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LEADERSHIP
What Is Leadership?
Leadership
The ability to influence a
group toward the
achievement of goals.
Management
Use of authority inherent
in designated formal rank
to obtain compliance from
organizational members.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES
• TRAIT THEORY
• BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES
• CONTINGENCY THEORIES
1, Trait Theories
Leadership Traits:
• Ambition and energy
• The desire to lead
• Honest and integrity
• Self-confidence
• Intelligence
• High self-monitoring
• Job-relevant knowledge
Traits Theories of
Leadership
Theories that consider
personality, social,
physical, or intellectual
traits to differentiate
leaders from nonleaders.
Trait Theories
Limitations:
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in
all situations.
• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of
relationship of leadership and traits.
2. Behavioral Theories
• Trait theory:
Leaders are born, not made.
• Behavioral theory:
Leadership traits can be taught.
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors
differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
a. Ohio State Studies
Initiating Structure
The extent to which a leader is
likely to define and structure his
or her role and those of sub-
ordinates in the search for goal
attainment.
Consideration
The extent to which a leader is likely to have job
relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect
for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
b. University of Michigan Studies
Employee-Oriented Leader
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a
personal interest in the needs of employees and
accepting individual differences among members.
Production-Oriented Leader
One who emphasizes technical
or task aspects of the job.
c. The
Managerial Grid
(Blake and Mouton)
E X H I B I T
11–1
3. Contingency Theories
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
a. Fiedler’s Model: Defining the
Situation
Leader-Member Relations
The degree of confidence, trust, and respect
subordinates have in their leader.
Position Power
Influence derived from one’s formal structural
position in the organization; includes power to hire,
fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
Task Structure
The degree to which the job assignments are
procedurized.
Findings from Fiedler Model
b. Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational Leadership Theory
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
A contingency theory that focuses on followers’
readiness.
Leader: decreasing need
for support and supervision
Follower readiness:
ability and willingness
Unable and
Unwilling
Unable but
Willing
Able and
Willing
Directive High Task and Relationship
Orientations
Supportive
Participative
Able and
Unwilling
Monitoring
Leadership Styles and Follower
Readiness
(Hersey and Blanchard)
WillingUnwilling
Able
Unable Directive
High Task
and
Relationship
Orientations
Supportive
Participative
Monitoring
Follower
Readiness
Leadership
Styles
c.Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and
subordinates with in-group status will have higher
performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job
satisfaction.
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
d. The Path-Goal Theory
Leadership styles
• Autocratic Management Style
• Democratic Management Style
• Laissez Faire Management style
Transactional Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Autocratic Management Style
• an autocratic manager dictates orders to their
staff and makes decisions without any
consultation.
• The leader likes to control the situation they are
in.
• Decision are quick .
• This type of management style can decrease
motivation and increase staff turnover
Democratic or participative style
• A democratic manager delegates authority to the
staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task.
• Staff will complete the tasks using their own work
methods on time.
• Employees are involved in decision making giving
them a sense motivating individuals.
• Increases job satisfaction by involving employees or
team members .
• Slow decision making process.
Laissez Faire Management style
• A laissez faire manager sets the tasks and gives staff
complete freedom to complete the task as they see fit.
“leave it be”.
• It works for teams in which the individuals are very
experienced and skilled self-starters.
• There is minimal involvement from the manager.
• The manager coaches or supply information if
required.
• Benefits - staff are developed to take responsibility .
• Staff feel lost and not reach the goals set within the
time frame
Autocratic Laissez - Faire
Leaders control
Employee Control
Transactional and Transformational
Leadership
Transactional Leaders
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers
in the direction of established goals by
clarifying role and task requirements.
Transformational Leaders
Leaders who provide individualized
consideration and intellectual stimulation,
and who possess charisma.
Characteristics of Transactional
Leaders
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of
rewards for effort, promises rewards for good
performance, recognizes accomplishments.
Management by Exception: Watches and
searches for deviations from rules and
standards, takes corrective action.
Characteristics of Transformational
Leaders
Idealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission,
instills pride, gains respect and trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses
symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in
simple ways.
Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality,
and careful problem solving.
Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention,
treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

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Ppt on leadership

  • 2. What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.
  • 3. LEADERSHIP THEORIES • TRAIT THEORY • BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES • CONTINGENCY THEORIES
  • 4. 1, Trait Theories Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honest and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • High self-monitoring • Job-relevant knowledge Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
  • 5. Trait Theories Limitations: • No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.
  • 6. 2. Behavioral Theories • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
  • 7. a. Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub- ordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
  • 8. b. University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
  • 9. c. The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) E X H I B I T 11–1
  • 11. a. Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
  • 13. b. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Follower readiness: ability and willingness Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Willing Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Able and Unwilling Monitoring
  • 14. Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) WillingUnwilling Able Unable Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring Follower Readiness Leadership Styles
  • 15. c.Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
  • 18. Leadership styles • Autocratic Management Style • Democratic Management Style • Laissez Faire Management style Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership
  • 19. Autocratic Management Style • an autocratic manager dictates orders to their staff and makes decisions without any consultation. • The leader likes to control the situation they are in. • Decision are quick . • This type of management style can decrease motivation and increase staff turnover
  • 20. Democratic or participative style • A democratic manager delegates authority to the staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task. • Staff will complete the tasks using their own work methods on time. • Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense motivating individuals. • Increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members . • Slow decision making process.
  • 21. Laissez Faire Management style • A laissez faire manager sets the tasks and gives staff complete freedom to complete the task as they see fit. “leave it be”. • It works for teams in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters. • There is minimal involvement from the manager. • The manager coaches or supply information if required. • Benefits - staff are developed to take responsibility . • Staff feel lost and not reach the goals set within the time frame
  • 22. Autocratic Laissez - Faire Leaders control Employee Control
  • 23. Transactional and Transformational Leadership Transactional Leaders Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational Leaders Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma.
  • 24. Characteristics of Transactional Leaders Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. Management by Exception: Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.
  • 25. Characteristics of Transformational Leaders Idealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.