou, Zhejiang University, China. Presented at the ReSAKSS-Asia - MIID conference "Evolving Agrifood Systems in Asia: Achieving food and nutrition security by 2030" on Oct 30-31, 2019 in Yangon, Myanmar.

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China's Food Safety regulatory system: Achievements, Challenges and Suggestions

  1. 1. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System: Achievements, Challenges and Suggestions Jiehong Zhou China Academy for Rural Development, Zhejiang University 2019/10/30
  2. 2. Outline I. China’s Food Safety Achievements II. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System Reform III. Current Food Safety Challenges IV. Suggestions for China’s Food Safety Supervision
  3. 3. I. China’s Food Safety Achievements 1. Food qualification rate 77.90% 85.50% 87.40% 91.10% 96.90% 96.40% 95.40% 96.10% 94.70% 96.80% 96.80% 97.60% 97.70% 70.00% 75.00% 80.00% 85.00% 90.00% 95.00% 100.00% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Foodqualificationrate(%) Year Source: Annual Report of China’s Food Safety (Published by Food Safety Risk Research Institution of Jiangnan University) Figure 1. Trend of food qualification rate
  4. 4. I. China’s Food Safety Achievements 2. Food sampling tests 198961 191672 370298 738972 306183 342594 624423 1090880 432709 525258 965727 1432188 428043 635151 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 Numofsamplingtests Year - Quarter Source: Quarterly Report of Food Sampling Tests (Based on announcements from SAMR and CFDA websites) Figure 2. Trend of food sampling tests
  5. 5. Figure 3. Trend of overall public satisfaction rate I. China’s Food Safety Achievements 3. Public satisfaction rate 64.26% 52.12% 54.55% 58.03% 60.80% 40.00% 45.00% 50.00% 55.00% 60.00% 65.00% 70.00% 2012 2014 2016 2017 2018 Publicsatisfactionrate(%) Year Source: Annual Report of China’s Food Safety (Published by Food Safety Risk Research Institution of Jiangnan University)
  6. 6. I. China’s Food Safety Achievements 3. Public satisfaction rate Source: Provincial government websites 82.30% 78.70% 86.50% 86.70% 87% 64.43% 67.38% 70.32% 76.28% 81.37% 50.00% 55.00% 60.00% 65.00% 70.00% 75.00% 80.00% 85.00% 90.00% 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Publicsatisfactionrate(%) Year 北京市 上海市 浙江省 江苏省 广东省Beijing Shanghai Zhejiang Jiangsu Guangdong Figure 4. Public satisfaction rate in five representative provinces
  7. 7. I. China’s Food Safety Achievements 4. Fiscal inputs for China’s Supervision on Food Safety (1) Fiscal budget for fundamental construction (food safety related) Source: The 13th Five-Year National Food Safety Program, The 12th Five-Year Plan of National Food Safety Regulatory System Central investment for fundamental construction (billion) Num of regulatory sites for food pollutants and other harmful factors Num of sentinel hospital for foodborne disease surveillance The 11th Five-Year (2006-2010) 5.51 320 312 The 12th Five-Year (2011-2015) 18.45 2656 3883 Table 1. Fiscal budget for fundamental construction (food safety related) 3.4 times 8.3 times 12.4 times
  8. 8. I. China’s Food Safety Achievements 4. Fiscal inputs for China’s Supervision on Food Safety (2) Fiscal allocation for food safety affairs disposal Source: Final Allocation of General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (replaced to SAMR since 2018) Figure 5. Fiscal allocation for food safety affairs disposal 756061.19 817939.26 1033510.26 974645.48 1021180.52 1072610.08 1103442.07 1063693.43 1206181.48 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1000000 1100000 1200000 1300000 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Fiscalallocation(10,000yuan) Year
  9. 9. II. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System Reform Decentralized regulatory system dominated by food industry departments • Economy Environment • Planned economy: government-enterprise mixture • Food Safety Issues & Drivers • Issues: Food poisoning • Drivers: Technique limitation; Lack of knowledge and management skills • Important Events • The Trial Regulation on Food Hygiene Management (1965) • Regulatory Departments & Functions • Food industry departments (dominant) • Department of light industry, commerce, domestic trade and chemical industry • Appointment and dismissal, education and self-criticism, quality competition, etc. • The health department (supplementary) • Technique guidance 2018 - now2013 - 20172003 - 20121978 - 20021949 - 1977
  10. 10. II. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System Reform Unitary regulatory system dominated by the hygiene department • Economy Environment • Planned economy → Commodity economy • Government-Enterprise Mixture → Government-Enterprise Separation • Food Safety Issues & Drivers • Issues: Food Poisoning → All foodborne diseases • Drivers: Objective factors → Subjective factors (profits) • Important Events • The Regulations on the Management of Food Hygiene (1979) • The Food Hygiene Law (For Trial Implementation) (1982) • The Food Hygiene Law (1995) • Regulatory Departments & Functions • The health department • Administrative enforcement • Economic sanctions • Judicial arbitration 2018 - now2013 - 20172003 - 20121949 - 1977 1978 - 2002
  11. 11. II. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System Reform Segmented regulatory system dominated by multiple departments • Important Events • Establishment of Food and Drug Administration (2003) • The State Council: Segmented supervision based on food supply chain stages (2004) • Food and Drug Administration was merged into the Mistry of Health (2008) • The Food Hygiene Law (1995) → The Food Safety Law (2009) • Regulatory Departments & Functions • Ministry of Agriculture • Supervision on agri-food production (upstream) • General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine • Supervision on food processing (midstream) • State Administration for Industry and Commerce • Supervision on food circulation (midstream) • Mistry of Health • Supervision on food consumption (downstream) 2018 - now2013 - 20171978 - 20021949 - 1977 2003 - 2012
  12. 12. II. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System Reform Integrated regulatory system dominated by the joint department • Important Events • Establishment of China Food and Drug Administration (2013) • Regulatory Departments & Functions • State-level 2003 - 2012 2018 - now2013 - 20171978 - 20021949 - 1977 2003-2012 → 2013-2017 Food and Drug Administration Whole China Food and Drug Administration State Administration for Industry and Commerce Functions about food safety supervision General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine Office of National Security Commission Whole
  13. 13. II. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System Reform Integrated regulatory system dominated by the joint department • Regulatory Departments & Functions • Provincial-level • Local-level • Established Market Regulation Administration • More departments being merged into one 2003 - 2012 2018 - now2013 - 20171978 - 20021949 - 1977 2003-2012 → 2013-2017 Food and Drug Administration Whole Food and Drug Administration Administration for Industry and Commerce Functions about food safety supervisionBureau of Quality and Technical Supervision
  14. 14. II. China’s Food Safety Regulatory System Reform Period of modernized governance • Important Events • Institution Reform (2018) • Regulatory Department State Administration for Industry and Commerce General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine China Food and Drug Administration → State Administration for Market Regulation (cover all food supply chain except agri-food production) • Objectives • Vertical: achieving central-local consistence and coordination • Horizontal: • Setting duties and rights for each department scientifically • Promoting joint enforcement 2013 - 20172003 - 2012 2018 - now1978 - 20021949 - 1977
  15. 15. III. Current Food Safety Challenges 1. Challenges on Food Industry (1) Internal: relatively lower industry concentration (2) External: e-commercial (Internet) shock • 305 million people using food take-out service (2017) • Higher failure rate of take-out food than overall food Country % of large- scale food enterprises Required turnover for a large-scale food enterprise (yuan) % of total food industry turnover occupied by large-scale food enterprises China 0.32 ≥ 20 million 23.00 South Korea 0.77 ≥ 18.5 million 63.83 The United Kingdom 0.41 ≥ 4.57 billion 84.18 The United States of America Top 20 / Around 40 Top 50 / Over 50 Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2017); Official statistic websites of Korea, UK, USA (2017)
  16. 16. III. Current Food Safety Challenges 2. Challenges on Food Safety Regulatory Departments (1) Within one region • Incomplete communication and information sharing mechanism • Lack of unified process standard (2) Cross different regions • Independent demand of interests/benefits • Lack of cooperative mechanism with a same goal Food safety supervision departments in Region A Office 1 (Function 1) Office 2 (Function 2) Office 3 (Function 3) … ? ? Food safety supervision departments in Region A Food safety supervision departments in Region B Same goal?
  17. 17. III. Current Food Safety Challenges 3. Challenges on Food Risk Evaluation and Warning • Lack of data mining E.g. collection, processing, storage, analysis • Unable to achieve information sharing • Lack of information platform, transmission mechanism 4. Challenges on Food Safety Comprehensive Governance • Lack communication with publics about food risk → People lack of trust for government • Weak self-control of food enterprises → Limited market power • Improper food industry standard → Food industry standards are not scientific enough to promote
  18. 18. IV. Suggestions for China’s Food Safety Supervision 1. Reinforce process integration and regional coordination • Internal: “production-processing-circulation-consumption” integration • External: “Province-Prefecture-County” consistence; cross-provincial coordination 2. Adopt new regulatory techniques • New techniques: AI, blockchain, machine learning, etc. • Establish big data center and food risk warning platform 3. Improve risk-control mechanism • Allocate regulatory resources to food production (upstream) and circulation (midstream) • Strengthen food inspection and traceability of wholesale/wet markets • Design specific governance mechanism for online platforms, especially for take-out food 4. Promote communication between government and publics • Insist transparent supervision: share information about food risks and test results • Publicize food safety knowledge, improve people’s trust and confidence
  19. 19. IV. Suggestions for China’s Food Safety Supervision 5. Promote Social Co-governance • Establish enterprise credit information system on food safety • Suggest large-scale food enterprises adopt HACCP, self-inspection, etc. • Involve publics (consumer, social media, etc.) into regulatory system 6. Adjust food industrial structure • Support the formation of food enterprise cluster • Encourage vertical integration • Online-offline Convergence
  20. 20. Thanks for your listening!

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