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The Philippines, one of the 
largest island-groups in the world 
with over 7,100 islands and a 
wealth of natural resource...
Country: Republic of the 
Philippines 
Capital: Manila 
Area: 300,000 sq km 
Population: 103,775,002 (2012 
est.) 
Populat...
GDP composition by sector: 
agriculture: 12.3%; industry: 
33.3%; services: 54.4% (2011 est.) 
Land use: arable land: 19%;...
Agricultural products: sugarcane, 
coconuts, rice, corn, banana, 
cassava, pineapple, mango; pork, 
eggs, beef; fish 
Natu...
Agriculture as pillar of 
Philippine economy 
The agricultural sector employs 
about 30 per cent of the 
population but co...
Coconut, rice, maize and 
sugarcane are the top four crops 
cultivated. 
Although the economy is 
moving away from agricul...
Rice is the most 
important staple 
food crop. 
Yields have increased 
substantially since the 1960s 
as a result of high-...
Despite being the eighth largest 
rice producer in the world, rapid 
population growth, poor road and 
irrigation infrastr...
Between 2004 and 2010, 
agriculture and fisheries 
exports rose from US$2.5 
billion to US$4.1 billion. 
Coconut was tradi...
Banana, coconut oil, 
tuna, pineapple, 
tobacco and seaweed 
are the top exports. 
High quality robusta and 
excelsa coffe...
According to the Government, 
agricultural growth and 
productivity are constrained 
by the high cost of 
production input...
High transportation 
costs, post-harvest losses, 
inadequate irrigation 
infrastructure, and 
limited access to credit 
ha...
In 2011, the agriculture sector 
grew by just over two per 
cent. Recovering from 
drought in 2010, significant 
gains in ...
According to the 
Department of Agriculture, 
the use of quality seeds, 
rehabilitation of irrigation 
facilities, improve...
There are four types of climate base on 
Modified Corona’s System. 
Type I 
Two pronounced seasons, dry from 
November to ...
Type III 
No very pronounced maximum rain period 
Only a short dry season lasting from one to 
three months. 
Covers the W...
December-May 
This interval is hot… it’s 
the dry season. 
The March-May period is 
the hottest… the best time 
to go to b...
June-November 
This period is rainy… it’s the wet 
season, it’s the typhoon regime. 
During this period, an average of 
21...
Of the total rainfall recorded annually, 
47% is attributed to the occurrence of 
the tropical cyclones (especially from 
...
The majority of the 
Philippines’ soil resources are 
best suited for cultivated crops 
(Inceptisols), some soil types 
(E...
SOIL TYPE AREA (Ha) SOIL TYPE AREA (ha) 
Clay 5,326,035 Sand 121,624 
Silty Clay 10,475 Fine Sand 130,694 
Sandy Clay 246,...
An average of 20 
typhoons enter the 
Philippines in a year. 
Public Storm Warning Signal 
PSWS #1 - Tropical cyclone wind...
Of the country's total land 
area, forest land has the 
highest share with 65% as of 
1996 (NLUC 2002). Agricultural 
land...
Forest cover in the 
Philippines decreased 
from 34% in the 1970s to 
22% in 1987, and 
remaining forest cover is 
concent...
“The share of 
agriculture in the 
economy continues to 
fall and was down to 
11.6% of GDP in the 
first quarter; 
manufa...
Yet manufacturing and agriculture 
are important sectors for creating 
jobs, have the greatest potential for high 
product...
Industry 2003 2008 
Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry 14.64 14.86 
Industry 31.94 31.65 
Service 53.41 53.49 
Total 100.00...
The Philippine 
economy has the 
potential to increase GDP 
and export revenue 
through their agricultural 
sector, howeve...
The Philippines agricultural 
products include: sugarcane, 
coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, 
cassavas, pineapples , mangoes...
In 2010, the Climate Change 
Vulnerability Index ranked the 
Philippines as the 6th most 
vulnerable country to climate 
c...
Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng 
resulted in damage to the 
agriculture and fisheries sectors 
estimated at US$580 million in 
2...
Government priorities 
Despite positive growth and gains 
in productivity, there has been 
almost no change in the welfare...
To improve food security and rural 
incomes, the Government is 
working to improve rural 
infrastructure (including roads,...
Reaffirming their commitment to 
achieving food self-sufficiency by 
2013, the Government has 
increased its 2012 agricult...
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
Philippine Agriculture
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Philippine Agriculture

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An Overview of Philippine Agriculture

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Philippine Agriculture

  1. 1. The Philippines, one of the largest island-groups in the world with over 7,100 islands and a wealth of natural resources, is prone to seismic and volcanic activity. The mountainous island archipelago is of volcanic origin, forming part of the 'Pacific Ring of Fire', and has a tropical climate with high annual temperatures, humidity and rainfall.
  2. 2. Country: Republic of the Philippines Capital: Manila Area: 300,000 sq km Population: 103,775,002 (2012 est.) Population growth rate: 1.9% (2011 est.) Life expectancy: 72 (2011 est.) Inflation: 5.3% (2011 est.) GDP purchasing power parity: US$393.4 billion (2011 est.) GDP per capita: US$4,100 (2011 est.)
  3. 3. GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 12.3%; industry: 33.3%; services: 54.4% (2011 est.) Land use: arable land: 19%; permanent crops: 61.67%; other: 64.33% (2005) Land under cultivation: coconut (3.3 million ha), rice (2.5 million ha), maize (1.4 million ha), sugarcane (0.4 million ha) Major industries: electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
  4. 4. Agricultural products: sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, banana, cassava, pineapple, mango; pork, eggs, beef; fish Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper Export commodities: semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits Export partners: China 19%, US 13.4%, Singapore 13.2%, Japan 12.8%, Hong Kong 7.6%, Germany 4.2%, South Korea 4.1% (2010)
  5. 5. Agriculture as pillar of Philippine economy The agricultural sector employs about 30 per cent of the population but contributes only 12 per cent of GDP. Almost 5 million farmers cultivate 9.7 million hectares, or about 30 per cent of the total land area of the country.
  6. 6. Coconut, rice, maize and sugarcane are the top four crops cultivated. Although the economy is moving away from agriculture to services and manufacturing, the sector is crucial to realising the Government's target of becoming food self-sufficient by 2013
  7. 7. Rice is the most important staple food crop. Yields have increased substantially since the 1960s as a result of high-yielding varieties, but per hectare yields are generally low in comparison with other Asian countries.
  8. 8. Despite being the eighth largest rice producer in the world, rapid population growth, poor road and irrigation infrastructure, and limited suitable land to expand production, mean that the country is also one of the world's largest rice importers. From a record of 2.45 million tons in 2010, however, rice imports were reduced to 860,000 tons in 2011.
  9. 9. Between 2004 and 2010, agriculture and fisheries exports rose from US$2.5 billion to US$4.1 billion. Coconut was traditionally the major export earner, but with depressed prices for copra and other coconut products, production has decreased, particularly as trees have not been replaced.
  10. 10. Banana, coconut oil, tuna, pineapple, tobacco and seaweed are the top exports. High quality robusta and excelsa coffees are produced in the country but very little is exported.
  11. 11. According to the Government, agricultural growth and productivity are constrained by the high cost of production inputs. In the Philippines, fertilizers and pesticides typically account for 20-30 per cent of production costs, while livestock feeds account for about 70 per cent.
  12. 12. High transportation costs, post-harvest losses, inadequate irrigation infrastructure, and limited access to credit have also been identified as barriers to growth.
  13. 13. In 2011, the agriculture sector grew by just over two per cent. Recovering from drought in 2010, significant gains in production in 2011 were recorded for palay (unhusked rice) (6%), maize (9%), sugarcane (58%), mung bean (22%), tobacco (11%) and rubber (8%).
  14. 14. According to the Department of Agriculture, the use of quality seeds, rehabilitation of irrigation facilities, improved fertilization, a reduction in pests and diseases, favourable weather conditions, increases in area harvested, and higher prices all contributed to the increases.
  15. 15. There are four types of climate base on Modified Corona’s System. Type I Two pronounced seasons, dry from November to April; wet during the rest of the year. The entire province in the western part of the islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros, and Palawan. Type II No dry season with a very pronounced maximum rainfall from November to January. The areas covered are Catanduanes, Sorsogon, The eastern part of Albay, the Eastern and Northern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, a great portion of Eastern part of Quezon, the eastern part of Leyte and a large portion of Eastern Mindoro.
  16. 16. Type III No very pronounced maximum rain period Only a short dry season lasting from one to three months. Covers the Western part of Cagayan (Luzon), Isabela, Nueva Viscaya, the southern portion of Mountain Province, Southern Quezon, the Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, Northeast Panay, Eastern Negros, Central and Southern Cebu, Part of Northern Mindanao and the most Eastern Palawan. Type IV Rainfall more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. There is no dry season and no very pronounced rainy. Covers Batanes Provinces, Northern Luzon, Western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, Eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, Western Leyte, Nortern Negros, and most of Central, Eastern and Southern Mindanao.
  17. 17. December-May This interval is hot… it’s the dry season. The March-May period is the hottest… the best time to go to beaches and water resorts. The prevailing wind in this period is the Amihan, which comes from the east.
  18. 18. June-November This period is rainy… it’s the wet season, it’s the typhoon regime. During this period, an average of 21 typhoons hit the country. A few times, it reaches 23. Typhoons in November are much less and when they come… they are really ugly and very destructive. The prevailing wind in this period is the Habagat, which comes from the west.
  19. 19. Of the total rainfall recorded annually, 47% is attributed to the occurrence of the tropical cyclones (especially from June to December). Tropical cyclones are generally from the North Pacific Ocean region and generally move in West Northern direction towards the country. The annual humidity ranges from 74% to 85% while the annual mean temperature is between 19,5°C to 28°C and annual rainfall ranges from 1,893 to 3,855.2 millimeters.
  20. 20. The majority of the Philippines’ soil resources are best suited for cultivated crops (Inceptisols), some soil types (Entisols, Vertisols, and Mollisols) are economically important for rice and other major crop production. Some are considered problem soils (Ultisols) because of high erodibility and low nutrient content but still has potential for agricultural production.
  21. 21. SOIL TYPE AREA (Ha) SOIL TYPE AREA (ha) Clay 5,326,035 Sand 121,624 Silty Clay 10,475 Fine Sand 130,694 Sandy Clay 246,570 Beach Sand 6,442 Loam 2,244,102 Beach Sand 9,846 Sandy Loam 1,171,951 Loamy Sand 14,444 Clay Loam 6,405,080 Coarse Sand 13,498 Silty Loam 861,928 Complex 262,305 Gravelly Loam 21,213 M.Soil Undiff’d 8,789,216 Silty Clay Loam 403,303 Rocks and Mt.Lands 551,195 Sandy Clay Loam 1,132,46 Others 1,524,728 Fine loam 262,561 Gravelly Sandy Loam 3,123 Total 29,512,798
  22. 22. An average of 20 typhoons enter the Philippines in a year. Public Storm Warning Signal PSWS #1 - Tropical cyclone winds of 30-60 km/h are expected within the next 36 hours. PSWS #2 - Tropical cyclone winds of 60-100 km/h are expected within the next 24 hours. PSWS #3 - Tropical cyclone winds of 100-185 km/h are expected within the next 18 hours. PSWS #4 - Tropical cyclone winds of greater than 185 km/h are expected within 12 hours.
  23. 23. Of the country's total land area, forest land has the highest share with 65% as of 1996 (NLUC 2002). Agricultural land has about 33%, while those used for inland fisheries, settlements and open land account for 2, 0.44 and 0.04%, respectively. Mining and quarrying has the least with only 0.03 percent.
  24. 24. Forest cover in the Philippines decreased from 34% in the 1970s to 22% in 1987, and remaining forest cover is concentrated in Palawan, Mindanao and the uplands of Luzon. (http://www.cifor.org)
  25. 25. “The share of agriculture in the economy continues to fall and was down to 11.6% of GDP in the first quarter; manufacturing was at 22.9% of GDP in the first quarter of 2012 which is as small as its share in the 1950s”. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is one the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a country's economy. It represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced over a specific time period.
  26. 26. Yet manufacturing and agriculture are important sectors for creating jobs, have the greatest potential for high productivity, and should be the main drivers of economic growth. As it is, the domestic agriculture sector remains largely backward and local manufacturing still grossly underdeveloped." -- From the Midyear 2012 Birdtalk paper "Exclusionary Economics, Elite Politics"
  27. 27. Industry 2003 2008 Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry 14.64 14.86 Industry 31.94 31.65 Service 53.41 53.49 Total 100.00 100.00
  28. 28. The Philippine economy has the potential to increase GDP and export revenue through their agricultural sector, however they lack the government units needed to support it. The agriculture industry is conflicted with low economies of scale, low productivity, and poor infrastructure support.
  29. 29. The Philippines agricultural products include: sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples , mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish. Top agricultural exports include: refined coconut oil, coconut water, fresh bananas, mangoes, pineapples and carageenan. The United states and Japan are among the top destinations for the countries agricultural export. http://internationalbusiness.wikia.com
  30. 30. In 2010, the Climate Change Vulnerability Index ranked the Philippines as the 6th most vulnerable country to climate change, out of 170 countries. Changing rainfall patterns, rising temperatures, increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons and dry spells, and sea level rise are projected as a result of climate change.
  31. 31. Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng resulted in damage to the agriculture and fisheries sectors estimated at US$580 million in 2009. Meanwhile in some parts of the country, rising sea levels are already causing salt water intrusion.
  32. 32. Government priorities Despite positive growth and gains in productivity, there has been almost no change in the welfare of almost 6.4 million people who are dependent on agriculture and fisheries. In the latest national Development Plan, the Government states that improving productivity and efficiency in the agriculture sector is critical to maintaining the affordability of food and reducing poverty.
  33. 33. To improve food security and rural incomes, the Government is working to improve rural infrastructure (including roads, post-harvest facilities and markets), strengthen extension systems, improve access to credit, increase investment in research, and encourage investment from the private sector. The Government is also promoting integrated water resource management, sustainable land management, restoration of fishing grounds, and strengthening crop and fisheries insurance schemes, to increase resilience to climate change.
  34. 34. Reaffirming their commitment to achieving food self-sufficiency by 2013, the Government has increased its 2012 agriculture budget by 50 per cent compared to last year. The money will be spent on constructing and rehabilitating irrigation systems and repairing roads, in addition to boosting the budgets of national programmes designed to boost production of rice, maize, vegetables, fisheries and livestock.

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