Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Farming system

35,703 views

Published on

To make sustainable agriculture and profitable to the farmers, Farming System improvement is necessary.

Published in: Business

Farming system

  1. 1. Farming System : Concept, Scope and modules Dr. R P Singh Associate Director Extension G.B.P.U.A & T., Pantnagar 1
  2. 2. Challenges Rate of changes Challenge Current status (per year) world 6 billion + 1.3%Population India 1 billion + 1.95%Food insecure population 790 million 1.0%Soil degradation 1966 m ha 5-10 M haDesertification 1016 m ha 6 M haIrrigated area per person 0.045 ha -1.3%Grain harvested area per person 0.11 ha -0.55%Forested area per capita 0.59 ha -0.78%Atmospheric concentration of GHGsCO2 370 ppm +0.5%CH4 1.74 ppm +0.75% 2N2O 311 ppb +0.25%
  3. 3. Requirement by 2020 AD to meet the balanced diet as per norms prescribed by ICMR Crops/item Requirement Requirement in (gm/capita/day) million tons 2010 2020 Cereals and millets 420(391) 237.4(195) 280.99 Pulses and legumes 70(33) 22.61(13) 26.76 Fats and oils 40(34) 12.44 (9) 14.72 Vegetables 125 109.52 129.62 Roots and tubers 75 42.39 50.18 Fruits 50 43.81 51.85 Milk 150 84.79 100.35 Sugar 30(57) 16.96(19.2) 20.07 3 Egg 45 (The Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture, 2006) 25.44 30.11
  4. 4. Problems of present day agriculture• Decline in agriculture growth rate• Decline in factor productivity• Static or decline in food production• Increasing malnutrition• Shrinkage in net cultivable area• increasing environmental pollution• Depleting ground water table• Increasing cost of production• Low farm income• Increasing unemployment What is the solution? “Integrated Farming Systems” 4
  5. 5. Farming system?Farming :• Farming is a process of harnessing solar energy in the form of economic plant & animal products.• System: implies a set of interrelated process organized into a functional entity. 5
  6. 6. Features of diversified farming in sustainable agriculture• Maintain vegetative cover• Provide regular supply of organic matter• Enhance nutrient recycling mechanism• Pest control through enhanced bio-control activity
  7. 7. Farming System--components Other resources laborer Soil FARM Family livestock Water crops• Functions with in limitation of capability/resources/socio cultural settings• Interacting with physical, biological, economic factors• managing agricultural activity/even non farm vocations 7
  8. 8. Farming system designates a set ofagricultural activities organized intofunctional units: To profitably harness solar energy Preserving land productivity Ensuring environmental quality Maintaining desirable level ofbiological diversity and ecological stability. 8
  9. 9. Further: IFSResource Management strategies achieving economy and sustaining agriculture production Meeting diverse requirements of farming house holds Conserving the resource base and maintaining environment quality Efficient use of land, labour and available resources 9
  10. 10. Integrated Farming Systems  Crop husbandry  Livestock production  Poultry  Duckery  Horticulture  Aquaculture  Apiculture  Sericulture  Mushroom cultivation  Agro-forestry  Biogas plants  Miscellaneous enterprises 10
  11. 11.  An arrangement of recycling products/ by- products of one component as input to another linked component Reduction in cost of production Increase in productivity per unit area per unit time Increase in total income of farm Effective utilization of family labors around the year 11
  12. 12. Constraints ComponentsObjective IFS Physical Determinants Social Economic Environment 12
  13. 13. Factors determining type of farming• Physical factor (Climate ,soil, topography)• Economic factor – Marketing cost – Labour availability – Capital – Land value – Competition for enterprises – Consumer demand – Prevalent pest and diseases• Social factor (type of community, easy transport, marketing facilities and co-operative spirit)• Objective (income, production, minimizing cost etc.)• Availability of resources and components 13
  14. 14. Types of Integrated Farming Systems Crop-live stock farming system Crop-live stock –fishery farming system Crop-live stock – poultry - fishery farming system Crop-poultry-fishery – mushroom farming system Crop-fishery-poultry farming system Crop- livestock-fishery-vermicomposting farming system Crop-live stock-forestry farming system Agri-silvi-horticulture system Agri-horti-silvi-pastoral system 14 Home garden agro-forestry system
  15. 15. Factor deciding nature and size of enterprises• Farm size• Marketing facilities• Climate• Technologies available• Soil type and condition• Income level• Credit facility• Skill/Knowledge and• Social accessibility 15
  16. 16. Types of farming system• Crop livestock farming system HOUSE HOLD Excreta Biogas Crop Animals BIO GAS PIT Dung Slurry as manure Crop residue as feed Family Resources flow in farming system LIVE STOCK CROP 16
  17. 17. Crop- livestock- forestry farming system17
  18. 18. Crop- fish- poultry farming system18
  19. 19. Crop –livestock- poultry- fishery farming system19
  20. 20. Labour intensive farming system for small area Faeces Poultry as feed Pig Energy for use Earth worm feed Faeces Biogas Biogas Plant Mushroom Slurry Biogas Biogas Slurry Biogas Slurry Slurry Vermiculture Fish Pond Orchard fruit trees 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Agroforestry in Kerala: A Model 24 (Salam et al.,1992)
  25. 25. Enterprises linked in different agro- ecosystem Dry land Garden land Wet land• Dairy • Dairy • Dairy• Sheep • Poultry • Poultry• Goat • Mushroom • Mushroom• Agro forestry • Apiary • Apiary• Farm pond • Piggery • Fish culture • Sericulture • Duck farming 25
  26. 26. Farming system for different agro- climatic zones of India Regions SystemHigh altitude cold desert Pastures with agro-forestry, goats, angora rabbits and a region limited agricultural crops like millets, wheat, barley, fodders are recommended. Arid and desert region Farming system is centering mainly in animal husbandry with camels, sheep and goat and with moderate cropping components involving pearly millet, wheat, pulses, gram and fodder. Western and central Horticultural crops act as a major component and have Himalayan region a less intensive agriculture mainly on the hill terraces and slopes with maize, rice, wheat, pulses and fodder crops.Eastern Himalayan region Primitive crop husbandry with rice, millets, pulses etc. Agro-forestry system are also common. Piggery and poultry are the chief livestock activity. 26 Cont……..
  27. 27. Regions System Indo-gangetic plains Intensive crop husbandry involving rice-wheat, maize-mustard pulses is integrated livestock (including dairy cattle and buffaloes). Central and southern Cotton-sorghum-millets-pulses in linked with dairy- highlands cattle, sheep, goat poultry (as the secondary enterprises). Western ghats Major activity is cultivation of plantation crops. Cultivation of rice and pulses are the secondary agricultural activity. Cattle, sheep and goats are the livestock components which is maintained as large herds and allowed for free ranging.Delta and coastal plains Rice cultivation is linked along with fish culture, poultry and piggery enterprises. Capture fisheries of the marine ecosystem is a specialized enterprise and does not mix with cropping activity. 27
  28. 28. Productivity of Rice-based IFS: A case study Farming system Component productivity (Kg/ha) Rice-grain equivalent Crop Poultry Mushroom yield (Kg/ha) Rice – fallow 4311 - - 4311 (Existing system) Rice-Groundnut + 6557 (39) 6,060 (36) 4,305 (25) 16,922 Mushroom+ poultry Rice-Cowpea+ 7,662 (43) 6,060 (34) 4,305 (23) 18,027 Mushroom+ poultry Rice-Brinjal+ 11,122 (52) 6,060 (28) 4,305 (20) 21,487 Mushroom+ poultry Rice-Sunnhemp+ 4,993 (33) 6,060 (39) 4,305 (28) 15,358 Mushroom+ poultryFigures in parentheses indicate per cent contribution to the total systemproductivityExperiment conducted at the ICAR Res. Complex, Goa (Manjunath & Itnal, 2003) 28
  29. 29. Income and employment generation under IFS Location: Kalahandi district of Orissa Enterprises Unit Cost of Gross return Net return B:C Man production (Rs./unit) (Rs./unit) ratio days (Rs./unit) Crop 5.0 ha 2,28,000 6,82,900 4,54,900 3.00 1310 component Animals (2 5 Nos. 16,200 38,880 22,680 2.40 140 cows + 3 (4.6%) buffalo) Poultry (40 80 Nos. 2,000 11,600 9,600 5.80 60 chicks + 40 (1.9%) ducks) Pisciculture 0.2 ha 8,000 20,000 12,020 2.50 45 (fingerlings) (2.4%) Total 5.2 ha 2,54,200 7,53,380 4,99,180 2.96 1,555 Convention 1.4 ha 13,100 19,220 6,120 1.40 ------- al systemsOn- farm experiment conducted in the farm of Mr. Murli Budhia, Vill. Kanakpur, Bhawanipatna 29 (Nanda et al., 2007)
  30. 30. A case study of Integrated Farming System OBJECTIVES: To identify profitable, sustainable and eco-friendly farming systems for 2 ha land holding. Comparative evaluation of different farming systems to reduce cost of cultivation for higher returns through recycling of residues within the system CENTRAL SOIL SALINITY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, KARNAL 30
  31. 31. Proposed Model(Land area 2.0 hectare)(A) Crop production : 0.8 haRice-Wheat 0.2 ha.Maize- Wheat-Moong 0.2 ha.Winter Maize-Soybean 0.2 ha.Pigeon pea-Mustard-Fodder maize 0.2 ha.(B) Fodder Production: 0.4 haMaize- Maize-Berseem 0.2 ha.Sorghum-Berseem/Oat 0.2 ha. 31
  32. 32. (C) Horticulture: 0.2 haPapaya and guava(D) Vegetables : 0.2 haBottle ground-Cauliflower(E) Floriculture : 0.2 haMarigold, Gladiolus andChrysanthemums in RabiBaby corn, Sweet corn etc. in Kharif(F) Fish, bee keeping and mushroom : 0.2 haCatla, rohu, mrigal, common carp and grass carp, 25 bee boxes. 32
  33. 33. Outcome S. No. Enterprise Benefit/ Gain 1. Crop production Net profit Rs.39,400/ha; (Rice-Wheat) B:C ratio 1.70 2. Vegetables Net profit of Rs.80,000/ha (bottleguard-cauliflower) 3. Fodder production Net profit of Rs.59,000 / ha ; (Maize- Maize-Berseem) B:C ratio 2.98 4. Fodder production Net profit 40,000 / ha; (Sorghum-Berseem/Oat) B:C ratio 2.91, 5. Milk production (Buffaloes) Rs.400 per day from milk; 91 q dung* in 4 months 6. Bee-keeping (Honey ) Rs.40,000 in six months 7. Fishery Rs.15,000/ year* The dung also supplied equivalent to 73 kg N, 46 kg p, 109 kg K, 4.4 kg Zn, 1.32kg Cu and7.99 kg Mn 33
  34. 34. Productivity (RGEY) of IFS in Irrigated Agro-Ecosystem of Eastern U.P.Farming system Component productivity (q) Component productivity (q/ ha) Crop Dairy Poultry Fish Total TotalRice- pea- okra (MRS) 42.72 - - - 42.72 170.88MRS+ sorghum- berseem- 32.70 236.33 - - 269.03 1076.12maize+ dairyMRS+ sorghum- berseem- 32.70 - 30.37 - 63.07 252.28maize+ poultryMRS+ sorghum- berseem- 28.57 - - 15.06 43.63 174.52maize+ fishMRS+ sorghum- berseem- 32.42 236.33 30.37 - 299.12 1196.48maize+ dairy+ poultryMRS+ sorghum- berseem- 28.09 236.33 - 15.06 279.48 1117.92maize+ dairy+ fishMRS+ sorghum- berseem- 28.09 - 30.37 15.06 73.52 294.08maize+ fish+ poultryMRS+ sorghum- berseem- 27.61 236.33 30.37 15.06 309.37 1237.48maize+ dairy+ fish+ poultryRes. Farm, IAS,BHU (Varanasi) (Singh et al.,2007) 34
  35. 35. Poultry component Poultry Dairy component (1800 brollers)- 0.02 ha dropping (20 cow)- 0.02 haSuplement green fodder cow dropping Cowdung utilized as manure Poultry dropping as manure Crop component Fish component Rice-pea-okra (0.5 ha) 2 fish ponds of 0.2 haSorghum-berseem-maize (0.26ha) Each with 2000 fish density Productivity Productivity (94532 kg RGEY) (12148 kg RGEY) Income: Rs 317904 Income: Rs 39768 Labour:0 man days Productivity Labour:0 man days (11044.9 kg RGEY) Income: Rs 42708 Productivity Labour:731 man days (6024 kg RGEY) Income: Rs 21224 Farm house hold (1.0 ha) Labour:0 man days Productivity :123748 kg RGEY , Income: Rs. 421604 Employment generation : 731 man days/yrEconomics of a Sustainable Farming System model for Irrigated Agro- ecosystem of Varansi and Chanduli region of NEPZ of UP 35 (Singh et al., 2007)
  36. 36. Proposed Model for Integrated Farming System in Lower Hill/Tarai Irrigated 36
  37. 37. Cropping system (0.364 ha) Feed (forage crops) Milch cows i. sunflower- maize+cow pea + green gram (0.016 ha) (60% area) ii. Bajra (fodder)+desmanthus (20% area) manure iii.bhindi- chilles (10 %) Field and fodder crops Biocompost (0.008 ha) labour Food, Milk, Income incomeVegetablecrops Vegetable labour Crops residues Farm household (0.40 ha) Meat, Egg, Income Income labour labour Goat and Guinea Vermicompost (0.008 ha) fowl manure (0.004 ha) Feed (Forage & crop wastes)Resource flow model of integrated farming system – Irrigated upland 37 (0.4 ha) for Western zone of Tamil Nadu (Jayanthi et al.,2007)
  38. 38. Productivity and economic analysis of different integrated farming systemsFarming system RGEY Cost of Gross Net Per day (kg/ha) production return return Return (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha)Cropping alone 12,222 24,922 61,112 36,190 167Crop +fish + poultry 31,858 44,627 159,292 114,665 436Crop + fish + pigeon 32,554 43,310 161,772 118,462 443Crop + fish + goat 39,610 51,483 178,047 12,564 493 Experiment undertaken at Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (low land) (Jayanthi et al., 2003) 38
  39. 39. Employment generation (man-days) Employment generation (man-days)Farming system Crop Poultry Pigeon Fish Goat Total system employment generationCropping alone 369 - - - - 369Crop +fish + 420 61 - 34 - 515poultryCrop + fish + 420 - 61 34 - 515pigeonCrop + fish + 420 - - 34 122 575goatExperiment undertaken at Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (low land) (Jayanthi et al., 2003) 39
  40. 40. Income and expenditure of different integrated farming modules for small farmersS Treatment Expenditur Gross Net B:C Employmeno e income income ratio nt days . (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)1 Crop (1.4 ha) 28925 47225 18300 1.63 3852 Crop + 39755 70800 31044 1.78 528 2 bullocks+3cows3 Crop +2 bullocks + 40559 83833 43273 2.07 528 3 buffaloes4 Crop +2 bullocks + 43221 94325 51104 2.18 554 1 cow + 2 buffaloes + 15 goats5 Crop +2 bullocks+ 46430 104887 58456 2.25 571 1 cow + 2 buffaloes + 15 goats + 20 poultry + 20 ducks (Ramrao et al .,2005)Chhattisgarh plains 40
  41. 41. Paddy-cum-fish culture
  42. 42. Fishing in Paddy Fields
  43. 43. Practical Out-look of Trench-refugecombinations in rice- fish culture plots
  44. 44. Grain yield and economics of rice-azolla-fish farmingsystemSystems Grain Yield (t/ha) Fish Yield Return I crop II crop (Kg/ha) per Rupee investedRice alone 3.90 3.60 - 2.32Rice+azolla 4.63 4.46 - 2.87Rice+fish 3.70 3.41 900 2.83Rice+fish+ 4.08 4.06 900 3.05azollaCD (P=0.05) 0.60 0.73 - - Shivakumar and Balasubramaniam, 2000
  45. 45. Agro-climatic zone-wise promising agroforestry systemsAgro-climatic Agroforestry Tree component Crop/grasszone systemWestern Silvipasture (RF) Grewia optiva Setaria spp.Himalayas Morus alba Setaria spp. Agrihorticulture Malus pumila Millets, wheat Agrihorticulture Prunus persica Maize, Soybean AnthocephalusEastern Agrisilviculture Cadamba PaddyHimalayan Agrihorticulture Alnus nepalensis Large Cardamom/Coffee Silviculture Bamboos
  46. 46. Boundary Plantation
  47. 47. Agro-climatic Agroforestry Tree Crop/grasszone system componentWestern Silvipasture Grewia optiva SetariaHimalayas spp. (RF) Morus alba Setaria spp. Agrihorticulture Malus pumila Millets, wheat Agrihorticulture Prunus persica Maize, Soybean AnthocephalusEastern Agrisilviculture Cadamba PaddyHimalayan Agrihorticulture Alnus Large nepalensis Cardamom/Coffee Silviculture Bamboos Silvipasture Alnus Setaraia spp., nepalensis, Native grasses, Pinus Napier grass roxburghii
  48. 48. Agro-climatic Agroforestry Tree component Crop/grasszone systemLower Gangetic Agrisilviculture (Irri) Eucalypts Paddy, SheatPlains Agrihorticulture (Irri) Mango/Banana, Litchi Maize Silvipasture Acacia auriculiformisMiddle Gangetic Agrisilviculture (Irri) Populus deltoids Sugarcane-wheatPlains Agrisilviculture (Irri) Eucalypts Rice-Wheat Agrisilviculture Dalbergia sissoo Sesamum Agrihorticulture (Irri) Mango/citrus Rice-WheatTrans Gangetic Agrihorticulture (Irri) Emblica officinalis Black gram/Green gramPlains Agrisilviculture Azadirachta indica Black gram- Wheat/MustardUpper Gangetic Agrisilviculture (Irri) Populus deltoids Wheat, Bajra fodderplains Agrihorticulture (Irri) Eucalypts Rice-Wheat SilvipastureEastern Plateau & Agrisilviculture Gmelina arborea Paddy, linseed PaddyHills Agrisilviculture Acacia nilotica Silviculture Acacia mangium Silviculture Bamboos
  49. 49. Bambusa balcoo + toria + apiculture
  50. 50. Bamboo+cowpea
  51. 51. Poplar + direct seeded rice
  52. 52. Poplar + Soybean
  53. 53. Shisham + Wheat
  54. 54. Eucalyptus + Wheat
  55. 55. LONG TERM Advantages of Integrated Farming Systems Regular income and year round employment Provides food and nutritional security Eco- recycling of agriculture residues/ by-products/wastes Better soil quality for sustainable agriculture Halting of ground water depletion through the enterprises requiring less water Minimization in pollution hazards improves micro climate Conservation of natural resources Minimizes the risk of failure in productivity 60
  56. 56. Limitations of IFS Lack of awareness about sustainable farming systems Unavailability of varied farming system models Lack of credit facilities at easy and reasonable interest rate Lack of banking aptitude and habit to take full advantage of credit facilities Non-availability of ensured marketing facilities specially for perishable commodities Lack of marketing intelligence among farmers Lack of deep freezing and storage facilities Dedicated / committed extension services Lack of timely availability of inputs Lack of knowledge/education among farming community specially of rural youth 61
  57. 57. Issues to be Considered: Need to conduct adaptive research for developing efficient IFS model Provision of training to technicians, extension workers and farm engineers to support and sustain farming system Availability of adequate banking facilities and loans with the priority to small and marginal farmers Provision of assured marketing facilities specially for perishable commodities A better coordination among research institutes, Govt. development agencies and NGOs Timely supply of necessary inputs on subsidized base Farmer should develop their banking aptitude and habits to take full advantage of credit facilities Cataloguing and utilization of ITK concepts in the development of 62 farming system modules
  58. 58. • IFS is a promising approach for increasing over all productivity and profitability through recycling the farm by-products, and efficient utilization of available resources• It could further generate employment opportunities to the farming communities round the year and provide a better economic and nutritional security• The combination of different enterprises needs to be seriously viewed. This can go long way uplift rural life through increased income . 63
  59. 59. 64

×