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LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
IllustratedIllustrated
1
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
●
Without Leadership
●
Definition & Characteristics : Innate or
Acquired? Boss & Manager vs Leader ?
●
Leadership @ a glance
●
Power and Leadership
●
Leadership Styles
●
Charismatic Leadership
●
Leadership Pipeline
●
Leadership Assessment
●
Leadership Development
●
Emotional Intelligence Leadership Model
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Leadership Substitutes: the Limits
●
Extraordinary Leadership Integrative Model
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Global Leadership
●
Bibliography
2
WITHOUTWITHOUT
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
3
WITHOUTWITHOUT
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
3 THINGS HAPPEN3 THINGS HAPPEN
WITHOUT LEADERSHIP :WITHOUT LEADERSHIP :
http://mblhrconnect.blogspot.fr
''ONLY 3 THINGS HAPPEN
NATURALLY IN ORGANIZATIONS :
FRICTION, CONFUSION, AND
UNDERPERFORMANCE.
EVERYTHING ELSE REQUIRES
LEADERSHIP.''
Peter Drucker.
''ONLY 3 THINGS HAPPEN
NATURALLY IN ORGANIZATIONS :
FRICTION, CONFUSION, AND
UNDERPERFORMANCE.
EVERYTHING ELSE REQUIRES
LEADERSHIP.''
Peter Drucker.
4
WITHOUTWITHOUT
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
DeliverablesDeliverables vs.vs. UnbearablesUnbearables : :
ENTROPY - DISORDER
NO
REGULATION
MICROMANAGEMENT
ZERO TASKING –
MULTI TASKING
5
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
Definition & CharacteristicsDefinition & Characteristics
Work in
progress
●
Definition
●
Innate or
acquired ?
●
Leadership vs.
Management
InnateInnate
AcquiredAcquired
ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership
6
A LEADERSHIPA LEADERSHIP
DEFINITIONDEFINITION
http://mblhrconnect.blogspot.fr
LEADERSHIP :LEADERSHIP :
The activity of leading a group of people or an
organization or the ability to do this.Leadership
involves :
● establishing a clear vision,
● sharing that vision with others so that they will
follow willingly,
● providing the information, knowledge and
methods to realize that vision, and
● coordinating and balancing the conflicting
interests of all members and stakeholders.
www.businessdictionary.com
7
Innate orInnate or
Acquired ?Acquired ?
A. Chaplin wrote:
Leadership is learned. As a certified facilitator of The Leadership
Challenge by Jim Kouzes & Barry Posner, I cite their findings
based on more than 25 years of research: ''It's nonsense toIt's nonsense to
assume that leadership is geneticassume that leadership is genetic. There's no hard evidence to
support that assumption... The truth is that leadership is anThe truth is that leadership is an
observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened,observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened,
honed, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practicehoned, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practice
and feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support andand feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support and
recognitionrecognition. Live, learn, and lead!
www.Linked 2 Leadership.com
A. Chaplin wrote:
Leadership is learned. As a certified facilitator of The Leadership
Challenge by Jim Kouzes & Barry Posner, I cite their findings
based on more than 25 years of research: ''It's nonsense toIt's nonsense to
assume that leadership is geneticassume that leadership is genetic. There's no hard evidence to
support that assumption... The truth is that leadership is anThe truth is that leadership is an
observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened,observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened,
honed, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practicehoned, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practice
and feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support andand feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support and
recognitionrecognition. Live, learn, and lead!
www.Linked 2 Leadership.com
Is leadership innate or acquired ? Are leaders born or made, or both ?
The old 'nature' versus 'nurture' debate rages about leadership too.
8
Innate orInnate or
Acquired?Acquired?cont'dcont'd
LEADERS ARE BORN.
 LEADERS CAN BE MADE
''It is true that some leadership characteristics show up very
early in life but in fact, leadership characteristics can be
developed. You can be a better leader [...] nearly all people
are made better leaders from specific developmental
activities.''
Leaders are a lot more 'made' than they are 'born''...
''One of the best evidence that leaders can be created starting with ''regular''
people is the remarkable track record of the US Marines.Marine recruits often
come from troubled or abusive homes...are frequently casual users of drugs
or alcohol, or have minor convictions, and often have not attended college.
All the usual predictors of success are generally absent from this group of
individuals. Yet many marine recruits are transformed into effective leaders after a 2 to 3-year
period and go on to display remarkable leadership skills as their careers continue.''
Source : John Zenger & Joseph Folkman, The Handbook For Leaders, pp 5-7.
9
Leadership vs.Leadership vs.
BossitudeBossitude **
ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership
Difference between
Boss & Leader
●
Drives employees
●
Depends on authority
●
Inspires fear
●
Says ''I''
●
Places blame for the breakdowns
●
Knows how it is done
●
Uses people
●
Takes credit
●
Commands
●
Says ''Go''
●
Coaches employees
●
Depends on goodwill
●
Generates enthusiasm
●
Says ''We''
●
Fixes the breakdowns
●
Shows how it is done
●
Develops people
●
Gives credit
●
Asks & inquires
●
Says ''Let's go''
* Bossitude = ''Bossy attitude'' = Fr. ''Chefaillonite''
http://mblhrconnect.blogspot.fr/2013/04/the-leadership-academy-challenges-of.html?view=mosaic
10
Leadership vs.Leadership vs.
ManagementManagement
ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership
http://blogs.hbr.org/kotter/2013/01/management-is-still-not-leadership.html
Dr. John P. KotterDr. John P. Kotter ,the Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Leadership,
Emeritus at Harvard Business School and the Chief Innovation Officer
at Kotter International, explains the 3 mistakes people commonly3 mistakes people commonly
make about ''management and leadership'' :make about ''management and leadership'' :
Mistake # 1 :
People use the terms
"management" and
"leadership"
interchangeably. This
shows that they don't
see the crucial
difference between the
two and the vital
functions that each
role plays.
Mistake # 2 :
People use the term
"leadership" to refer to the
people at the very top of
hierarchies. They then call
the people in the layers
below them in the
organization ''management''.
And then all the rest are
workers, specialists, and
individual contributors.
This is also a mistake and
very misleading.
Mistake # 3 :
People often think of
"leadership" in terms of
personality characteristics,
usually as something they
call charisma.
Since few people have
great charisma, this leads
logically to the conclusion
that few people can provide
leadership, which gets us
into increasing trouble.
11
Leadership vs.Leadership vs.
ManagementManagement
ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership
http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/change-leadership
What is the difference betweenWhat is the difference between
management and leadership ?management and leadership ?
MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP
Management makes systems of people and
technology work well day after day, week after
week, year after year.
Leadership creates the systems that managers
manage and changes them in fundamental ways
to take advantage of opportunities and to avoid
hazards
●Planning and budgeting
●Organizing and staffing
●Controlling and problem solving
●Taking complex systems of people and
technology and making them run efficiently
and effectively, hour after hour, day after day
●Creating vision and strategy
●Communicating and setting direction
●Motivating action
●Aligning people
●Creating systems that managers can manage
and transforming them when needed to allow
for growth, evolution, opportunities, and hazard
avoidance
12
Leadership vs.Leadership vs.
ManagementManagement
ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership
http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/change-leadership
''Management is a set of processes
(see previous chart) which help an
organization to predictably do what
it is to do. Management helps to
produce products and services of
consistent quality, on budget, day
after day. So, management is
crucial — but it's not leadership. ''
''Leadership is all about taking an organization into
the future, finding and successfully exploiting
opportunities. It is about vision, people buying in,
empowerment and, about producing useful change. It
is not about attributes, but behavior. This ever-faster-
moving world, requires leadership from all people,
whatever their place in hierarchy. Thinking that The
notion that only top hierarchy people can provide all
the leadership needed today is a recipe for failure.''
''Some people still argue that we must replace
management with leadership. This is obviously
not so: they serve different, yet essential,
functions. We need superb management. And
we need more superb leadership. We need to
be able to make our complex organizations
reliable and efficient. We need them to jump
into the future — the right future — at an
accelerated pace, no matter the size of the
changes required to make that happen.''
''There are very few organizations today that have
sufficient leadership. Unless we recognize that
we're not talking about management when we
speak of leadership, all we will try to do when we
do need more leadership is work harder to
manage. At a certain point, we end up with over-
managed and under-led organizations, which are
increasingly vulnerable in a fast-moving world.''
13
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
@ A GLANCE@ A GLANCE
●
Leadership Chronology
●
Leadership Theories
●
Leadership Tools
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A LeadershipA Leadership
ChronologyChronology
Source : Integrative Leadership presentation - Lillas Hatala,Faculty Director, University of Saskatchewan
LEADERSHIP RESEARCH AND THEORIES SO FARLEADERSHIP RESEARCH AND THEORIES SO FAR
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
TraitsTraits
BehavioursBehaviours
Contingency ModelContingency Model
CompetenciesCompetencies
TransformationalTransformational
EmotionalEmotional
IntelligenceIntelligence
SpiritualSpiritual
IntelligenceIntelligence
IntegrativeIntegrative
LeadershipLeadership
Core Leadership TheoriesCore Leadership Theories
@ a glance@ a glance
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/leadership-theories.htm 15
TRAIT THEORIES
argue that effective leaders share a number of
common personality characteristics, or "traits."Early
theories stated that leadership was innate.These
theories are helpful to identify traits and qualities
e.g. integrity, empathy, assertiveness, good
decision-making skills, and likability.
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
Focus on what leaders do.In the 1930s, Kurt Lewin
developed a framework based on a leader's
behavior. He argued that there are three types of
leaders: * Autocratic leaders
* Democratic leaders
* Laissez-faire leaders
CONTINGENCY THEORIES
Focus on the situational influence.They try to
predict which style is best in which circumstance.
Popular contingency-based models are :
* Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
* House's Path-Goal Theory
* Fiedler's Contingency Model
POWER & INFLUENCE THEORIES
are based on the different ways that leaders use
power and influence to get things done.Best-known
theories are :
* French & Raven's 5 Forms of Power
* Transactional Leadership (reward's influence)
* Leading by example
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Effective leadership is not simply based on a set of attributes, behaviors, and influences.A wide range of
abilities and approaches is actually needed.This is why transformational leadership is mostly
accurate.Transformational leaders show integrity, and they know how to develop a robust and inspiring
vision of the future. They motivate people to achieve this vision, they manage its delivery, and they build
ever stronger and more successful teams.
16
Leadership Tools @ a glanceLeadership Tools @ a glance
The 9-Box Grid assesses leadership performance &
leadership potential, and may have been first used at GE,
under Jack Welch’s leadership to facilitate talent review
meetings.
Hersey and BlanchardHersey and Blanchard
's model's model helps match
leadership style to the
readiness of the
followers.
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton'sRobert Blake and Jane Mouton's
Managerial Grid, or Leadership GridManagerial Grid, or Leadership Grid
plots the degree of task-centeredness
versus person-centeredness and
identifies five combinations as distinct
leadership styles.
Charan & Drotter'sCharan & Drotter's
Leadership PipelineLeadership Pipeline
illustrates the evolutions
through various
organizational levels of
leadership, from leading
self to others, to a
function,to managers...
Bass and Avolio's Multi-factor LeadershipBass and Avolio's Multi-factor Leadership
Questionnaire or MLQQuestionnaire or MLQ was translated into a
360 degree leadership assessment (MLQ)
which measures a full range of leadership
behaviors (heavy on transformational) and
has proven to be predictive of outcomes and
results.
Conger & KanungoConger & Kanungo created
a Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership
Questionnaire & aQuestionnaire & a
measurement Scale ofmeasurement Scale of
Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership
that identifies the effect of a
charismatic leader in an
organizational setting.
Mindtool's Leadership MotivationLeadership Motivation
Self AssessmentSelf Assessment was patterned
after Dubrin's: Leadership,Research
Findings,Practice and Skills
Zenger & FolkmanZenger & Folkman based their research
on the analysis of over 20,000 leaders'
360-degree assessments360-degree assessments.
17
POWER &POWER &
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
●
French & Raven's Power
Bases
●
Maxwell's power ladder
●
The 5 POWER behaviors
●
Techniques to increase
power position at work
18
LeadershipLeadership
Power BasesPower Bases
Researchers French & RavenFrench & Raven identified 8
categories of social power enabling leaders to
influence others.The so-called 8 'Power Bases''Power Bases'
are divided into :
●
Positional PowerPositional Power, flowing from granted status,
●
and Personal PowerPersonal Power earned through one's own
endeavours.
http://brilliantinfluence.wordpress.com/2010/08/19/french-and-ravens-power-bases
Legitimate PowerLegitimate Power derives from the authority
associated to the place in hierarchy.
Coercive PowerCoercive Power is based on fear, the ability
to impose one's will by threat of sanction.
Reward PowerReward Power stems from the inducements
or rewards that can be offered.
Resource PowerResource Power arises from control or
access to specific resources: funds,
supplies, equipment.
Information PowerInformation Power derives from one's
access to valuable information.
Referent PowerReferent Power correspponds to the
influence exerted through personal
relationships, charisma, and likeability.
Expert PowerExpert Power is gained through skills
and knowledge.It gives authority that
commands great respect.
Connexion PowerConnexion Power comes through
networking, being able to use links to
other influential people to
support one's own power.
LEADERSHIP & FOLLOWERSHIP :LEADERSHIP & FOLLOWERSHIP :
The 5 Reasons Why They FollowThe 5 Reasons Why They Follow
19
http://mblhrconn
ect.blogspot.fr/2
013/08/the-
leadership-
academy-5-
levels-of.html?
view=mosaic
Leadership &
Influence
Processes @
http://pages.palo
verde.edu/staff/l
martin/man145/l
esson14.htm
THETHE
LEVELSLEVELS
OFOF
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP55
1 - POSITION1 - POSITION
–– RIGHTS –RIGHTS –
People follow because they have to
1 - POSITION1 - POSITION
–– RIGHTS –RIGHTS –
People follow because they have to
2 - PERMISSION2 - PERMISSION
–– RELATIONSHIPS –RELATIONSHIPS –
People follow because they want to
2 - PERMISSION2 - PERMISSION
–– RELATIONSHIPS –RELATIONSHIPS –
People follow because they want to
3 - PRODUCTION3 - PRODUCTION
–– RESULTS –RESULTS –
People follow because of what you have done for the organization
3 - PRODUCTION3 - PRODUCTION
–– RESULTS –RESULTS –
People follow because of what you have done for the organization
4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT
–– REPRODUCTION –REPRODUCTION –
People follow because of what you have done for them
4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT
–– REPRODUCTION –REPRODUCTION –
People follow because of what you have done for them
5 - PINNACLE5 - PINNACLE
–– RESPECT –RESPECT –
People follow because of who you are and what you represent
5 - PINNACLE5 - PINNACLE
–– RESPECT –RESPECT –
People follow because of who you are and what you represent
20
Maxwell's ladder ofMaxwell's ladder of
leadership powerleadership power
Position -Position - Any position in an organization confers certain rights.
Getting promoted, supposedly automatically confers greater
leadership capability, but this power is a trap. Position leadershipPosition leadership
is the nil-level of leadership actually.is the nil-level of leadership actually. Collaborators follow through
coercion, not consent. And Peter's Principle is never far away...And Peter's Principle is never far away...
Then come the 1st to 4th steps on the power ladder, related
to corresponding leadership levels, from 'Permission'
to 'Self Fulfillment' ...
http://www.talent-technologies.com
John Maxwell’s 360° Leader360° Leader
offers a model which exemplifies
the progression from manager to
leader. The leaders identify their
level on the ladder according to
the kind of ''power'' their
leadership position derives from.
John Maxwell’s 360° Leader360° Leader
offers a model which exemplifies
the progression from manager to
leader. The leaders identify their
level on the ladder according to
the kind of ''power'' their
leadership position derives from.
PositionPosition
PermissionPermission
ProductionProduction
People DevelopmentPeople Development
Personal FulfillmentPersonal Fulfillment
TRAP !!!
21
Maxwell's ladder ofMaxwell's ladder of
leadership powerleadership power
Personal Fulfillment (Self Actualisation)Personal Fulfillment (Self Actualisation)
At this level, people respect the leader because
of who he/she is and what he/she represents.
This level is reserved for those who have spent
years growing people & the organisation they
work for.They help shape and create the culture
in a vibrant, tangible way.
PermissionPermission -- The 1st step of leadership takes
place when the leader receives permission
from his direct reports, colleagues and
superiors to lead.The leader establishes
effective relationships with his/her
colleagues. People follow the leader beyond
stated authority.
http://www.talent-technologies.com
ProductionProduction is the next level of leadership. 
Here, the leader is able to get great results
from their collaborators on a long-term,
sustainable basis.This is the level of effective
management.
People DevelopmentPeople Development -The leader spends
less time managing and more developing the
capabilities of those accountable to him/her.
People follow because of what the leader
does for them – not on a ‘surface’ level, but in
a deeper, transformational sense.The leader
helps mentor and grow his direct reports into
more leaders, creating a ‘leadership pipeline’creating a ‘leadership pipeline’.
PositionPosition
PermissionPermission
ProductionProduction
People DevelopmentPeople Development
Personal FulfillmentPersonal Fulfillment
TRAP !!!
Using POWER BehaviorsUsing POWER Behaviors
Charity begins at home, and management begins with self-
management. So individual leadership has a lot to gain
from self-management and self-awareness, and especially
POWER behaviors.
22
http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/human-relations/section_17_01.html
Self
Management
Self
Management
● Coping with change
● Controlling emotions
● Coping with change
● Controlling emotions
● Personality traits
● Understanding own communication style
● Using POWER behaviors
● Personality traits
● Understanding own communication style
● Using POWER behaviors
Self
Awareness
Self
Awareness
Position power as in Feng Shui (most favorable physical position in a
meeting) can be seen as a set of behaviors we exhibit on a daily basis.
These five behaviors can help us increase our power position at work. We
may think about the acronym POWER to remember these behaviors
( Dawson, J. 2007–8 : What Good Leaders Do. )
●
PPositiveositive approach to everything can help increase your power position. Avoiding
rumors, gossip, and other negative behaviors can gain the trust of others.
●
OOpenpen. Being open to others, new ideas, and people can help increase your power
position.
●
WWillingnessillingness. The willingness to do things different, try something new, and take risks
can increase your power position.
●
EEmployingmploying. Employing things like tact, common courtesies, humor, patience, and
emotional intelligence skills can increase your position power.
●
RRememberingemembering. Know your purpose, set goals, and always do your best.
23
Techniques to increase PowerTechniques to increase Power
Position at workPosition at work
These are 10 Techniques that may help increase your power position at work :
1. Be authentic. Be yourself. Stay true to your values and those things you find important.
2. Refuse to let people push your buttons. This can result in conflict, which does not
increase your position power. Make an effort to try and get along with others.
3. Develop esteem and confidence. Esteem and confidence will give you the ability to
take on difficult tasks, help others, and contribute to the organization.
4. Be a team player. Get along with and help others. Helping others shows leadership,
ability, and good citizenship. It can put you in a position of not only earning the respect of
others but also showing your value to the organization.
5. Be someone that makes others feel good. Make others feel good when they are
around you—for example, by being genuinely interested in them.
6. Develop your communication skills. Work on your written, oral, and nonverbal
language skills. Learn to read and understand others’ body language.
7. Be visible in the workplace. Don’t take credit for others’ work, but do take credit for
your own work. Choose high-profile projects that can put you in a position where others
see your work.
8. Don’t complain. Unless you can also provide a solution, don’t offer a complaint!
9. Be goal oriented and willing to take risks. Focus on goal setting personally and
professionally. Show managers and colleagues how you can help them meet goals.
10.Have positive psychological capital. There are four aspects to positive
psychological capital: hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resiliency. Self-efficacy refers to
belief in your own abilities while optimism means to have a positive outlook. Resiliency is
the ability to make it through difficult circumstances. In a study by the Leadership
InstituteLuthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007).
http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/human-relations/section_17_01.html
24
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
STYLESSTYLES
●
Blake & Mouton's
Leadership Grid
●
Hersey & Blanchard's
Situational Model : the
Contingency approach
25
Blake & Mouton'sBlake & Mouton's
Leadership GridLeadership Grid
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (early 1960s) developed the Managerial Grid,
or Leadership Grid, a popular framework for thinking about a leader’s ‘task
versus person’ orientation. It plots the degree of task-centeredness versus
person-centeredness and identifies five combinations as distinct leadership
styles.
Neither preference is
right or wrong, and no
one type of leadership
style is suitable for all
situations. Actually, the
grid is a useful tool to
understand one's
natural leadership
tendencies , so as to
begin working on
developing skills that
may be missing. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_73.htm
Blake & Mouton'sBlake & Mouton's
Leadership GridLeadership Grid
●
Produce or Perish Leadership – High Production/Low People= Also known as Authoritarian
or Compliance Leaders,believing that employees are simply a means to an end. Very
autocratic type of leader,with strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and punishment seen
as the most effective means to motivate employees !
●
Middle-of-the-Road Leadership – Medium Production/Medium People= This style seems to
be a balance of the two competing concerns, and it may at first appear to be an ideal
compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: when you compromise, you necessarily give
away a bit of each concern, so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders
who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most
anyone can expect.
●
Team Leadership – High Production/High People= Best managerial style according to the
Blake Mouton model. Leaders stressing production needs and the needs of the people equally
highly. Source : http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_73.htm
Cont'd
The Leadership / Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions:
●
Concern for People – The degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal
development when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
●
Concern for Production – The degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high
productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
Using the axis to plot leadership ‘concerns for production’ versus ‘concerns for people’, Blake and Mouton defined the following
5 leadership styles:
●
Impoverished Leadership – Low Production/Low People= Mostly ineffective leadership.The result is disorganization, dissatisfaction and
disharmony.
●
Country Club Leadership – High People/Low Production=Style of leader mostly concerned about team members' needs and feelings.
Tends to result into a very relaxed and fun work environment where production suffers due to lack of direction and control.
26
27
Situational Leadership :Situational Leadership :
The Contingency ApproachThe Contingency Approach
Influence BehaviorsInfluence Behaviors
http://insightsonleadership.com/theories-of-leadership/contingency-approach/
www.business-development-1st.co.uk/blog/142/What-is-situational-leadership
Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership
Model sets up a contingency approach to
leadership that matches leadership style to
situation and the readiness of the followers.
Appropriate leadership behavior is dependent on the
situation.Leaders should take into consideration
several factors before choosing a specific leadership
style appropriate for the group, including:
● The type of task
● How well group members work together
● How well group members work with the leader
● The maturity level or readiness of the followers
Effective leaders are versatile i.e. they are able to move
around the matrix in accordance with the situation. No
leadership style is right or wrong,but only contingent to the
situation.
Yet, leaders tend to have a preferred style and applying the
situational leadership model helps realizing it and reminds
the leaders to shift leadership styles according to
circumstances, for real effectiveness.
28
CHARISMATICCHARISMATIC
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
●
Concept
●
Characteristics
●
Pros & Cons
●
A Matter of Values
29
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPCHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
CONCEPTCONCEPT
Researchers either do not differentiate charismatic fromcharismatic from
transformational leadershiptransformational leadership, or see charisma as a component
of transformational leadership (House, Avolio & Bass, Conger
& Kanungo).
The concept of charismatic leadershipThe concept of charismatic leadership assumes that
charisma is an individual characteristic of the leader, a form
of influential power, and interpersonal attraction that inspires
support and acceptance.
http://pages.paloverde.edu/staff/lmartin/man145/lesson14.htm
●
Expressing personalExpressing personal
supportsupport
●
EmpathizingEmpathizing
●
Expressing confidence inExpressing confidence in
people.people.
●
Demonstrating personalDemonstrating personal
enthusisamenthusisam
●
Expressing personalExpressing personal
confidenceconfidence
●
Seeking, finding, andSeeking, finding, and
using successusing success
●
Articulating a compellingArticulating a compelling
visionvision
●
Setting high expectationsSetting high expectations
●
Modeling consistentModeling consistent
behaviorsbehaviors
The Charismatic LeaderThe Charismatic Leader
EnvisioningEnvisioning EnergizingEnergizing EnablingEnabling
30
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHICHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPP
CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS
This figure displays the factors pertaining to Charismatic
Leadership and the Interactional Framework by reviewing the
common leader, follower, and situational factors (Burns) and
the theories of House, Bass & Avolio, and Conger & Kanungo.
http://answers.mheducation.com/business/management/leadership/leadership-and-change
FOLLOWER
●
Identification with leader and vision
●
Heightened emotional levels
●
Willing subordination to the leader
●
Feelings of empowerment
SITUATION
● Crisis
● Task interdependence
LEADER
● Vision
● Rhetorical skills
● Image & trust building
● Personalized leadership
OUTCOMES :
● Social or cultural revolutions
● Higher levels of effort
● Greater follower satisfaction
● Increased group cohesiveness
31
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHICHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPP
Pros & ConsPros & Cons
KETS DE VRIESKETS DE VRIES : : in 'Reflections on Character and Leadership',
he highlights the pathologies of leadership and depicts the
disturbed inner worlds of certain leaders: he identifies
impostorsimpostors, those showing alexithymiaalexithymia, despotsdespots,
organizational foolsorganizational fools...
Not all leaders have sound personalities
and positive intentions. Before following
a leader, keep your eyes wide open, and
check whether he/she falls into some of
the following categories...
J.B. STORAJ.B. STORA, a psychanalist and HEC professor , archetyped
charismatic leaders as :
● the benevolentbenevolent , with a well-balanced personality, is respectful
of others,occasionally severe but fair.
● Besides there are also negative or toxic leading characters
such as: the narcissistnarcissist, the seducerseducer, or the possessivepossessive leader.
(« Identités Psychiques et styles de leadership »- HEC-ISA 1987)
All that glitters is not gold......All that glitters is not gold......
All that leads is not good to follow.All that leads is not good to follow.
32
http://leadershipresonance.com/extraordinary-leadership-behaviours.htm
LeadershiLeadershipp
is basicallyis basically
a mattera matter
of valuesof values
Behaviours of extraordinary LeadersBehaviours of extraordinary Leaders
They inspire trust & confidence in their own
leadership and simultaneously inspire others to
have confidence in themselves.
Charismatic leaders embody :
● Fierce Resolve, grit : leading from the End
State with the will and drive to create a
destination that does not yet exist
● and Equanimity : ability to overcome and
stay calm in the midst of unforeseen
circumstances and obstacles…
● the ability to RESPOND vs REACT
● they demonstrate the ability to inspire
people, to believe in the outcome before
they can see it.
LeadershiLeadershipp
is basicallyis basically
a mattera matter
of valuesof values
Ethical Charismatic Leader Unethical Charismatic Leader
● Uses power to serve others
● Uses power only for personal gain or
impact
● Aligns vision with followers' needs
and aspirations
● Promotes own personal vision
● Considers and learns from cristicism ● Censures critical or opposing views
● Stimulates followers to think
independently and to question the
leader's view
● Demands own decisions to be
accepted without question
● Open, two-way communication ● One-way communication
● Coaches, develops, and supports
followers ; shares recognition with
others
● Insensitive to followers' needs
● Relies on internal moral standards to
satisfy organizational and societal
interests
● Relies on convenient, external moral
standards to satisfy self-interests
33Source : ''The Ethics of Charismatic Leadership'', Howell and Avolio, 1992.
34
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
PIPELINEPIPELINE
●
Drotter & Charan's
Pipeline Model
●
Leadership lifecycles
illustrated
●
Pipeline process
exemplified
35
LeadershipLeadership
PipelinePipeline
The Leadership Pipeline ModelLeadership Pipeline Model by Drotter & CharanDrotter & Charan illustrates the evolutions
through various organizational levels of leadership, from leading self to others, to a
function,to managers...
36
Leadership PipelineLeadership Pipeline
LifecyclesLifecycles
In their book 'The Leadership Pipeline', Noël Drotter and Ram
Charan identify specific phases in leadership lifecycles.
This is an illustration at BP :
Each stagestage in the leadership
pipeline requires specific inputsspecific inputs, which
keeps the Peter Principle Inoperant.keeps the Peter Principle Inoperant.
Revitalising an oil giant: An interview with Dr Tony Hayward, Chief Executive of BP @http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm
LeadershipLeadership
PipelinePipeline ProcessProcess
This figure exemplifies the leadership process from detection to actualization :
37
2 - DEVELOP
● Leadership Courses
● Interpersonal skills
● Coaching & Mentoring skills
● Skill based training:Teamwork,
Conflict Management, Delegation,
Communication, Fund Raising
3 - DEPLOY
● Assess leaders
● Development Plan
● Internal opportunities : job
rotation, action learning
● Refine and adjust
● Re-assess
1 - DISCOVER
● Competencies
● Executive support
● Cultural readiness
● Leadership impetus
4 - LEAD
Illustration from Valerie Willis Consulting
38
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
AssessmentAssessment
Prior to development comes detection of potential leaders.Prior to development comes detection of potential leaders.
First and foremost , the talent detected ought to be willingFirst and foremost , the talent detected ought to be willing
to take on leadership functions, and develop through hardto take on leadership functions, and develop through hard
work ( Leadership Motivation Assessment).work ( Leadership Motivation Assessment).
Other tools may help refine the assessment process inOther tools may help refine the assessment process in
order to identify whose potential is worth developing atorder to identify whose potential is worth developing at
affordable cost, and to help focus on specific items toaffordable cost, and to help focus on specific items to
develop (miscelleaneous tools).develop (miscelleaneous tools).
Traits and charisma are certainly not sufficient predictorsTraits and charisma are certainly not sufficient predictors
of the successful development of effective leadership.of the successful development of effective leadership.
The 9 or 12-box matrix helps assess potential or highThe 9 or 12-box matrix helps assess potential or high
potential ( performance-potential matrix).potential ( performance-potential matrix).
Leadership Motivation AssessmentLeadership Motivation Assessment
39
Score
Interpretation
● 14-27 implies a
low motivation to
lead
● 28-55 implies
some uncertainty
over motivation to
lead
● 56-70 implies a
strong
moivation to
lead
Score
Interpretation
● 14-27 implies a
low motivation to
lead
● 28-55 implies
some uncertainty
over motivation to
lead
● 56-70 implies a
strong
moivation to
lead
This self
assessment was
patterned after that
of A.J. Dubrin in
Leadership :
Research,
Findings, Practice,
and Skills
www.mindtools.com
Performance - Potential ModelPerformance - Potential Model
Performance
Potential
High Performance
High Potential
Average Performance
High Potential
High Performance
Low Potential
Average Performance
Low Potential
This simple model shows how performance and potential
are plotted separately on a matrix to determine readiness
levels.
High
Low
40
Source : HRTalentPro
Performance-Potential MatrixPerformance-Potential Matrix
41
All companies now commonly use someAll companies now commonly use some
sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials'sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials'
or high potentials' performance related toor high potentials' performance related to
potential.potential.
This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline,This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline,
especially in the scope of succession plans.especially in the scope of succession plans.
All companies now commonly use someAll companies now commonly use some
sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials'sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials'
or high potentials' performance related toor high potentials' performance related to
potential.potential.
This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline,This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline,
especially in the scope of succession plans.especially in the scope of succession plans.
The goal of such a matrix is clearly to help ''establish
talent pools. Identification of talent is highlighted through
talent matrix''. www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1662878&show=html
''The 9 box methodology (matrix of performance and
potential) is used to identify and reward high performers .
As for ''the talent pipeline methodology of Ram Charan, it
is designed  around the common leadership ‘passages’ all
leaders go through. It helps organizations to select,
develop, and assess based on specific responsibilities and
work values at each leadership level.'' www.bricexpansion.com
9-9-BoxBox Performance-Potential MatrixPerformance-Potential Matrix
42PERFORMANCE
POTENTIAL
Performance-Potential MatrixPerformance-Potential Matrix
12-Box Grid12-Box Grid
43
ReadinessReadiness
RatingRating
ScaleScale
5 - Ready Now – 0 to 1 Year = High performer and high potential
4 - Short Term Promotable – 1 to 2 Years = Either high performance and moderate potential or
average performance and high potential
3 - Long Term Promotable – 2 to 3 Years = Either average performance and moderate potential or high
performance and moderate potential
2 - Wait and See – 3+ Years = Average performance (may be due to being new in the job, having an
inappropriate assignment, little or no coaching/development, etc.), but shows signs of potential
1 - Well Placed – Average performance, but few signs of potential
44
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
DevelopmentDevelopment
With the ''Trait Theory'' , Leadership was considered asWith the ''Trait Theory'' , Leadership was considered as
merely intrinsic and innate. But this is theory, and it is alsomerely intrinsic and innate. But this is theory, and it is also
history...history...
Of course, not every contributor wants to endorseOf course, not every contributor wants to endorse
leadership functions and responsabilities within theleadership functions and responsabilities within the
organization, but it is now understood that leadershiporganization, but it is now understood that leadership
can be learnt to some extent, gained, and developed.can be learnt to some extent, gained, and developed.
Thanks to the practice of ''Integrative Leadership'',Thanks to the practice of ''Integrative Leadership'',
researchers, consultants and companies developedresearchers, consultants and companies developed
many leadership programs, workouts, schemes andmany leadership programs, workouts, schemes and
tools to enable leadership development.tools to enable leadership development.
Expert
Technical Specialist
45
DevelopmentDevelopment
ProgramsPrograms
Once the organization has detected potential for
leadership in willing candidates, it's time to raise the good
questions and find the proper way to develop this
leadership talent (''high potential'') and let it grow.
Not every good contributor wants to assume leading
functions : some may prefer to invest in expert positions,
as technical specialists.
Development ProgramsDevelopment Programs e.g.e.g.
www.villigermcneill.com/what-we-do/leadership-development/
LeadingLeading
SelfSelf
LeadingLeading
PeoplePeople
LeadingLeading
thethe
OrganizationOrganization
Developing personal
Mastery & authentic
leadership
➢ Self awareness
➢ 360° feedback
➢ Values / Purpose /
Core Beliefs
➢ Connection to &
articulation of
personal vision
Developing relationship
mastery and interpersonal
excellence
➢ Collaboration & partnership
skills (communication,
influencing, conflict,
negociation, consulting)
➢ Emotional Intelligence
➢ Managing people and
developing their potential
➢ Constructive dialogue and
feedback.
Developing a high
performance culture
➢ Visioning & strategy
➢ Leading change
➢ Fostering sustainable
performance
➢ Building a culture of
commitment & trust
➢ Systems thinking
46
SelfSelf
Purpose
Time Managt
Emot.Intellig.
OthersOthers
Performance Magt
Motivation
Communication
Coaching
Counseling
TeamsTeams
Team Goals
Roles
Operating
Guidelines
Interpersonal
Behaviors
OrganizationOrganization
Structure
Work Processes
Large Projects
Measurement
Systems
Decision &
Communication
Systems
Vision &Vision &
StrategyStrategy
Market analyses
Vision Mission
Core Values
Strategies
Paradigms
Deployment
Development ProgramsDevelopment Programs e.g.e.g.
Module 1 – Your Role as a Leader :
Characteristics of effective leaders
Leadership & management functions – distinctions & overlap
3 roles of leadership: vision, alignment and deployment
Key concepts of personal organization – setting priorities
Key concepts of self-management
Module 2 – Enhancing Your Emotional Intelligence
Module 3 – Leading for High Individual Performance
Module 4 – Developing High Performance Teams
Module 5 – The Strategic Planning and Leadership Process
Module 6 – Guiding Large Scale Organizational Change
Module 7 - Building Your Organizational Culture
www.worksystems.com
47
48
GOLEMAN'S EMOTIONALGOLEMAN'S EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGENCEINTELLIGENCE
LEADERSHIP MODELLEADERSHIP MODEL
●
The 5 Components of
Emotional Intelligence
●
Components explicited
●
Regulation-recognition
Matrix
●
The 6 Leadership Styles
49
GOLEMANGOLEMAN'S EMOTIONAL'S EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGINTELLIGENCE MODELENCE MODEL
LEADERSHILEADERSHIPP
GOLEMAN'sGOLEMAN's EI ComponentsEI Components
50
Goleman's ReguGoleman's Regulation-Recognition Matrixlation-Recognition Matrix
51
Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence - “is the ability
to monitor one’s own and other’s
emotions, to discriminate among
them, and to use the information to
guide one’s thinking and actions"
(Salovey & Mayer 1990)
Emotional Intelligence theory and
Leadership have a deep embedded
relationship. Daniel GolemanDaniel Goleman (2002),
the psychologist who popularized E.I.,
presented the concept of Emotional
Intelligence as being enshrined in a
framework of four elements +
empathy:
Self Awareness
Self Management
Social Awareness
Social Skills
The more the leader is in control and manages each of these elements,The more the leader is in control and manages each of these elements,
the higher the emotional intelligence, the more the team performsthe higher the emotional intelligence, the more the team performs
excelling results !excelling results !
http://www.educational-business-articles.com/emotional-intelligence-theory.html
52
GOLEMAN'sGOLEMAN's Leadership StylesLeadership Styles
http://www.ei4change.com/resources.htm
53
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
SUBSTITUTES:SUBSTITUTES:
THE LIMITSTHE LIMITS
●
The Concept
●
Substitutes &
Neutralizers
●
Leadership
Substitutes to the
rescue
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
SUBSTITUTESSUBSTITUTES
54
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
SUBSTITUTES CONCEPTSUBSTITUTES CONCEPT
The Leadership Substitute approach, initiated by Kerr & Jermier, suggests
that several situational factors can neutralize or substitute for leader
behaviors.They set up the limits of leadership, making leadership behaviors
inefficient and irrelevant under certain circumstances.
Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational
Behavior & Human Performance, 22, 375-403. http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/substitutes.html
LEADERSHIP
SUBSTITUTES
Leadership Substitutes
Situational variables that tend to outweigh
the leader's ability to affect subordinate
satisfaction and performance
Nature of Leadership Substitutes
They are individual, task, and organizational
characteristics that tend to offset the leader’s
ability to influence subordinates’ satisfaction
and performance.
LEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTESLEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES
& NEUTRALIZERS& NEUTRALIZERS
Kerr & Jermier's Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership :
LEADERSHIP
SUBSTITUTES
Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior &
Human Performance, 22, 375-403. http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/substitutes.html
55
SUBORDINATE CHARACTERISTICS
● Experience, ability , and training
● Professional orientation
● Indifference toward organizational rewards



IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP
● Substitute for instrumental leadership
● Substitute for instrumental & supportive leadership
●Neutralizes instrumental & supportive leadership
TASK CHARACTERISTICS
● Structured and routine tasks
● Feedback within the task
● Intrinsically satisfying task



IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP
●Substitute for instrumental leadership
●Substitute for instrumental leadership
●Substitute for supportive leadership
ORGANIZATION CHARACTERISTICS
●Cohesive work groups
●Low position power of leader
●Formalization
●Inflexibility
●Leader physically isolated from subordinates





IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP
●Substitute for instrumental & supportive leadership
●Neutralizes instrumental & supportive leadership
●Substitute for instrumental leadership
●Neutralizes instrumental leadership
●Neutralizes instrumental & supportive leadership
LEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTESLEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES
TO THE RESCUETO THE RESCUE
Conversely, the model can be used for diagnostic so as to find and
implement solutions or substitutes for flawless leadership :
Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior &
Human Performance, 22, 375-403. http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/substitutes.html
LEADERSHIP
SUBSTITUTES
56
57
EXTRAORDINARYEXTRAORDINARY
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
INTEGRATIVEINTEGRATIVE
MODELMODEL
●
Zenger & Folkman's research
●
Raising the Leadership Tent
●
16 Differentiating competencies
●
Character Competency
●
An Integrative Leadership Model
58
●
John Zenger & Joseph Folkman's books are
based on solid empirical research based on
analysis of over 20,000 leaders.
●
Subjecting so many 360-degree assessments
to strict scrutiny enabled them to discover the
16 behaviors distinguishing effective leaders
that produce outstanding outcomes. These are
the very behaviors every leader should work
on developing.
● One key finding is that : ''Great leaders are not
defined by the absence of weakness, but
rather by the presence of clear strengths.The
key to developing great leadership is to build
strengths.''
ZENGER & FOLKMAN'S RESEARCHZENGER & FOLKMAN'S RESEARCH
http://zengerfolkman.com/books
59
Raising theRaising the
Leadership TentLeadership Tent
Sources:The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman
http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39
http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/
CHARACTER : which is integral to the
individual, and the core of all leadership
effectiveness
FOCUS ON RESULTS: ability to have an impact
on the organisation
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS: impact of
one person on a group of people
PERSONAL CAPABILITY: intellectual, emotional
and skill makeup of the individual
LEADING ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE: ability
to produce change in an organisation
The conceptual framework developed by Zenger and Folkman uses a tent
analogy with a central pole character , and four poles for each corner of
the tent :
60
16 Differentiating16 Differentiating
CompetenciesCompetencies
Great outcomes are connected to :
 16 leadership competencies that span  5 categories
http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39
http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/
DIFFERENTIATING COMPETENCIESDIFFERENTIATING COMPETENCIES
61
CHARACTERCHARACTER
COMPETENCYCOMPETENCY
The key elements of high-character leaders are that they :
 Follow through on commitments & Keep their words
 Make decisions with the good of the organization in mind,not their personal
agenda
 Gain respect by being open & transparent
 Treat others with respect - they don't smile up & kick down
 Have integrity & look at others with a positive lens
 Keep learning,improve themselves constantly, look for feedback & act on it
 Try new things & adjust rapidly to changing environments
CHARACTERCOMPETENCYCHARACTERCOMPETENCY
Among all competencies, CHARACTER is
the essence of leadership.Naturally, strong
or high character is not ''bad character''.
Source : The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman
And character can ce improved
Successfully altering one's behavior over a long period entails a
remarkable transformation in attitudes, and eventually character :
BEHAVIOR  ATTITUDES  CHARACTER
62
An IntegrativeAn Integrative
Leadership ModelLeadership Model
Sources:The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman
http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39
http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/
CHARACTERCHARACTER
1. Displaying high integrity and honesty
● Act consistently
● Follow through on promises
● Model core values
● Lead by example
PERSONAL CAPABILITYPERSONAL CAPABILITY
2. Technical and professional expertise
● Sought out for advice
●
In-depth knowledge leads to credibility
3. Solving problems and analysing issues
● High professional judgement
● Make good decisions based on mix of
analysis, wisdom, experience, judgement
4. Innovation
● Encourage alternative approaches
● Creative solutions
● Challenge the status quo
● Create a learning culture
5. Practising self development
● Constructive change based on feedback
● Seek feedback to improve
●
Look for developmental opportunities
FOCUS ON RESULTSFOCUS ON RESULTS
6. Focus on results
● Aggressively pursue all tasks to
completion
● Do everything possible to meet goals
or deadlines
7. Establish stretch goals
● High standards of performance
● Set standards of excellence
● Promote continuous improvement
8. Take responsibility for outcomes
● Counted on to follow through on
commitments
● Go above and beyond call of duty
63Sources:The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman
http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39
http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/
INTERPERSONALINTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPSRELATIONSHIPS
9. Communicating powerfully and
prolifically
● Skilled communication of new
insights
● Provide team with sense of purpose
● Help people see how their work fits
10. Inspiring and motivating others to
high performance
● Energise others to go extra mile
● Get others to achieve more than
they thought possible
11. Building relationships
● Trusted by their team
● Balance concern for productivity
with employee needs
● Friendly and approachable
● Tactfully handle difficult situations
LEADING ORGANISATIONAL CHANGELEADING ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE
12. Developing others
● Concerned about developing others' careers
● Provide balance of positive and constructive feedback
● Provide honest feedback
● Support others' growth and success
● Take interest in the work of others
13. Collaboration and Teamwork
● Cooperative working
relationships with others in the
organisation
● Promote cooperation in the work
group
● Ensure the work unit works well
with other groups and
departments
14. Developing strategic perspectives
● Know how their work relates to
the business strategy
● Translate organisation vision into
meaningful goals for others
● Has a long term view
15. Championing Change
● Become champions for
projects and get others to
support them
● Effective marketers of the
group's work
16. Connect internal groups with
the outside world
● Effectively represent the work
group to key external groups
● Help people understand
importance of customer needs
An IntegrativeAn Integrative
Leadership ModelLeadership Model cont'dcont'd
64
GLOBALGLOBAL
LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
●
What about global
Leadership ?
●
Global leaders
●
GL Capabilities
●
Global Mindset
Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership
65
''Global organisations face increased challenges and
competition so success demands the best performance thatdemands the best performance that
corporate top managers can produce.corporate top managers can produce.
Succeeding globally meansSucceeding globally means developing a global view while
using local knowledge to understand particular business
challenges in markets around the world. Executives need to
understand different business contexts and be able to identify
opportunities, leading to better business decisions about
global markets.
ChallengesChallenges for global leadersfor global leaders include balancing the benefits of
standardisation with the need for local adaptation, managing
virtual teams across geographies and time zones, dealing with
contradictory thoughts and working through ambiguous
situations.
Research indicates that global leaders with the skills to dealglobal leaders with the skills to deal
with complexity and uncertainty can perform well in globalwith complexity and uncertainty can perform well in global
environmentsenvironments, but they can only sustain this level of
performance if they pay attention to their values.''
http://lexicon.ft.com/term?term=global-leadership
What about Global Leadership ?What about Global Leadership ?
66
GLOBAL LEADERSGLOBAL LEADERS
"As organizations go through a global 'revolution,' they require
the leadership of a significantly different kind of CEO." "Leaders
at the helm of the corporations of the future will need the capacity
to step out of their own comfort zone and adapt to other realities."
Kets de Vries & Florent-Treacy in international best-seller The New Global Leaders.
Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership
''What does it take to run a global company during this age of international
competition, technology, and downsized work forces? In The New Global
Leaders, the authors find that each of these 3 global leaders ( Richard
Branson, founder of the Virgin Group; Percy Barnevik, architect of the ABB
engineering conglomerate merger; and David Simon, who resurrected
British Petroleum) succeeds with charisma and a managing philosophy that
centers on speed, openness, and a disdain for bureaucracy. They provide a
behind-the-scenes account of how they put their companies on the global
map. Sharing their philosophies, visions, and strategies, they exemplify
leadership in an age of rapid and relentless change and provide new
models of success for our post-industrial era.''
http://www.amazon.com/The-New-Global-Leaders-International/dp/0787946575
Managers at companies of any size can benefit from the
experiences of Branson, Barnevik, and Simon. – Dan Ring
67
GLOBAL LEADERSHIPGLOBAL LEADERSHIP
CAPABILITIESCAPABILITIES
There is no escaping globalization, and to attain global leadership,
executives need to acquire foundational global leadershipglobal leadership
capabilities :capabilities :
http://www.berlitz.com/Corporate-Solutions-for-language-instruction-and-global-leadership-training/Global-
Leadership-Training/What-is-Berlitz-Global-Leadership-Training/Global-Leadership-Capabilities/178/
Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership
illustration from Berlitz Global leadership Training
After Berlitz Global leadership Training
GlobalGlobal
Leadership TrainingLeadership Training
CommunicationCommunication CultureCulture LeadershipLeadership
* Global
Meetings
* Global
Presentations
* Global
negociations
* Global virtual
communications
* Doing business
globally
* Cultural
orientations @
work
* Leading global
teams
* International
assignment
* Leading global
teams
* Communicating
& collaborating
effectively across
culture
* Valuing diversity
& practicing
inclusion
68
Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership
MindsetMindset
Source : Advances In Global Leadership Issues @ www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm
Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership
GlobalGlobal
MindsetMindset
Context
Specific
Competencies
Universal
Leadership
Competencies
Developmental
Experiences
Personal
& Family
Context-specificContext-specific
CompetenciesCompetencies
● Role competencies
● Culture specific
competencies
● Language
Personal & FamilyPersonal & Family
● Learning Mindset
● Tolerance of ambiguity
● Expectations
● Cultural curiosity
● Coping Skills
● Networking
● Marriage & family culture
● Energy & Health
Universal LeadershipUniversal Leadership
CompetenciesCompetencies (Campbell)(Campbell)
● Vision
● Management
● Empowerment
● Diplomacy
● Feedback
● Entrepreneurialism
● Personal Style
● Personal energy
● Multicultural
● Awareness
Developmental ExperiencesDevelopmental Experiences
● Multicultural Learning
● Distance influence
● Influence without authority
● Dealing with Complexity
● Multicultural relationship building
● Matrix Influence
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LEADERSHIP

  • 2. 1 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP ● Without Leadership ● Definition & Characteristics : Innate or Acquired? Boss & Manager vs Leader ? ● Leadership @ a glance ● Power and Leadership ● Leadership Styles ● Charismatic Leadership ● Leadership Pipeline ● Leadership Assessment ● Leadership Development ● Emotional Intelligence Leadership Model ● Leadership Substitutes: the Limits ● Extraordinary Leadership Integrative Model ● Global Leadership ● Bibliography
  • 4. 3 WITHOUTWITHOUT LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP 3 THINGS HAPPEN3 THINGS HAPPEN WITHOUT LEADERSHIP :WITHOUT LEADERSHIP : http://mblhrconnect.blogspot.fr ''ONLY 3 THINGS HAPPEN NATURALLY IN ORGANIZATIONS : FRICTION, CONFUSION, AND UNDERPERFORMANCE. EVERYTHING ELSE REQUIRES LEADERSHIP.'' Peter Drucker. ''ONLY 3 THINGS HAPPEN NATURALLY IN ORGANIZATIONS : FRICTION, CONFUSION, AND UNDERPERFORMANCE. EVERYTHING ELSE REQUIRES LEADERSHIP.'' Peter Drucker.
  • 5. 4 WITHOUTWITHOUT LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP DeliverablesDeliverables vs.vs. UnbearablesUnbearables : : ENTROPY - DISORDER NO REGULATION MICROMANAGEMENT ZERO TASKING – MULTI TASKING
  • 6. 5 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP Definition & CharacteristicsDefinition & Characteristics Work in progress ● Definition ● Innate or acquired ? ● Leadership vs. Management InnateInnate AcquiredAcquired ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership
  • 7. 6 A LEADERSHIPA LEADERSHIP DEFINITIONDEFINITION http://mblhrconnect.blogspot.fr LEADERSHIP :LEADERSHIP : The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do this.Leadership involves : ● establishing a clear vision, ● sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly, ● providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision, and ● coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders. www.businessdictionary.com
  • 8. 7 Innate orInnate or Acquired ?Acquired ? A. Chaplin wrote: Leadership is learned. As a certified facilitator of The Leadership Challenge by Jim Kouzes & Barry Posner, I cite their findings based on more than 25 years of research: ''It's nonsense toIt's nonsense to assume that leadership is geneticassume that leadership is genetic. There's no hard evidence to support that assumption... The truth is that leadership is anThe truth is that leadership is an observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened,observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened, honed, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practicehoned, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practice and feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support andand feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support and recognitionrecognition. Live, learn, and lead! www.Linked 2 Leadership.com A. Chaplin wrote: Leadership is learned. As a certified facilitator of The Leadership Challenge by Jim Kouzes & Barry Posner, I cite their findings based on more than 25 years of research: ''It's nonsense toIt's nonsense to assume that leadership is geneticassume that leadership is genetic. There's no hard evidence to support that assumption... The truth is that leadership is anThe truth is that leadership is an observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened,observable set of skills and abilities...and any skill can be strengthened, honed, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practicehoned, and enhanced if we have the motivation and desire, the practice and feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support andand feedback, the role models and coaching, and the support and recognitionrecognition. Live, learn, and lead! www.Linked 2 Leadership.com Is leadership innate or acquired ? Are leaders born or made, or both ? The old 'nature' versus 'nurture' debate rages about leadership too.
  • 9. 8 Innate orInnate or Acquired?Acquired?cont'dcont'd LEADERS ARE BORN.  LEADERS CAN BE MADE ''It is true that some leadership characteristics show up very early in life but in fact, leadership characteristics can be developed. You can be a better leader [...] nearly all people are made better leaders from specific developmental activities.'' Leaders are a lot more 'made' than they are 'born''... ''One of the best evidence that leaders can be created starting with ''regular'' people is the remarkable track record of the US Marines.Marine recruits often come from troubled or abusive homes...are frequently casual users of drugs or alcohol, or have minor convictions, and often have not attended college. All the usual predictors of success are generally absent from this group of individuals. Yet many marine recruits are transformed into effective leaders after a 2 to 3-year period and go on to display remarkable leadership skills as their careers continue.'' Source : John Zenger & Joseph Folkman, The Handbook For Leaders, pp 5-7.
  • 10. 9 Leadership vs.Leadership vs. BossitudeBossitude ** ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership Difference between Boss & Leader ● Drives employees ● Depends on authority ● Inspires fear ● Says ''I'' ● Places blame for the breakdowns ● Knows how it is done ● Uses people ● Takes credit ● Commands ● Says ''Go'' ● Coaches employees ● Depends on goodwill ● Generates enthusiasm ● Says ''We'' ● Fixes the breakdowns ● Shows how it is done ● Develops people ● Gives credit ● Asks & inquires ● Says ''Let's go'' * Bossitude = ''Bossy attitude'' = Fr. ''Chefaillonite'' http://mblhrconnect.blogspot.fr/2013/04/the-leadership-academy-challenges-of.html?view=mosaic
  • 11. 10 Leadership vs.Leadership vs. ManagementManagement ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership http://blogs.hbr.org/kotter/2013/01/management-is-still-not-leadership.html Dr. John P. KotterDr. John P. Kotter ,the Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Leadership, Emeritus at Harvard Business School and the Chief Innovation Officer at Kotter International, explains the 3 mistakes people commonly3 mistakes people commonly make about ''management and leadership'' :make about ''management and leadership'' : Mistake # 1 : People use the terms "management" and "leadership" interchangeably. This shows that they don't see the crucial difference between the two and the vital functions that each role plays. Mistake # 2 : People use the term "leadership" to refer to the people at the very top of hierarchies. They then call the people in the layers below them in the organization ''management''. And then all the rest are workers, specialists, and individual contributors. This is also a mistake and very misleading. Mistake # 3 : People often think of "leadership" in terms of personality characteristics, usually as something they call charisma. Since few people have great charisma, this leads logically to the conclusion that few people can provide leadership, which gets us into increasing trouble.
  • 12. 11 Leadership vs.Leadership vs. ManagementManagement ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/change-leadership What is the difference betweenWhat is the difference between management and leadership ?management and leadership ? MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP Management makes systems of people and technology work well day after day, week after week, year after year. Leadership creates the systems that managers manage and changes them in fundamental ways to take advantage of opportunities and to avoid hazards ●Planning and budgeting ●Organizing and staffing ●Controlling and problem solving ●Taking complex systems of people and technology and making them run efficiently and effectively, hour after hour, day after day ●Creating vision and strategy ●Communicating and setting direction ●Motivating action ●Aligning people ●Creating systems that managers can manage and transforming them when needed to allow for growth, evolution, opportunities, and hazard avoidance
  • 13. 12 Leadership vs.Leadership vs. ManagementManagement ManagementManagementLeadershipLeadership http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/change-leadership ''Management is a set of processes (see previous chart) which help an organization to predictably do what it is to do. Management helps to produce products and services of consistent quality, on budget, day after day. So, management is crucial — but it's not leadership. '' ''Leadership is all about taking an organization into the future, finding and successfully exploiting opportunities. It is about vision, people buying in, empowerment and, about producing useful change. It is not about attributes, but behavior. This ever-faster- moving world, requires leadership from all people, whatever their place in hierarchy. Thinking that The notion that only top hierarchy people can provide all the leadership needed today is a recipe for failure.'' ''Some people still argue that we must replace management with leadership. This is obviously not so: they serve different, yet essential, functions. We need superb management. And we need more superb leadership. We need to be able to make our complex organizations reliable and efficient. We need them to jump into the future — the right future — at an accelerated pace, no matter the size of the changes required to make that happen.'' ''There are very few organizations today that have sufficient leadership. Unless we recognize that we're not talking about management when we speak of leadership, all we will try to do when we do need more leadership is work harder to manage. At a certain point, we end up with over- managed and under-led organizations, which are increasingly vulnerable in a fast-moving world.''
  • 14. 13 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP @ A GLANCE@ A GLANCE ● Leadership Chronology ● Leadership Theories ● Leadership Tools
  • 15. 14 A LeadershipA Leadership ChronologyChronology Source : Integrative Leadership presentation - Lillas Hatala,Faculty Director, University of Saskatchewan LEADERSHIP RESEARCH AND THEORIES SO FARLEADERSHIP RESEARCH AND THEORIES SO FAR 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 TraitsTraits BehavioursBehaviours Contingency ModelContingency Model CompetenciesCompetencies TransformationalTransformational EmotionalEmotional IntelligenceIntelligence SpiritualSpiritual IntelligenceIntelligence IntegrativeIntegrative LeadershipLeadership
  • 16. Core Leadership TheoriesCore Leadership Theories @ a glance@ a glance http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/leadership-theories.htm 15 TRAIT THEORIES argue that effective leaders share a number of common personality characteristics, or "traits."Early theories stated that leadership was innate.These theories are helpful to identify traits and qualities e.g. integrity, empathy, assertiveness, good decision-making skills, and likability. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES Focus on what leaders do.In the 1930s, Kurt Lewin developed a framework based on a leader's behavior. He argued that there are three types of leaders: * Autocratic leaders * Democratic leaders * Laissez-faire leaders CONTINGENCY THEORIES Focus on the situational influence.They try to predict which style is best in which circumstance. Popular contingency-based models are : * Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory * House's Path-Goal Theory * Fiedler's Contingency Model POWER & INFLUENCE THEORIES are based on the different ways that leaders use power and influence to get things done.Best-known theories are : * French & Raven's 5 Forms of Power * Transactional Leadership (reward's influence) * Leading by example TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Effective leadership is not simply based on a set of attributes, behaviors, and influences.A wide range of abilities and approaches is actually needed.This is why transformational leadership is mostly accurate.Transformational leaders show integrity, and they know how to develop a robust and inspiring vision of the future. They motivate people to achieve this vision, they manage its delivery, and they build ever stronger and more successful teams.
  • 17. 16 Leadership Tools @ a glanceLeadership Tools @ a glance The 9-Box Grid assesses leadership performance & leadership potential, and may have been first used at GE, under Jack Welch’s leadership to facilitate talent review meetings. Hersey and BlanchardHersey and Blanchard 's model's model helps match leadership style to the readiness of the followers. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton'sRobert Blake and Jane Mouton's Managerial Grid, or Leadership GridManagerial Grid, or Leadership Grid plots the degree of task-centeredness versus person-centeredness and identifies five combinations as distinct leadership styles. Charan & Drotter'sCharan & Drotter's Leadership PipelineLeadership Pipeline illustrates the evolutions through various organizational levels of leadership, from leading self to others, to a function,to managers... Bass and Avolio's Multi-factor LeadershipBass and Avolio's Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire or MLQQuestionnaire or MLQ was translated into a 360 degree leadership assessment (MLQ) which measures a full range of leadership behaviors (heavy on transformational) and has proven to be predictive of outcomes and results. Conger & KanungoConger & Kanungo created a Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership Questionnaire & aQuestionnaire & a measurement Scale ofmeasurement Scale of Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership that identifies the effect of a charismatic leader in an organizational setting. Mindtool's Leadership MotivationLeadership Motivation Self AssessmentSelf Assessment was patterned after Dubrin's: Leadership,Research Findings,Practice and Skills Zenger & FolkmanZenger & Folkman based their research on the analysis of over 20,000 leaders' 360-degree assessments360-degree assessments.
  • 18. 17 POWER &POWER & LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP ● French & Raven's Power Bases ● Maxwell's power ladder ● The 5 POWER behaviors ● Techniques to increase power position at work
  • 19. 18 LeadershipLeadership Power BasesPower Bases Researchers French & RavenFrench & Raven identified 8 categories of social power enabling leaders to influence others.The so-called 8 'Power Bases''Power Bases' are divided into : ● Positional PowerPositional Power, flowing from granted status, ● and Personal PowerPersonal Power earned through one's own endeavours. http://brilliantinfluence.wordpress.com/2010/08/19/french-and-ravens-power-bases Legitimate PowerLegitimate Power derives from the authority associated to the place in hierarchy. Coercive PowerCoercive Power is based on fear, the ability to impose one's will by threat of sanction. Reward PowerReward Power stems from the inducements or rewards that can be offered. Resource PowerResource Power arises from control or access to specific resources: funds, supplies, equipment. Information PowerInformation Power derives from one's access to valuable information. Referent PowerReferent Power correspponds to the influence exerted through personal relationships, charisma, and likeability. Expert PowerExpert Power is gained through skills and knowledge.It gives authority that commands great respect. Connexion PowerConnexion Power comes through networking, being able to use links to other influential people to support one's own power.
  • 20. LEADERSHIP & FOLLOWERSHIP :LEADERSHIP & FOLLOWERSHIP : The 5 Reasons Why They FollowThe 5 Reasons Why They Follow 19 http://mblhrconn ect.blogspot.fr/2 013/08/the- leadership- academy-5- levels-of.html? view=mosaic Leadership & Influence Processes @ http://pages.palo verde.edu/staff/l martin/man145/l esson14.htm THETHE LEVELSLEVELS OFOF LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP55 1 - POSITION1 - POSITION –– RIGHTS –RIGHTS – People follow because they have to 1 - POSITION1 - POSITION –– RIGHTS –RIGHTS – People follow because they have to 2 - PERMISSION2 - PERMISSION –– RELATIONSHIPS –RELATIONSHIPS – People follow because they want to 2 - PERMISSION2 - PERMISSION –– RELATIONSHIPS –RELATIONSHIPS – People follow because they want to 3 - PRODUCTION3 - PRODUCTION –– RESULTS –RESULTS – People follow because of what you have done for the organization 3 - PRODUCTION3 - PRODUCTION –– RESULTS –RESULTS – People follow because of what you have done for the organization 4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT –– REPRODUCTION –REPRODUCTION – People follow because of what you have done for them 4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT4 - PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT –– REPRODUCTION –REPRODUCTION – People follow because of what you have done for them 5 - PINNACLE5 - PINNACLE –– RESPECT –RESPECT – People follow because of who you are and what you represent 5 - PINNACLE5 - PINNACLE –– RESPECT –RESPECT – People follow because of who you are and what you represent
  • 21. 20 Maxwell's ladder ofMaxwell's ladder of leadership powerleadership power Position -Position - Any position in an organization confers certain rights. Getting promoted, supposedly automatically confers greater leadership capability, but this power is a trap. Position leadershipPosition leadership is the nil-level of leadership actually.is the nil-level of leadership actually. Collaborators follow through coercion, not consent. And Peter's Principle is never far away...And Peter's Principle is never far away... Then come the 1st to 4th steps on the power ladder, related to corresponding leadership levels, from 'Permission' to 'Self Fulfillment' ... http://www.talent-technologies.com John Maxwell’s 360° Leader360° Leader offers a model which exemplifies the progression from manager to leader. The leaders identify their level on the ladder according to the kind of ''power'' their leadership position derives from. John Maxwell’s 360° Leader360° Leader offers a model which exemplifies the progression from manager to leader. The leaders identify their level on the ladder according to the kind of ''power'' their leadership position derives from. PositionPosition PermissionPermission ProductionProduction People DevelopmentPeople Development Personal FulfillmentPersonal Fulfillment TRAP !!!
  • 22. 21 Maxwell's ladder ofMaxwell's ladder of leadership powerleadership power Personal Fulfillment (Self Actualisation)Personal Fulfillment (Self Actualisation) At this level, people respect the leader because of who he/she is and what he/she represents. This level is reserved for those who have spent years growing people & the organisation they work for.They help shape and create the culture in a vibrant, tangible way. PermissionPermission -- The 1st step of leadership takes place when the leader receives permission from his direct reports, colleagues and superiors to lead.The leader establishes effective relationships with his/her colleagues. People follow the leader beyond stated authority. http://www.talent-technologies.com ProductionProduction is the next level of leadership.  Here, the leader is able to get great results from their collaborators on a long-term, sustainable basis.This is the level of effective management. People DevelopmentPeople Development -The leader spends less time managing and more developing the capabilities of those accountable to him/her. People follow because of what the leader does for them – not on a ‘surface’ level, but in a deeper, transformational sense.The leader helps mentor and grow his direct reports into more leaders, creating a ‘leadership pipeline’creating a ‘leadership pipeline’. PositionPosition PermissionPermission ProductionProduction People DevelopmentPeople Development Personal FulfillmentPersonal Fulfillment TRAP !!!
  • 23. Using POWER BehaviorsUsing POWER Behaviors Charity begins at home, and management begins with self- management. So individual leadership has a lot to gain from self-management and self-awareness, and especially POWER behaviors. 22 http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/human-relations/section_17_01.html Self Management Self Management ● Coping with change ● Controlling emotions ● Coping with change ● Controlling emotions ● Personality traits ● Understanding own communication style ● Using POWER behaviors ● Personality traits ● Understanding own communication style ● Using POWER behaviors Self Awareness Self Awareness Position power as in Feng Shui (most favorable physical position in a meeting) can be seen as a set of behaviors we exhibit on a daily basis. These five behaviors can help us increase our power position at work. We may think about the acronym POWER to remember these behaviors ( Dawson, J. 2007–8 : What Good Leaders Do. ) ● PPositiveositive approach to everything can help increase your power position. Avoiding rumors, gossip, and other negative behaviors can gain the trust of others. ● OOpenpen. Being open to others, new ideas, and people can help increase your power position. ● WWillingnessillingness. The willingness to do things different, try something new, and take risks can increase your power position. ● EEmployingmploying. Employing things like tact, common courtesies, humor, patience, and emotional intelligence skills can increase your position power. ● RRememberingemembering. Know your purpose, set goals, and always do your best.
  • 24. 23 Techniques to increase PowerTechniques to increase Power Position at workPosition at work These are 10 Techniques that may help increase your power position at work : 1. Be authentic. Be yourself. Stay true to your values and those things you find important. 2. Refuse to let people push your buttons. This can result in conflict, which does not increase your position power. Make an effort to try and get along with others. 3. Develop esteem and confidence. Esteem and confidence will give you the ability to take on difficult tasks, help others, and contribute to the organization. 4. Be a team player. Get along with and help others. Helping others shows leadership, ability, and good citizenship. It can put you in a position of not only earning the respect of others but also showing your value to the organization. 5. Be someone that makes others feel good. Make others feel good when they are around you—for example, by being genuinely interested in them. 6. Develop your communication skills. Work on your written, oral, and nonverbal language skills. Learn to read and understand others’ body language. 7. Be visible in the workplace. Don’t take credit for others’ work, but do take credit for your own work. Choose high-profile projects that can put you in a position where others see your work. 8. Don’t complain. Unless you can also provide a solution, don’t offer a complaint! 9. Be goal oriented and willing to take risks. Focus on goal setting personally and professionally. Show managers and colleagues how you can help them meet goals. 10.Have positive psychological capital. There are four aspects to positive psychological capital: hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resiliency. Self-efficacy refers to belief in your own abilities while optimism means to have a positive outlook. Resiliency is the ability to make it through difficult circumstances. In a study by the Leadership InstituteLuthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/human-relations/section_17_01.html
  • 25. 24 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP STYLESSTYLES ● Blake & Mouton's Leadership Grid ● Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Model : the Contingency approach
  • 26. 25 Blake & Mouton'sBlake & Mouton's Leadership GridLeadership Grid Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (early 1960s) developed the Managerial Grid, or Leadership Grid, a popular framework for thinking about a leader’s ‘task versus person’ orientation. It plots the degree of task-centeredness versus person-centeredness and identifies five combinations as distinct leadership styles. Neither preference is right or wrong, and no one type of leadership style is suitable for all situations. Actually, the grid is a useful tool to understand one's natural leadership tendencies , so as to begin working on developing skills that may be missing. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_73.htm
  • 27. Blake & Mouton'sBlake & Mouton's Leadership GridLeadership Grid ● Produce or Perish Leadership – High Production/Low People= Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders,believing that employees are simply a means to an end. Very autocratic type of leader,with strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and punishment seen as the most effective means to motivate employees ! ● Middle-of-the-Road Leadership – Medium Production/Medium People= This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns, and it may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: when you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern, so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect. ● Team Leadership – High Production/High People= Best managerial style according to the Blake Mouton model. Leaders stressing production needs and the needs of the people equally highly. Source : http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_73.htm Cont'd The Leadership / Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: ● Concern for People – The degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task. ● Concern for Production – The degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task. Using the axis to plot leadership ‘concerns for production’ versus ‘concerns for people’, Blake and Mouton defined the following 5 leadership styles: ● Impoverished Leadership – Low Production/Low People= Mostly ineffective leadership.The result is disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony. ● Country Club Leadership – High People/Low Production=Style of leader mostly concerned about team members' needs and feelings. Tends to result into a very relaxed and fun work environment where production suffers due to lack of direction and control. 26
  • 28. 27 Situational Leadership :Situational Leadership : The Contingency ApproachThe Contingency Approach Influence BehaviorsInfluence Behaviors http://insightsonleadership.com/theories-of-leadership/contingency-approach/ www.business-development-1st.co.uk/blog/142/What-is-situational-leadership Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model sets up a contingency approach to leadership that matches leadership style to situation and the readiness of the followers. Appropriate leadership behavior is dependent on the situation.Leaders should take into consideration several factors before choosing a specific leadership style appropriate for the group, including: ● The type of task ● How well group members work together ● How well group members work with the leader ● The maturity level or readiness of the followers Effective leaders are versatile i.e. they are able to move around the matrix in accordance with the situation. No leadership style is right or wrong,but only contingent to the situation. Yet, leaders tend to have a preferred style and applying the situational leadership model helps realizing it and reminds the leaders to shift leadership styles according to circumstances, for real effectiveness.
  • 30. 29 CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPCHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP CONCEPTCONCEPT Researchers either do not differentiate charismatic fromcharismatic from transformational leadershiptransformational leadership, or see charisma as a component of transformational leadership (House, Avolio & Bass, Conger & Kanungo). The concept of charismatic leadershipThe concept of charismatic leadership assumes that charisma is an individual characteristic of the leader, a form of influential power, and interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance. http://pages.paloverde.edu/staff/lmartin/man145/lesson14.htm ● Expressing personalExpressing personal supportsupport ● EmpathizingEmpathizing ● Expressing confidence inExpressing confidence in people.people. ● Demonstrating personalDemonstrating personal enthusisamenthusisam ● Expressing personalExpressing personal confidenceconfidence ● Seeking, finding, andSeeking, finding, and using successusing success ● Articulating a compellingArticulating a compelling visionvision ● Setting high expectationsSetting high expectations ● Modeling consistentModeling consistent behaviorsbehaviors The Charismatic LeaderThe Charismatic Leader EnvisioningEnvisioning EnergizingEnergizing EnablingEnabling
  • 31. 30 CHARISMATIC LEADERSHICHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPP CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS This figure displays the factors pertaining to Charismatic Leadership and the Interactional Framework by reviewing the common leader, follower, and situational factors (Burns) and the theories of House, Bass & Avolio, and Conger & Kanungo. http://answers.mheducation.com/business/management/leadership/leadership-and-change FOLLOWER ● Identification with leader and vision ● Heightened emotional levels ● Willing subordination to the leader ● Feelings of empowerment SITUATION ● Crisis ● Task interdependence LEADER ● Vision ● Rhetorical skills ● Image & trust building ● Personalized leadership OUTCOMES : ● Social or cultural revolutions ● Higher levels of effort ● Greater follower satisfaction ● Increased group cohesiveness
  • 32. 31 CHARISMATIC LEADERSHICHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPP Pros & ConsPros & Cons KETS DE VRIESKETS DE VRIES : : in 'Reflections on Character and Leadership', he highlights the pathologies of leadership and depicts the disturbed inner worlds of certain leaders: he identifies impostorsimpostors, those showing alexithymiaalexithymia, despotsdespots, organizational foolsorganizational fools... Not all leaders have sound personalities and positive intentions. Before following a leader, keep your eyes wide open, and check whether he/she falls into some of the following categories... J.B. STORAJ.B. STORA, a psychanalist and HEC professor , archetyped charismatic leaders as : ● the benevolentbenevolent , with a well-balanced personality, is respectful of others,occasionally severe but fair. ● Besides there are also negative or toxic leading characters such as: the narcissistnarcissist, the seducerseducer, or the possessivepossessive leader. (« Identités Psychiques et styles de leadership »- HEC-ISA 1987) All that glitters is not gold......All that glitters is not gold...... All that leads is not good to follow.All that leads is not good to follow.
  • 33. 32 http://leadershipresonance.com/extraordinary-leadership-behaviours.htm LeadershiLeadershipp is basicallyis basically a mattera matter of valuesof values Behaviours of extraordinary LeadersBehaviours of extraordinary Leaders They inspire trust & confidence in their own leadership and simultaneously inspire others to have confidence in themselves. Charismatic leaders embody : ● Fierce Resolve, grit : leading from the End State with the will and drive to create a destination that does not yet exist ● and Equanimity : ability to overcome and stay calm in the midst of unforeseen circumstances and obstacles… ● the ability to RESPOND vs REACT ● they demonstrate the ability to inspire people, to believe in the outcome before they can see it.
  • 34. LeadershiLeadershipp is basicallyis basically a mattera matter of valuesof values Ethical Charismatic Leader Unethical Charismatic Leader ● Uses power to serve others ● Uses power only for personal gain or impact ● Aligns vision with followers' needs and aspirations ● Promotes own personal vision ● Considers and learns from cristicism ● Censures critical or opposing views ● Stimulates followers to think independently and to question the leader's view ● Demands own decisions to be accepted without question ● Open, two-way communication ● One-way communication ● Coaches, develops, and supports followers ; shares recognition with others ● Insensitive to followers' needs ● Relies on internal moral standards to satisfy organizational and societal interests ● Relies on convenient, external moral standards to satisfy self-interests 33Source : ''The Ethics of Charismatic Leadership'', Howell and Avolio, 1992.
  • 35. 34 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP PIPELINEPIPELINE ● Drotter & Charan's Pipeline Model ● Leadership lifecycles illustrated ● Pipeline process exemplified
  • 36. 35 LeadershipLeadership PipelinePipeline The Leadership Pipeline ModelLeadership Pipeline Model by Drotter & CharanDrotter & Charan illustrates the evolutions through various organizational levels of leadership, from leading self to others, to a function,to managers...
  • 37. 36 Leadership PipelineLeadership Pipeline LifecyclesLifecycles In their book 'The Leadership Pipeline', Noël Drotter and Ram Charan identify specific phases in leadership lifecycles. This is an illustration at BP : Each stagestage in the leadership pipeline requires specific inputsspecific inputs, which keeps the Peter Principle Inoperant.keeps the Peter Principle Inoperant. Revitalising an oil giant: An interview with Dr Tony Hayward, Chief Executive of BP @http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm
  • 38. LeadershipLeadership PipelinePipeline ProcessProcess This figure exemplifies the leadership process from detection to actualization : 37 2 - DEVELOP ● Leadership Courses ● Interpersonal skills ● Coaching & Mentoring skills ● Skill based training:Teamwork, Conflict Management, Delegation, Communication, Fund Raising 3 - DEPLOY ● Assess leaders ● Development Plan ● Internal opportunities : job rotation, action learning ● Refine and adjust ● Re-assess 1 - DISCOVER ● Competencies ● Executive support ● Cultural readiness ● Leadership impetus 4 - LEAD Illustration from Valerie Willis Consulting
  • 39. 38 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP AssessmentAssessment Prior to development comes detection of potential leaders.Prior to development comes detection of potential leaders. First and foremost , the talent detected ought to be willingFirst and foremost , the talent detected ought to be willing to take on leadership functions, and develop through hardto take on leadership functions, and develop through hard work ( Leadership Motivation Assessment).work ( Leadership Motivation Assessment). Other tools may help refine the assessment process inOther tools may help refine the assessment process in order to identify whose potential is worth developing atorder to identify whose potential is worth developing at affordable cost, and to help focus on specific items toaffordable cost, and to help focus on specific items to develop (miscelleaneous tools).develop (miscelleaneous tools). Traits and charisma are certainly not sufficient predictorsTraits and charisma are certainly not sufficient predictors of the successful development of effective leadership.of the successful development of effective leadership. The 9 or 12-box matrix helps assess potential or highThe 9 or 12-box matrix helps assess potential or high potential ( performance-potential matrix).potential ( performance-potential matrix).
  • 40. Leadership Motivation AssessmentLeadership Motivation Assessment 39 Score Interpretation ● 14-27 implies a low motivation to lead ● 28-55 implies some uncertainty over motivation to lead ● 56-70 implies a strong moivation to lead Score Interpretation ● 14-27 implies a low motivation to lead ● 28-55 implies some uncertainty over motivation to lead ● 56-70 implies a strong moivation to lead This self assessment was patterned after that of A.J. Dubrin in Leadership : Research, Findings, Practice, and Skills www.mindtools.com
  • 41. Performance - Potential ModelPerformance - Potential Model Performance Potential High Performance High Potential Average Performance High Potential High Performance Low Potential Average Performance Low Potential This simple model shows how performance and potential are plotted separately on a matrix to determine readiness levels. High Low 40 Source : HRTalentPro
  • 42. Performance-Potential MatrixPerformance-Potential Matrix 41 All companies now commonly use someAll companies now commonly use some sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials'sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials' or high potentials' performance related toor high potentials' performance related to potential.potential. This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline,This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline, especially in the scope of succession plans.especially in the scope of succession plans. All companies now commonly use someAll companies now commonly use some sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials'sort of 9 or 12-box grid to assess potentials' or high potentials' performance related toor high potentials' performance related to potential.potential. This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline,This tool helps fill the leadership pipeline, especially in the scope of succession plans.especially in the scope of succession plans. The goal of such a matrix is clearly to help ''establish talent pools. Identification of talent is highlighted through talent matrix''. www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1662878&show=html ''The 9 box methodology (matrix of performance and potential) is used to identify and reward high performers . As for ''the talent pipeline methodology of Ram Charan, it is designed  around the common leadership ‘passages’ all leaders go through. It helps organizations to select, develop, and assess based on specific responsibilities and work values at each leadership level.'' www.bricexpansion.com
  • 44. Performance-Potential MatrixPerformance-Potential Matrix 12-Box Grid12-Box Grid 43 ReadinessReadiness RatingRating ScaleScale 5 - Ready Now – 0 to 1 Year = High performer and high potential 4 - Short Term Promotable – 1 to 2 Years = Either high performance and moderate potential or average performance and high potential 3 - Long Term Promotable – 2 to 3 Years = Either average performance and moderate potential or high performance and moderate potential 2 - Wait and See – 3+ Years = Average performance (may be due to being new in the job, having an inappropriate assignment, little or no coaching/development, etc.), but shows signs of potential 1 - Well Placed – Average performance, but few signs of potential
  • 45. 44 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP DevelopmentDevelopment With the ''Trait Theory'' , Leadership was considered asWith the ''Trait Theory'' , Leadership was considered as merely intrinsic and innate. But this is theory, and it is alsomerely intrinsic and innate. But this is theory, and it is also history...history... Of course, not every contributor wants to endorseOf course, not every contributor wants to endorse leadership functions and responsabilities within theleadership functions and responsabilities within the organization, but it is now understood that leadershiporganization, but it is now understood that leadership can be learnt to some extent, gained, and developed.can be learnt to some extent, gained, and developed. Thanks to the practice of ''Integrative Leadership'',Thanks to the practice of ''Integrative Leadership'', researchers, consultants and companies developedresearchers, consultants and companies developed many leadership programs, workouts, schemes andmany leadership programs, workouts, schemes and tools to enable leadership development.tools to enable leadership development.
  • 46. Expert Technical Specialist 45 DevelopmentDevelopment ProgramsPrograms Once the organization has detected potential for leadership in willing candidates, it's time to raise the good questions and find the proper way to develop this leadership talent (''high potential'') and let it grow. Not every good contributor wants to assume leading functions : some may prefer to invest in expert positions, as technical specialists.
  • 47. Development ProgramsDevelopment Programs e.g.e.g. www.villigermcneill.com/what-we-do/leadership-development/ LeadingLeading SelfSelf LeadingLeading PeoplePeople LeadingLeading thethe OrganizationOrganization Developing personal Mastery & authentic leadership ➢ Self awareness ➢ 360° feedback ➢ Values / Purpose / Core Beliefs ➢ Connection to & articulation of personal vision Developing relationship mastery and interpersonal excellence ➢ Collaboration & partnership skills (communication, influencing, conflict, negociation, consulting) ➢ Emotional Intelligence ➢ Managing people and developing their potential ➢ Constructive dialogue and feedback. Developing a high performance culture ➢ Visioning & strategy ➢ Leading change ➢ Fostering sustainable performance ➢ Building a culture of commitment & trust ➢ Systems thinking 46
  • 48. SelfSelf Purpose Time Managt Emot.Intellig. OthersOthers Performance Magt Motivation Communication Coaching Counseling TeamsTeams Team Goals Roles Operating Guidelines Interpersonal Behaviors OrganizationOrganization Structure Work Processes Large Projects Measurement Systems Decision & Communication Systems Vision &Vision & StrategyStrategy Market analyses Vision Mission Core Values Strategies Paradigms Deployment Development ProgramsDevelopment Programs e.g.e.g. Module 1 – Your Role as a Leader : Characteristics of effective leaders Leadership & management functions – distinctions & overlap 3 roles of leadership: vision, alignment and deployment Key concepts of personal organization – setting priorities Key concepts of self-management Module 2 – Enhancing Your Emotional Intelligence Module 3 – Leading for High Individual Performance Module 4 – Developing High Performance Teams Module 5 – The Strategic Planning and Leadership Process Module 6 – Guiding Large Scale Organizational Change Module 7 - Building Your Organizational Culture www.worksystems.com 47
  • 49. 48 GOLEMAN'S EMOTIONALGOLEMAN'S EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEINTELLIGENCE LEADERSHIP MODELLEADERSHIP MODEL ● The 5 Components of Emotional Intelligence ● Components explicited ● Regulation-recognition Matrix ● The 6 Leadership Styles
  • 52. Goleman's ReguGoleman's Regulation-Recognition Matrixlation-Recognition Matrix 51 Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence - “is the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions" (Salovey & Mayer 1990) Emotional Intelligence theory and Leadership have a deep embedded relationship. Daniel GolemanDaniel Goleman (2002), the psychologist who popularized E.I., presented the concept of Emotional Intelligence as being enshrined in a framework of four elements + empathy: Self Awareness Self Management Social Awareness Social Skills The more the leader is in control and manages each of these elements,The more the leader is in control and manages each of these elements, the higher the emotional intelligence, the more the team performsthe higher the emotional intelligence, the more the team performs excelling results !excelling results ! http://www.educational-business-articles.com/emotional-intelligence-theory.html
  • 53. 52 GOLEMAN'sGOLEMAN's Leadership StylesLeadership Styles http://www.ei4change.com/resources.htm
  • 54. 53 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES:SUBSTITUTES: THE LIMITSTHE LIMITS ● The Concept ● Substitutes & Neutralizers ● Leadership Substitutes to the rescue LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTESSUBSTITUTES
  • 55. 54 LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES CONCEPTSUBSTITUTES CONCEPT The Leadership Substitute approach, initiated by Kerr & Jermier, suggests that several situational factors can neutralize or substitute for leader behaviors.They set up the limits of leadership, making leadership behaviors inefficient and irrelevant under certain circumstances. Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 22, 375-403. http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/substitutes.html LEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES Leadership Substitutes Situational variables that tend to outweigh the leader's ability to affect subordinate satisfaction and performance Nature of Leadership Substitutes They are individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to offset the leader’s ability to influence subordinates’ satisfaction and performance.
  • 56. LEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTESLEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES & NEUTRALIZERS& NEUTRALIZERS Kerr & Jermier's Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership : LEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 22, 375-403. http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/substitutes.html 55 SUBORDINATE CHARACTERISTICS ● Experience, ability , and training ● Professional orientation ● Indifference toward organizational rewards    IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP ● Substitute for instrumental leadership ● Substitute for instrumental & supportive leadership ●Neutralizes instrumental & supportive leadership TASK CHARACTERISTICS ● Structured and routine tasks ● Feedback within the task ● Intrinsically satisfying task    IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP ●Substitute for instrumental leadership ●Substitute for instrumental leadership ●Substitute for supportive leadership ORGANIZATION CHARACTERISTICS ●Cohesive work groups ●Low position power of leader ●Formalization ●Inflexibility ●Leader physically isolated from subordinates      IMPACT ON LEADERSHIP ●Substitute for instrumental & supportive leadership ●Neutralizes instrumental & supportive leadership ●Substitute for instrumental leadership ●Neutralizes instrumental leadership ●Neutralizes instrumental & supportive leadership
  • 57. LEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTESLEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES TO THE RESCUETO THE RESCUE Conversely, the model can be used for diagnostic so as to find and implement solutions or substitutes for flawless leadership : Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 22, 375-403. http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/substitutes.html LEADERSHIP SUBSTITUTES 56
  • 58. 57 EXTRAORDINARYEXTRAORDINARY LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP INTEGRATIVEINTEGRATIVE MODELMODEL ● Zenger & Folkman's research ● Raising the Leadership Tent ● 16 Differentiating competencies ● Character Competency ● An Integrative Leadership Model
  • 59. 58 ● John Zenger & Joseph Folkman's books are based on solid empirical research based on analysis of over 20,000 leaders. ● Subjecting so many 360-degree assessments to strict scrutiny enabled them to discover the 16 behaviors distinguishing effective leaders that produce outstanding outcomes. These are the very behaviors every leader should work on developing. ● One key finding is that : ''Great leaders are not defined by the absence of weakness, but rather by the presence of clear strengths.The key to developing great leadership is to build strengths.'' ZENGER & FOLKMAN'S RESEARCHZENGER & FOLKMAN'S RESEARCH http://zengerfolkman.com/books
  • 60. 59 Raising theRaising the Leadership TentLeadership Tent Sources:The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39 http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/ CHARACTER : which is integral to the individual, and the core of all leadership effectiveness FOCUS ON RESULTS: ability to have an impact on the organisation INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS: impact of one person on a group of people PERSONAL CAPABILITY: intellectual, emotional and skill makeup of the individual LEADING ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE: ability to produce change in an organisation The conceptual framework developed by Zenger and Folkman uses a tent analogy with a central pole character , and four poles for each corner of the tent :
  • 61. 60 16 Differentiating16 Differentiating CompetenciesCompetencies Great outcomes are connected to :  16 leadership competencies that span  5 categories http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39 http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/ DIFFERENTIATING COMPETENCIESDIFFERENTIATING COMPETENCIES
  • 62. 61 CHARACTERCHARACTER COMPETENCYCOMPETENCY The key elements of high-character leaders are that they :  Follow through on commitments & Keep their words  Make decisions with the good of the organization in mind,not their personal agenda  Gain respect by being open & transparent  Treat others with respect - they don't smile up & kick down  Have integrity & look at others with a positive lens  Keep learning,improve themselves constantly, look for feedback & act on it  Try new things & adjust rapidly to changing environments CHARACTERCOMPETENCYCHARACTERCOMPETENCY Among all competencies, CHARACTER is the essence of leadership.Naturally, strong or high character is not ''bad character''. Source : The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman And character can ce improved Successfully altering one's behavior over a long period entails a remarkable transformation in attitudes, and eventually character : BEHAVIOR  ATTITUDES  CHARACTER
  • 63. 62 An IntegrativeAn Integrative Leadership ModelLeadership Model Sources:The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39 http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/ CHARACTERCHARACTER 1. Displaying high integrity and honesty ● Act consistently ● Follow through on promises ● Model core values ● Lead by example PERSONAL CAPABILITYPERSONAL CAPABILITY 2. Technical and professional expertise ● Sought out for advice ● In-depth knowledge leads to credibility 3. Solving problems and analysing issues ● High professional judgement ● Make good decisions based on mix of analysis, wisdom, experience, judgement 4. Innovation ● Encourage alternative approaches ● Creative solutions ● Challenge the status quo ● Create a learning culture 5. Practising self development ● Constructive change based on feedback ● Seek feedback to improve ● Look for developmental opportunities FOCUS ON RESULTSFOCUS ON RESULTS 6. Focus on results ● Aggressively pursue all tasks to completion ● Do everything possible to meet goals or deadlines 7. Establish stretch goals ● High standards of performance ● Set standards of excellence ● Promote continuous improvement 8. Take responsibility for outcomes ● Counted on to follow through on commitments ● Go above and beyond call of duty
  • 64. 63Sources:The Handbook For Leaders, Zenger & Folkman http://www.racma.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=330&Itemid=39 http://leadershipfreak.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/16-competencies-guaranteed-to-deliver-results/ INTERPERSONALINTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPSRELATIONSHIPS 9. Communicating powerfully and prolifically ● Skilled communication of new insights ● Provide team with sense of purpose ● Help people see how their work fits 10. Inspiring and motivating others to high performance ● Energise others to go extra mile ● Get others to achieve more than they thought possible 11. Building relationships ● Trusted by their team ● Balance concern for productivity with employee needs ● Friendly and approachable ● Tactfully handle difficult situations LEADING ORGANISATIONAL CHANGELEADING ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE 12. Developing others ● Concerned about developing others' careers ● Provide balance of positive and constructive feedback ● Provide honest feedback ● Support others' growth and success ● Take interest in the work of others 13. Collaboration and Teamwork ● Cooperative working relationships with others in the organisation ● Promote cooperation in the work group ● Ensure the work unit works well with other groups and departments 14. Developing strategic perspectives ● Know how their work relates to the business strategy ● Translate organisation vision into meaningful goals for others ● Has a long term view 15. Championing Change ● Become champions for projects and get others to support them ● Effective marketers of the group's work 16. Connect internal groups with the outside world ● Effectively represent the work group to key external groups ● Help people understand importance of customer needs An IntegrativeAn Integrative Leadership ModelLeadership Model cont'dcont'd
  • 65. 64 GLOBALGLOBAL LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP ● What about global Leadership ? ● Global leaders ● GL Capabilities ● Global Mindset Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership
  • 66. 65 ''Global organisations face increased challenges and competition so success demands the best performance thatdemands the best performance that corporate top managers can produce.corporate top managers can produce. Succeeding globally meansSucceeding globally means developing a global view while using local knowledge to understand particular business challenges in markets around the world. Executives need to understand different business contexts and be able to identify opportunities, leading to better business decisions about global markets. ChallengesChallenges for global leadersfor global leaders include balancing the benefits of standardisation with the need for local adaptation, managing virtual teams across geographies and time zones, dealing with contradictory thoughts and working through ambiguous situations. Research indicates that global leaders with the skills to dealglobal leaders with the skills to deal with complexity and uncertainty can perform well in globalwith complexity and uncertainty can perform well in global environmentsenvironments, but they can only sustain this level of performance if they pay attention to their values.'' http://lexicon.ft.com/term?term=global-leadership What about Global Leadership ?What about Global Leadership ?
  • 67. 66 GLOBAL LEADERSGLOBAL LEADERS "As organizations go through a global 'revolution,' they require the leadership of a significantly different kind of CEO." "Leaders at the helm of the corporations of the future will need the capacity to step out of their own comfort zone and adapt to other realities." Kets de Vries & Florent-Treacy in international best-seller The New Global Leaders. Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership ''What does it take to run a global company during this age of international competition, technology, and downsized work forces? In The New Global Leaders, the authors find that each of these 3 global leaders ( Richard Branson, founder of the Virgin Group; Percy Barnevik, architect of the ABB engineering conglomerate merger; and David Simon, who resurrected British Petroleum) succeeds with charisma and a managing philosophy that centers on speed, openness, and a disdain for bureaucracy. They provide a behind-the-scenes account of how they put their companies on the global map. Sharing their philosophies, visions, and strategies, they exemplify leadership in an age of rapid and relentless change and provide new models of success for our post-industrial era.'' http://www.amazon.com/The-New-Global-Leaders-International/dp/0787946575 Managers at companies of any size can benefit from the experiences of Branson, Barnevik, and Simon. – Dan Ring
  • 68. 67 GLOBAL LEADERSHIPGLOBAL LEADERSHIP CAPABILITIESCAPABILITIES There is no escaping globalization, and to attain global leadership, executives need to acquire foundational global leadershipglobal leadership capabilities :capabilities : http://www.berlitz.com/Corporate-Solutions-for-language-instruction-and-global-leadership-training/Global- Leadership-Training/What-is-Berlitz-Global-Leadership-Training/Global-Leadership-Capabilities/178/ Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership illustration from Berlitz Global leadership Training After Berlitz Global leadership Training GlobalGlobal Leadership TrainingLeadership Training CommunicationCommunication CultureCulture LeadershipLeadership * Global Meetings * Global Presentations * Global negociations * Global virtual communications * Doing business globally * Cultural orientations @ work * Leading global teams * International assignment * Leading global teams * Communicating & collaborating effectively across culture * Valuing diversity & practicing inclusion
  • 69. 68 Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership MindsetMindset Source : Advances In Global Leadership Issues @ www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm Global LeadershipGlobal Leadership GlobalGlobal MindsetMindset Context Specific Competencies Universal Leadership Competencies Developmental Experiences Personal & Family Context-specificContext-specific CompetenciesCompetencies ● Role competencies ● Culture specific competencies ● Language Personal & FamilyPersonal & Family ● Learning Mindset ● Tolerance of ambiguity ● Expectations ● Cultural curiosity ● Coping Skills ● Networking ● Marriage & family culture ● Energy & Health Universal LeadershipUniversal Leadership CompetenciesCompetencies (Campbell)(Campbell) ● Vision ● Management ● Empowerment ● Diplomacy ● Feedback ● Entrepreneurialism ● Personal Style ● Personal energy ● Multicultural ● Awareness Developmental ExperiencesDevelopmental Experiences ● Multicultural Learning ● Distance influence ● Influence without authority ● Dealing with Complexity ● Multicultural relationship building ● Matrix Influence
  • 70. YOU MAY ALSO LIKEYOU MAY ALSO LIKE 10 LEADERSHIP TOOLS10 LEADERSHIP TOOLS onon SlideShareSlideShare
  • 71. BIBLIOGRAPHBIBLIOGRAPHYY Other sources and references are mentioned within slides