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Role of Integrated Soil Fertility Management to Increasing Agricultural Productivity


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Presentation by Abdoulaye Mando at the May 15, 2013 event "Natural Resource Management and Food Security for a Growing Population". For more information visit:

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Role of Integrated Soil Fertility Management to Increasing Agricultural Productivity

  1. 1. IFDC The Role of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Increasing Agricultural Productivity A. Mando and D. Hellums IFDC
  2. 2. IFDC Agriculture in Africa: challenges  Poor soil fertility, drought  Low productivity  Fertilizer use: lowest in the world  High transport costs  Small markets  Food imports (SSA, bln $) 240 million people live on less than US$ 1 per day; vast majority active in agriculture
  3. 3. IFDC Where are the drylands? Aridity index < 0.65 RF < 800, CV 25%
  4. 4. IFDC And fertilizer use in the region remains low (kg nutrients/ha)
  5. 5. IFDC This has resulted in nutrient mining on agricultural lands 1995–97 2002–04
  6. 6. IFDC 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 Mt/Ha Cereal Yields (Mt/Ha) Developed Countries Asia Developing Latin America & Carribean Sub-Saharan Africa Cereal yields (Mt/ha) in different regions
  7. 7. IFDC SSA has chiefly relied on area expansion to achieve gains in production
  8. 8. IFDC Changes in Tropical Soil Fertility Management Paradigms over the Past Five Decades Period Approach Role of Fertilizer Role of Organic Resources Lessons 1960- 1997 External input Major focus Minimal - Low adoption - Soil degradation 1980 Organic input Little focus Key source of nutrients - Low adoption - Soil degradation 1990 Combined use of fertilizer and Organic Resources Fertilizer to top organic input - Localized adaption - Intensification not reached 2000 Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Major entry point Increase fertilize use efficiency - Goal of large- scale adoption - Prospect of sustainable management
  9. 9. IFDC Now: Integrated Soil Fertility Management A set of soil fertility management practices that necessarily include the use of fertilizer, organic inputs, targeted interventions to improve soil “hospitability” (drought, acidity) and improved germplasm combined with the knowledge on how to adapt these practices to local conditions, aiming at optimizing agronomic use efficiency of the applied nutrients and improving crop productivity. All inputs need to be managed following sound agronomic and economic principles.
  10. 10. IFDC Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Optimal use of:  Soil nutrients  Locally available soil amendments  Mineral fertilizers  Improve soil “hospitability” Improve crop productivity, while maintaining or improving soil fertility
  11. 11. IFDC Participatory Learning / TrainingSite Specific Fertilizer Recommendation Plots N P K 0N, +P, +K 0 + + 0P, +N, +K + 0 + 0K, +N, +P + + 0 +N, +P, +K + + +
  12. 12. IFDC Environmental Benefits Improved Agronomic efficiency Improved Resource Use efficiency Modify Release Mechanism - Polycoating, Reactive layer, Absorbed technology Nano-material Inhibitors - Urease (NBTPT - Agrotain), Nitrification (DCD, Neem, DMPP) Site Specific Improved NUE Slow Mineralization Urea formaldehydes, Urea Polymers, Nitamin, NFusion LowHangingFruits Methods&Management New and Modified Nutrient Sources Fertilizer-Sphere - bio-coating - nutrient retention Improved Internal Use Efficiency - more grain/nutrient uptake, better nutrient partitioning High Nutrient Density Grain New Application Tools -LCC, Green Seeker Site and Crop Specific Application UDP: -Machinery - Multi-nutrient Integrated Management - Cropping Systems - Amendments New Plant Type for Maximum Uptake -more rooting & uptake - reduced losses Improved Yields Increased Income Improved Nutrition, Health, and Education Organic /Biofertilizers BNF Promoters - Soil based, Foliar (TWINN) PlantTypes Benefits Improved Livelihood Microbiology Rhizosphere Chemistry Smart Fertilizers - Host specific -Climate-driven Improved knowledge
  13. 13. IFDC Selected ISFM Options
  14. 14. IFDC ISFM works for maize-based systems 5.6 3.3 3.2 0 2000 4000 6000 Kasaï Kuleni BH140 Grainyield(kgha -1 ) without fertilizer with fertilizer SED* (variety effect) SED** (fertilizer) 5.6 3.3 3.2 0 2000 4000 6000 Kasaï Kuleni BH140 BH5 Grainyield(kgha -1 ) without fertilizer with fertilizer SED* (variety effect) SED** (fertilizer) Maize yield in East DR Congo Local Improved ISFM is technically sound
  15. 15. IFDC Pearl Millet Total DMY vs. Management Practices, Sadore, Niger Source: Bationo, 1998. ISFM is technically sound
  16. 16. IFDC Sorghum Grain Yield as Affected by Mineral Fertilizers and Manure in the Sudanian Zone of West Africa Source: Sedogo, 1993.
  17. 17. IFDC Fertilizer N application (kg ha-1) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Maizegrainyield(tha-1) 0 1 2 3 4 5 infields outfields Added benefits obtained on infields and outfields, northern Togo, 2001
  18. 18. IFDC Mais en association avec Acacia auriculiformis Années 0 1 2 3 Rendementdemais(tha-1) 0 1 2 3 No fert. No trees Fert. No trees Fert. Trees No fert. Trees Effect of Acacia litter and mineral fertilizer on maize yield, Benin
  19. 19. IFDC Select Options Test Evaluate Development and Dissemination of ISFM Diagnose
  20. 20. IFDC DEVELOPMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF ISFM  Testing of soil fertility management options  Testing organizational arrangements to facilitate access to input, collective work for GRN and output markets  Villages become learning and ultimately knowledge centers  Farmer to farmer training
  21. 21. IFDC Farmers are describing their crops Results Grounding ISFM Within Knowledge Centers Through Participatory Learning
  22. 22. IFDC K deficiency in K deficiency in P N deficiency Grounding ISFM Within Knowledge Centers Good field Some Indicators of Maize Performance
  23. 23. IFDC Grounding ISFM Within Knowledge Centers Evaluation by the Learning Group
  24. 24. IFDC Farmer – to – Farmer Extension Pilot village Neighboring village Neighboring village Neighboring village First generation innovations Adaptations by other farmers Comments Scaling out through farmer-to- farmer
  25. 25. IFDC Scaling out through Innovation Platform Policy NGOs FBO CBO Industries Input markets ExtensionFarmers Output markets Research Innovation is the outcome of networking and interactions among many actors to make things happen
  26. 26. IFDC Public Evaluation of ISFM (Knowledge sharing) Good Farm Bad Farm – K Deficiency
  27. 27. IFDC Farmers led rural workshop on ISFM – Southern Togo 400 participants Scaling Up Through Knowledge Sharing with all stakholders
  28. 28. IFDC Number of Households Reached From 2006 to 2010 West Africa—SAADA Source: IFDC, 2011
  29. 29. IFDC Changes in Yield of Four Major Crops From 2006 to 2010 West Africa—SAADA Source: IFDC, 2011.
  30. 30. IFDC Revenue Generated by Four Major Crops Per Hectare, 2006-2010 West Africa—SAADA Source: IFDC, 2011.
  31. 31. IFDC Additional Land Area Under Sustainable Use, 2006-2010 (in hectares) West Africa—SAADA Source: IFDC, 2011.
  32. 32. IFDC Trend of Annual Additional Agricultural Production in Cereal Equivalents (mt) West Africa—SAADA Source: IFDC, 2011.
  33. 33. IFDC Farmer Cluster Participation and ISFM Adoption by Country and Year Central Africa—CATALIST Source: IFDC, 2012.
  34. 34. IFDC Summary of Yield Increases by Hectare (ha) Per Harvest Central Africa—CATALIST Source: IFDC, 2012.
  35. 35. IFDC Strong commitment at various level for action on Soil Health  Abuja Declaration on the Uniquely African Green Revolution and on Inputs  NEPAD and its CAADP, offers a framework for consensual policies and priorities for all stakeholders.  National and Regional Investment programs  Various conventional and non conventional donors commitment to soil health  2008 food crisis This commitment needs to be backed with science based principles Concluding Remarks
  36. 36. IFDC For ISFM to fulfill the promises in SSA the following are essential:  Innovation systems, extensions tools and systems to be established  Increased farmers access to inputs (fertilizer, seed, organic resources, etc.…)  Capacity building of R&D staff and institutions to address diversity, complexity and emerging global issues  Technological and processes innovations to improve nutrient use and water use Concluding Remarks
  37. 37. IFDC Thank you