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principles of seed production

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HARISH J

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principles of seed production
principles of seed production
GENETIC
 Deterioration of varieties

1.Developmental variation

2.Mechanical mixture

3.Mutation

4.Natural Crossing

5.Minor GeneticVariation

6. Selective Influence of
Diseases

7.TheTechniques of the Plant
Breeder
 Maintenance of genetic
purity
AGRONOMIC
 Selection of a Agro-
climatic Region
 Selection of seed plot
 Isolation of Seed crops
 Preparation of Land
 Selection of variety
 Seed treatment
 Seed plantation
 Farm operations
 Harvesting of seeds
 After harvest care
GENETIC PRINCIPLES
Deterioration of varieties
Maintenance of genetic purity
1. Developmental variation
Mechanical mixture
Mutation
2.
3.
4. NaturalCrossing
Minor GeneticVariation
Selective Influence of Diseases
TheTechniques of the Plant Breeder
5.
6.
7.
Arise when seeds are grown in:
 Difficult environment
 Different soil & fertility conditions
 Different climatic conditions
 Different photo-periods
 Different elevations
For several consecutive generations
 Solution:
Grow them in their areas of adaptation & growing
season.
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principles of seed production

  • 3. GENETIC  Deterioration of varieties  1.Developmental variation  2.Mechanical mixture  3.Mutation  4.Natural Crossing  5.Minor GeneticVariation  6. Selective Influence of Diseases  7.TheTechniques of the Plant Breeder  Maintenance of genetic purity AGRONOMIC  Selection of a Agro- climatic Region  Selection of seed plot  Isolation of Seed crops  Preparation of Land  Selection of variety  Seed treatment  Seed plantation  Farm operations  Harvesting of seeds  After harvest care
  • 4. GENETIC PRINCIPLES Deterioration of varieties Maintenance of genetic purity
  • 5. 1. Developmental variation Mechanical mixture Mutation 2. 3. 4. NaturalCrossing Minor GeneticVariation Selective Influence of Diseases TheTechniques of the Plant Breeder 5. 6. 7.
  • 6. Arise when seeds are grown in:  Difficult environment  Different soil & fertility conditions  Different climatic conditions  Different photo-periods  Different elevations For several consecutive generations  Solution: Grow them in their areas of adaptation & growing season.
  • 7. Most important source of variety deterioration  Take place:  At sowing time if more than 1 variety is sown with same drill  During harvesting& threshing operations.  Gunny bags, seed bins, elevators etc are contaminated with seeds of other varieties.  Solution:  Rogue the seed fields  Care during seed production, harvesting, threshing & further handling.
  • 8.  Not a serious factor.  Difficult to detect minor mutations. Solution:  Remove mutant plant  Increase of true to type stock eliminate the problem
  • 9.  Most important source deterioration  The deterioration in variety due to natural crossing occurs due to the following 3 reasons:-  Natural crossing with undesirable type.  Natural crossing with diseased plant  Natural crossing with off-type plants  In self fertilized crops, natural crossing is not a serious source of contamination & variety deterioration unless:  The variety is male sterile
  • 10.  But in Cross fertilized crops, natural crossing is the major source of genetic contamination.  Genetic contamination in seed fields due to natural crossing depends upon the following factors:  The breeding system of species  Isolation distance  Varietal mass  Pollinating agent Solution:  Isolation between plantation.  Small amounts of contamination over wide distances.  Grown in close proximity to other varieties.
  • 11.  Exist in the phenotypically uniform & homogenous varieties at the time of their release.  During later production of cycle variation lost due to selective elimination by environment.  Solution:  Yield trials of lines propagated from plants of breeder’s seed in the maintenance of self fertilized crop varieties.  Care during maintenance of nucleus & breeder’s seed is necessary.
  • 12.  New crop varieties often become susceptible to new races of diseases  Vegetatively propagated stocks deteriorate  Solution:  During seed production it is very necessary to produce disease free seeds/stocks.
  • 13.  Premature release of variety  Variety testing program  Break down in male sterility  Environmental conditions  Heritable variation  Solution:  Careful handling and adaptation of techniques
  • 14.  Use of approved seed only in seed multiplication.  Inspection & approval of fields prior to planting.  Field inspection & approval of growing crops at critical stages for verification of genetic purity, detection of mixtures, weeds and for freedom from noxious weeds & seed borne disease Etc.  Sampling & sealing of cleaned lots.  Growing of samples of potentially approved stocks for comparison with authentic stocks.
  • 15.  Providing adequate isolation to prevent contamination by natural crossing or mechanical mixtures.  Roguing of seed fields prior to the stage at which they could contaminate the seed crop  Periodic testing of varieties for genetic purity.  Avoiding genetic shifts by growing crops in areas of their adaptation only.  Certification of seed crops to maintain genetic purity & quality of seed.  Adopting the generation system  Grow out test.
  • 16.  Seed production is restricted to four generations only  Starting from breeder’s seed, the seed can only be multiplied up-to 3 more generations i.e. Foundation, Registered & certified
  • 17. 1. Control of seed source Preceding crop requirements Isolation Rouging of seed fields Seed certification 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Grow-out test
  • 18.  Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies (AOSCA) recommended 4 classes of seeds Breeder’s1. Seed Foundation Seed Registered Seed Certified Seed 2. 3. 4.
  • 19.  Breeder’s Seed:  Directly controlled by the original breeder, sponsoring breeder or institution and which provides for the initial & recurring increase of foundation seed.  Foundation Seed:  Include seed stock so handled as to most nearly maintain specific genetic identity & purity and that may be designated of distributed by an agricultural experiment station.  It is the source of all certified seeds, either directly or through registered seed
  • 20.  Registered Seed:  It is progeny of foundation or registered seed  It is so handled as to maintain satisfactory genetic identity & purity and that has been approved and certified by a certifying agency.  This class of seed should be of a quality suitable for production of certified seed  Certified Seed:  It is progeny of foundation, registered or certified seed that is so handled to maintain satisfactory genetic identity & purity and that has been approved & certified by certifying agency.
  • 21.  Fixed to avoid contamination through volunteer plants & also the soil borne diseases
  • 22.  From contamination.  Natural contamination: (cross pollination)  Other contamination may be due to mechanical mixture at  Harvesting  Sowing  Threshing  Processing  Handling  Soil
  • 23.  The removal of off type plants is referred to as rouging  There are three main sources of off type plants.  Firstly the off type plants may arise due to presence of some recessive gene in homozygous conditions at the time of release  Another source of off type plants is the volunteer plants arising from accidentally planted seeds or from seed produced by earlier crops.  Mechanical mixtures is also source of contamination.  Removal is necessary before pollination occurs  Regular supervision by trained personnel is imperative.
  • 24.  The principal objective of seed certification is to maintain & make available crop seeds which are of good seeding value and true to variety.  Qualified & well experienced inspection is necessary.  Seed standards are confirmed by such agencies.
  • 25. Varieties being grown for seed production should periodically be tested for genetic purity by grow-out tests, to make sure that they are being maintained in their true form