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Seed and Seed Technology
Dr. B.A.Badiger
Assistant Professor of SST
COA,Hanumanamati
• Seed is the basic and crucial input for successful
crop production,
• The modern plant breeding and technology
advances in seed industry has played a significant
role in evolution of high yielding varieties and
hybrids.
Introduction
 The principles of introduction, selection, heterosis,
use of Cytoplasmic male sterility, self incompatibility
and genetic engineering has been exploited in developing
new varieties --- brought and contributed to green
revolution in early sixties in the world.
 It is estimated that good quality seeds of improved
varieties can contribute about of 20-25 percent
increase in production.
What is a seed?
A seed is matured ovule that consisting of
an embryonic plant together with a store of
food, all surrounded by a protective coat.
The formation of the seed completes the
process of reproduction in seed plants.
SEED TYPE
Monocots Dicots
Embryo with single cotyledon Embryo with two cotyledons
Pollen with single furrow or pore Pollen with three furrows or pores
Flower parts in multiples of three
Flower parts in multiples of four or
five
Major leaf veins parallel Major leaf veins reticulated
Roots are adventitious Roots develop from radicle
Secondary growth absent
Secondary growth often present
SEED STRUCTURE
• External
– Seed coat (testa)
– Hilum
• Embryo
– Cotyledon
– Epicotyl / Hypocotyl
– Pumule
– Radical
A seed, stands for any of the following used
for sowing or planting,
Seeds, Seedlings, tubers, bulbs,
rhizomes, roots, cuttings, all types of
grafts and other vegetatively propagated
material for food crops or cattle fodder.
Sl.No Seed Grain
1 It should be a viable and vigorous one Need not be a viable one
2 It should be physically and
genetically pure
Not so
3 Should satisfy minimum seed
certification standards
No such requirements
4 It can be treated with pesticide
/fungicide to protect seed against
storage pests and fungi
It should never be treated with any
chemicals, since used for consumption
5 Respiration rate and other physiological
and biological processes should be kept
at low level during storage
No such specifications
6 Should be compulsorily certified No such condition in grain production
7 It should satisfy all the quality norms Not considered
8 Seed can be utilized as grain provided
if it is not treated with poisonous
chemicals
Grain never can be converted into
seed.
Differences between seed and grain
Sl.No Seed production Grain production
1.
Planned programme –start with demand
forecasting ends with marketing
well planning not
required
2
Authenticated source is required to
raise a seed crop
Need not be
3 Specific land and field requirements Not so
4
Should be monitored for certification
standards and certified by the Agency
Not so
5
To be harvested at physiological
maturity
Harvestable maturity
6
Proper post harvest technology should
be followed
Not so
Difference between seed and grain production
Definitions of Seed Technology
Cowan (1973) identified seed technology
as “that discipline of study having to do
with seed production, maintenance, quality
and preservation”.
Feistritzer (1975) defined seed technology as the
methods through which the genetic and physical
characteristics of seeds could be improved. It involves
such activities as variety development, evaluation and
release, seed production, processing, storage and
certification.
Thus seed technology is essentially an inter
disciplinary science which encompasses broad range of
subjects.
Goals/Aims of Seed Technology
1. Rapid multiplication of popular varieties.
2. Timely supply of improves seeds/Propagules
in time and space.
3. Assurance of high quality seeds.
4. Availability of seeds at a reasonable price
Scope of Seed Technology
1. Provision of scientific technique for Seed production .
2. Provision of guidelines to maintain the seed
certification standards.
3. Adequate and timely supply of seeds on the market.
4. Provision of technical knowledge to check the govt.
statutory guidelines of seed standards.
Importance of seed
 Seed is the basic input in agriculture upon which
other inputs are applied.
 A good vigorous seed utilizes all the resources
and realized a reasonable out put to the grower.
 It is wealth to the farmer, it is the yesterday’s
harvest and tomorrows hope.
 Good seed in good soil realize good yield. It is a
link between two generations.
Seed is :
1. Carrier of new technology
The introduction of quality seeds of new varieties wisely
combined with other inputs significantly increases the yield
levels. In India cultivation of high yielding varieties increased
the food production from 52 million to 250 million tons.
2. A basic tool for secured food supply
Introduction of dwarf and high yielding varieties and
hybrids of different crops increased the productivity and led to
potential development.
3. The principal means to secure crop yields in less favourable
production areas
The supply of good quality seeds of improved varieties suitable
to these areas is one of the few important immediate contributions
to secure higher crop yields.
4. A medium for rapid rehabilitation of agriculture in cases of natural
disaster
Widespread floods and droughts in various parts of the country
and elsewhere have focused attention on these recurrent crises and
the accompanying threats of famine and starvation. The
establishment of National Seed Reserve Stocks should receive high
priority for meeting such natural calamities.
Importance of Seed Production
• Multiplication of superior varieties.
• Availability of superior varieties to masses
• Maintenance of genetic purity.
• Supply of high quality seeds with excellent quality.
• Seeds have high germination status.
• Seeds have high vigour and viability status.
• Seeds have high physical purity.
• It maintains the excellent health status of seed
Importance of seed industry
• The Indian seed industry has played a very critical role in
the growth of Indian agricultural.
• Agriculture in India is backed by a strong seed improvement
programme involving both the public and private sectors.
• The Indian seed sector is highly vibrant and energetic and
is well recognized internationally.
• Our diverse agro-climatic conditions are conducive for
producing high quality seed of tropical, temperate and sub-
tropical plant varieties.
According to the recent report, the Indian seeds
industry grew at a Compound Growth Rate (CAGR) of
8.4 percent in volume terms from FY 2009 to FY 2015
to reach 3.5 million tonnes in consumption. Double-digit
growth for Indian seed industry.
Similarly, Tech Navio’s analysts forecast the
Hybrid Seeds market in India to grow at a CAGR of
14.1 percent during the period 2014-2019 (ICRA 2015
and Tech Navio (2015).
Indian Seed Industry
The Seed Industry Today
1.Increasing global seed market
2.Growing use of hybrid seed with several technological
components(e.g. seed coatings)
3.Growing international seed trade
4.Increasing number of regulations
5.Increasing number of multinational companies
Thank you…

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Seed and Seed technology

  • 1. Seed and Seed Technology Dr. B.A.Badiger Assistant Professor of SST COA,Hanumanamati
  • 2. • Seed is the basic and crucial input for successful crop production, • The modern plant breeding and technology advances in seed industry has played a significant role in evolution of high yielding varieties and hybrids. Introduction
  • 3.  The principles of introduction, selection, heterosis, use of Cytoplasmic male sterility, self incompatibility and genetic engineering has been exploited in developing new varieties --- brought and contributed to green revolution in early sixties in the world.  It is estimated that good quality seeds of improved varieties can contribute about of 20-25 percent increase in production.
  • 4. What is a seed? A seed is matured ovule that consisting of an embryonic plant together with a store of food, all surrounded by a protective coat. The formation of the seed completes the process of reproduction in seed plants.
  • 5. SEED TYPE Monocots Dicots Embryo with single cotyledon Embryo with two cotyledons Pollen with single furrow or pore Pollen with three furrows or pores Flower parts in multiples of three Flower parts in multiples of four or five Major leaf veins parallel Major leaf veins reticulated Roots are adventitious Roots develop from radicle Secondary growth absent Secondary growth often present
  • 6. SEED STRUCTURE • External – Seed coat (testa) – Hilum • Embryo – Cotyledon – Epicotyl / Hypocotyl – Pumule – Radical
  • 7. A seed, stands for any of the following used for sowing or planting, Seeds, Seedlings, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, roots, cuttings, all types of grafts and other vegetatively propagated material for food crops or cattle fodder.
  • 8. Sl.No Seed Grain 1 It should be a viable and vigorous one Need not be a viable one 2 It should be physically and genetically pure Not so 3 Should satisfy minimum seed certification standards No such requirements 4 It can be treated with pesticide /fungicide to protect seed against storage pests and fungi It should never be treated with any chemicals, since used for consumption 5 Respiration rate and other physiological and biological processes should be kept at low level during storage No such specifications 6 Should be compulsorily certified No such condition in grain production 7 It should satisfy all the quality norms Not considered 8 Seed can be utilized as grain provided if it is not treated with poisonous chemicals Grain never can be converted into seed. Differences between seed and grain
  • 9. Sl.No Seed production Grain production 1. Planned programme –start with demand forecasting ends with marketing well planning not required 2 Authenticated source is required to raise a seed crop Need not be 3 Specific land and field requirements Not so 4 Should be monitored for certification standards and certified by the Agency Not so 5 To be harvested at physiological maturity Harvestable maturity 6 Proper post harvest technology should be followed Not so Difference between seed and grain production
  • 10. Definitions of Seed Technology Cowan (1973) identified seed technology as “that discipline of study having to do with seed production, maintenance, quality and preservation”.
  • 11. Feistritzer (1975) defined seed technology as the methods through which the genetic and physical characteristics of seeds could be improved. It involves such activities as variety development, evaluation and release, seed production, processing, storage and certification. Thus seed technology is essentially an inter disciplinary science which encompasses broad range of subjects.
  • 12. Goals/Aims of Seed Technology 1. Rapid multiplication of popular varieties. 2. Timely supply of improves seeds/Propagules in time and space. 3. Assurance of high quality seeds. 4. Availability of seeds at a reasonable price
  • 13. Scope of Seed Technology 1. Provision of scientific technique for Seed production . 2. Provision of guidelines to maintain the seed certification standards. 3. Adequate and timely supply of seeds on the market. 4. Provision of technical knowledge to check the govt. statutory guidelines of seed standards.
  • 14. Importance of seed  Seed is the basic input in agriculture upon which other inputs are applied.  A good vigorous seed utilizes all the resources and realized a reasonable out put to the grower.  It is wealth to the farmer, it is the yesterday’s harvest and tomorrows hope.  Good seed in good soil realize good yield. It is a link between two generations.
  • 15. Seed is : 1. Carrier of new technology The introduction of quality seeds of new varieties wisely combined with other inputs significantly increases the yield levels. In India cultivation of high yielding varieties increased the food production from 52 million to 250 million tons. 2. A basic tool for secured food supply Introduction of dwarf and high yielding varieties and hybrids of different crops increased the productivity and led to potential development.
  • 16. 3. The principal means to secure crop yields in less favourable production areas The supply of good quality seeds of improved varieties suitable to these areas is one of the few important immediate contributions to secure higher crop yields. 4. A medium for rapid rehabilitation of agriculture in cases of natural disaster Widespread floods and droughts in various parts of the country and elsewhere have focused attention on these recurrent crises and the accompanying threats of famine and starvation. The establishment of National Seed Reserve Stocks should receive high priority for meeting such natural calamities.
  • 17. Importance of Seed Production • Multiplication of superior varieties. • Availability of superior varieties to masses • Maintenance of genetic purity. • Supply of high quality seeds with excellent quality. • Seeds have high germination status. • Seeds have high vigour and viability status. • Seeds have high physical purity. • It maintains the excellent health status of seed
  • 18. Importance of seed industry • The Indian seed industry has played a very critical role in the growth of Indian agricultural. • Agriculture in India is backed by a strong seed improvement programme involving both the public and private sectors. • The Indian seed sector is highly vibrant and energetic and is well recognized internationally. • Our diverse agro-climatic conditions are conducive for producing high quality seed of tropical, temperate and sub- tropical plant varieties.
  • 19. According to the recent report, the Indian seeds industry grew at a Compound Growth Rate (CAGR) of 8.4 percent in volume terms from FY 2009 to FY 2015 to reach 3.5 million tonnes in consumption. Double-digit growth for Indian seed industry. Similarly, Tech Navio’s analysts forecast the Hybrid Seeds market in India to grow at a CAGR of 14.1 percent during the period 2014-2019 (ICRA 2015 and Tech Navio (2015).
  • 21. The Seed Industry Today 1.Increasing global seed market 2.Growing use of hybrid seed with several technological components(e.g. seed coatings) 3.Growing international seed trade 4.Increasing number of regulations 5.Increasing number of multinational companies