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Dr. Kiran Kakade
Assistant Professor (HR) ,TIMSR
Mumbai
Leadership
"Leadership is a function of knowing yourself,
having a vision that is well communicated,
building trust among colleagues, and
taking effective action to realize your
own leadership potential."
Prof. Warren Bennis
“Leaders are not like other people”
But what make them so? Intelligence? Drive? Luck? A certain
Leadership Style?
1. What is Leadership
2. Trait Theories (Upto 1940)
3. Behavior Theories (Upto 1960)
4. Contingency and interactive theories
5. Contemporary Approaches (Charismatic, Transformational,
and Authentic Leadership)
Leadership VS Management
Good management brings about order and consistency
by drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organization
structures and monitoring results against the plans.
Leadership in contrast ,is about coping with change.
Leaders establish direction by developing a vision of
future ;then they align people by communicating this
vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles.
What Is Leadership?
Leadership
The ability to influence a
group toward the
achievement of goals.
Management
Use of authority inherent
in designated formal rank
to obtain compliance from
organizational members.
Exercise
Discuss examples you have come across of strong
and weak leadership
You can use examples from Politics, Sport and
societies (keep anonymous)
Traits Theories of Leadership
Theories that consider personal
qualities & characteristics
that , differentiate leaders from
non leaders.
The search for personality, social,
physical or intellectual attributes
that describe leaders from non
leaders.
Leadership TraitsLeadership Traits::
• Ambition andAmbition and
energyenergy
• The desire to leadThe desire to lead
• Honest and integrityHonest and integrity
• Self-confidenceSelf-confidence
• IntelligenceIntelligence
• High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring
• Job-relevantJob-relevant
knowledgeknowledge
Leadership TraitsLeadership Traits::
• Ambition andAmbition and
energyenergy
• The desire to leadThe desire to lead
• Honest and integrityHonest and integrity
• Self-confidenceSelf-confidence
• IntelligenceIntelligence
• High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring
• Job-relevantJob-relevant
knowledgeknowledge
05/10/18
The Big Five Personality Traits
TRAIT THEORIES (UPTO 1940)
Assumptions
People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient)
combination of traits.
Limitations:Limitations:
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishingBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing
effective and ineffective leaders.effective and ineffective leaders.
Limitations:Limitations:
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishingBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing
effective and ineffective leaders.effective and ineffective leaders.
For a long period, inherited traits were sidelined as learned and
situational factors were considered to be far more realistic as reasons
for people acquiring leadership positions.
Leadership Theory
Early Theories:
Great Man Theories
Leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead
Term 'man' was intentional -
concept was primarily male, military and Western
Trait Theories
Research on traits or qualities associated with leadership are numerous
Traits are hard to measure. For example, how do we measure honesty or
integrity?
Leadership Traits and Skills
Traits
•Adaptable to situations
•Alert to social environment
•Ambitious and achievement
orientated
•Assertive
•Cooperative
•Decisive
•Dependable
•Dominant (desire to influence others)
•Energetic (high activity level)
•Persistent
•Self-confident
•Tolerant of stress
•Willing to assume responsibility
Skills
• Clever (intelligent)
• Conceptually skilled
• Creative
• Diplomatic and tactful
• Fluent in speaking
• Knowledgeable about group
task
• Organised (administrative
ability)
• Persuasive
• Socially skilled
Stogdill, 1974
Leaders will also use:
Integrity, Honesty, Compassion, Humility
The personal qualities and charecteristics of subhas chandra founder and
chairman of Zee Entertainment Enterprises Limited (ZEEL),make him a
great leader.
Subhash Chandra is describe as persistent,sensetive to needs of others
,hardworking ,innovative charasmatic , enthusiastic, energetic
decisive, and risk-taking.
These helped the school dropout from Haryana-a rice mill entreprenuer at the
age of 19 to build one of the most recognized and respected brands in
entertainment (Zee) and in packaging (Essel Propack).
With Zee entertainment ,Subhash Chandra broke Doordarshan’s monopoly in
india and offered indian television viewers choices and flexiblity.
Group Exercise:
Choose leaders YOU admire
What personality traits and skills do they have?
Leadership Theory
Functional Theories
(John Adair, Action Centred Leadership, 1970)
Leader is concerned with the interaction of 3 areas:
Task – goal setting, methods and process
Team – effective interaction/communication,
clarify roles, team morale
Individual – attention to behaviour, feelings,
coaching, CPD
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
• Leaders behaviour and actions, rather than their traits
and skills e.g. production orientated or people
orientated.
• Different leadership behaviours categorised as
‘leadership styles’ e.g. autocratic, persuasive,
consultative, democratic.
• Doesn’t provide guide to effective leadership in
different situations
CONTIGENCY/SITUATIONAL THEORIES
Leadership style changes according to the 'situation‘ and in response
to the individuals being managed – their competency.
Two factor of Situational Theories:
1.Leadership Style
2.Situational Favorableness
Fiedlers created LPC questionaire to identify that the Leadership style
by measuring whether the person is task of relation oriented.
The LPC (Least Prefered Co-worker) scale is use to generate a
cummulative score based on other perception of his coworkers
character,traits and attitude.
Step 3
MESSAGE BY
JACK FRANCIS WELCH
“If you pick the right people and give them the
opportunity to spread their wings and put
compensation as a career behind it almost don’t have
to manage it”
“If you don’t have competitive advantage, don’t compete”
“Control your own destiny or someone else will”
John Francis "Jack" Welch Jr. is an American retired business executive,
author, and chemical engineer. He was chairman and CEO of General
Electric between 1981 and 2001. During his tenure at GE, the company's
value rose 4,000%. In 2006, Welch's net worth was estimated at $720
million
Other Contegency Theories
 Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
 Path -Goal Theory
 Leader-Participation Model
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
Path -Goal Theory
Leader-Participation Model
A theory that supports leaders creation of in-group and out -
grous sub-ordinates with in-group status will have higher
performance rating ,less turnover,and greater job
satisfaction
Dealing with Toxic Boses
• Empathize and don't take it personally
• Draw a Line
• Don't sabotage or vindictive ( If you take
revenge ,you become part of the problem)
• Be patients and take notes
Charismatic Leadership and Transformational
Leadership
Definition:
Max Weber, a sociologist ,defined charisma
(from the Greek for “gift”) as “a certain quality of
an individual personality ,by virtue of which he or
she is set apart from ordinary people and treated
as endowed with supernatural ,superhuman, or
at least specifically exceptional powers and
qualities.”
Charismatic Leadership Theory
A leadership theory that states that followers
make attributions of heroic or extraordinary
leadership abilities when they observe certain
behaviour.
Hitler are all too successful at convincing their
followers to pursue a vision that can be
disastrous
The three step process to exhibit charismatic
behavior
Step 1: Develop an aura of charisma by maintaining
an optimistic view ;using passions a catalyst for
generating enthusiasm; and communicating with
whole body ,not just with words.
Step 2: Draw others in by creating a bond that
inspires them to follow.
Step 3: Bring out the potential in followers by tapping
into their emotions.
Full Range of Leadership Model
.
Difference Between
CHARISMATIC VS TRANSFORMATIONAL
Leadership
Charismatic leaders also are sometimes
called transformational leaders because they share
multiple similarities. Their main difference is focus and
audience.
Charismatic leaders often try to make the status quo
better, while transformational leaders focus on
transforming organizationsinto the leader'svision
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEADERS & MANAGERS
DIFFERENT STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
Autocratic leadership
Bureaucratic leadership
Charismatic leadership
Democratic leadership or Participative leadership
Laissez-faire leadership
People-oriented leadership or Relations-Oriented
leadership
Servant leadership
Task-oriented leadership
Transactional leadership
Transformational leadership
Leaders who know who they are,know what they believe in and
value ,and act on those values and belief openly and
candidly .Their followers would consider them to be ethical
people.
Authentic leader share information ,encourage open
communication ,and stick to their ideals.
The result : people come to have faith in them.
“Ethical Leaders use the their charisma in a socially
constructive way to serve others.”
Leaders who treat their followers with fairness,especially by
providing honest frequent ,and accurate information are seen as
more effective.
Trust and Leadership
“Trust is a positive expectation that another will not act
opportunistically.”
Trust is the psychological state that exists when you agree to
make yourself vulnerable to another because you have
positive expectations about how things are going to turn out.
Trust is the primary attribute associated with leadership.
Trust as Process
05/10/18

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Leadership

  • 1. Dr. Kiran Kakade Assistant Professor (HR) ,TIMSR Mumbai Leadership
  • 2.
  • 3. "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential." Prof. Warren Bennis
  • 4. “Leaders are not like other people” But what make them so? Intelligence? Drive? Luck? A certain Leadership Style? 1. What is Leadership 2. Trait Theories (Upto 1940) 3. Behavior Theories (Upto 1960) 4. Contingency and interactive theories 5. Contemporary Approaches (Charismatic, Transformational, and Authentic Leadership)
  • 5. Leadership VS Management Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organization structures and monitoring results against the plans. Leadership in contrast ,is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a vision of future ;then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles.
  • 6. What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.
  • 7. Exercise Discuss examples you have come across of strong and weak leadership You can use examples from Politics, Sport and societies (keep anonymous)
  • 8. Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personal qualities & characteristics that , differentiate leaders from non leaders. The search for personality, social, physical or intellectual attributes that describe leaders from non leaders. Leadership TraitsLeadership Traits:: • Ambition andAmbition and energyenergy • The desire to leadThe desire to lead • Honest and integrityHonest and integrity • Self-confidenceSelf-confidence • IntelligenceIntelligence • High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring • Job-relevantJob-relevant knowledgeknowledge Leadership TraitsLeadership Traits:: • Ambition andAmbition and energyenergy • The desire to leadThe desire to lead • Honest and integrityHonest and integrity • Self-confidenceSelf-confidence • IntelligenceIntelligence • High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring • Job-relevantJob-relevant knowledgeknowledge
  • 9. 05/10/18 The Big Five Personality Traits
  • 10. TRAIT THEORIES (UPTO 1940) Assumptions People are born with inherited traits. Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. Limitations:Limitations: • No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishingBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.effective and ineffective leaders. Limitations:Limitations: • No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishingBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.effective and ineffective leaders. For a long period, inherited traits were sidelined as learned and situational factors were considered to be far more realistic as reasons for people acquiring leadership positions.
  • 11. Leadership Theory Early Theories: Great Man Theories Leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead Term 'man' was intentional - concept was primarily male, military and Western Trait Theories Research on traits or qualities associated with leadership are numerous Traits are hard to measure. For example, how do we measure honesty or integrity?
  • 12. Leadership Traits and Skills Traits •Adaptable to situations •Alert to social environment •Ambitious and achievement orientated •Assertive •Cooperative •Decisive •Dependable •Dominant (desire to influence others) •Energetic (high activity level) •Persistent •Self-confident •Tolerant of stress •Willing to assume responsibility Skills • Clever (intelligent) • Conceptually skilled • Creative • Diplomatic and tactful • Fluent in speaking • Knowledgeable about group task • Organised (administrative ability) • Persuasive • Socially skilled Stogdill, 1974 Leaders will also use: Integrity, Honesty, Compassion, Humility
  • 13. The personal qualities and charecteristics of subhas chandra founder and chairman of Zee Entertainment Enterprises Limited (ZEEL),make him a great leader. Subhash Chandra is describe as persistent,sensetive to needs of others ,hardworking ,innovative charasmatic , enthusiastic, energetic decisive, and risk-taking. These helped the school dropout from Haryana-a rice mill entreprenuer at the age of 19 to build one of the most recognized and respected brands in entertainment (Zee) and in packaging (Essel Propack). With Zee entertainment ,Subhash Chandra broke Doordarshan’s monopoly in india and offered indian television viewers choices and flexiblity.
  • 14. Group Exercise: Choose leaders YOU admire What personality traits and skills do they have?
  • 15. Leadership Theory Functional Theories (John Adair, Action Centred Leadership, 1970) Leader is concerned with the interaction of 3 areas: Task – goal setting, methods and process Team – effective interaction/communication, clarify roles, team morale Individual – attention to behaviour, feelings, coaching, CPD
  • 16. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES • Leaders behaviour and actions, rather than their traits and skills e.g. production orientated or people orientated. • Different leadership behaviours categorised as ‘leadership styles’ e.g. autocratic, persuasive, consultative, democratic. • Doesn’t provide guide to effective leadership in different situations
  • 17. CONTIGENCY/SITUATIONAL THEORIES Leadership style changes according to the 'situation‘ and in response to the individuals being managed – their competency. Two factor of Situational Theories: 1.Leadership Style 2.Situational Favorableness Fiedlers created LPC questionaire to identify that the Leadership style by measuring whether the person is task of relation oriented. The LPC (Least Prefered Co-worker) scale is use to generate a cummulative score based on other perception of his coworkers character,traits and attitude.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 23. MESSAGE BY JACK FRANCIS WELCH “If you pick the right people and give them the opportunity to spread their wings and put compensation as a career behind it almost don’t have to manage it” “If you don’t have competitive advantage, don’t compete” “Control your own destiny or someone else will” John Francis "Jack" Welch Jr. is an American retired business executive, author, and chemical engineer. He was chairman and CEO of General Electric between 1981 and 2001. During his tenure at GE, the company's value rose 4,000%. In 2006, Welch's net worth was estimated at $720 million
  • 24. Other Contegency Theories  Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)  Path -Goal Theory  Leader-Participation Model
  • 28. A theory that supports leaders creation of in-group and out - grous sub-ordinates with in-group status will have higher performance rating ,less turnover,and greater job satisfaction
  • 29.
  • 30. Dealing with Toxic Boses • Empathize and don't take it personally • Draw a Line • Don't sabotage or vindictive ( If you take revenge ,you become part of the problem) • Be patients and take notes
  • 31. Charismatic Leadership and Transformational Leadership
  • 32. Definition: Max Weber, a sociologist ,defined charisma (from the Greek for “gift”) as “a certain quality of an individual personality ,by virtue of which he or she is set apart from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural ,superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers and qualities.” Charismatic Leadership Theory A leadership theory that states that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviour.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. Hitler are all too successful at convincing their followers to pursue a vision that can be disastrous
  • 36. The three step process to exhibit charismatic behavior Step 1: Develop an aura of charisma by maintaining an optimistic view ;using passions a catalyst for generating enthusiasm; and communicating with whole body ,not just with words. Step 2: Draw others in by creating a bond that inspires them to follow. Step 3: Bring out the potential in followers by tapping into their emotions.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. Full Range of Leadership Model
  • 40. . Difference Between CHARISMATIC VS TRANSFORMATIONAL Leadership Charismatic leaders also are sometimes called transformational leaders because they share multiple similarities. Their main difference is focus and audience. Charismatic leaders often try to make the status quo better, while transformational leaders focus on transforming organizationsinto the leader'svision
  • 42. DIFFERENT STYLES OF LEADERSHIP Autocratic leadership Bureaucratic leadership Charismatic leadership Democratic leadership or Participative leadership Laissez-faire leadership People-oriented leadership or Relations-Oriented leadership Servant leadership Task-oriented leadership Transactional leadership Transformational leadership
  • 43.
  • 44. Leaders who know who they are,know what they believe in and value ,and act on those values and belief openly and candidly .Their followers would consider them to be ethical people. Authentic leader share information ,encourage open communication ,and stick to their ideals. The result : people come to have faith in them.
  • 45. “Ethical Leaders use the their charisma in a socially constructive way to serve others.” Leaders who treat their followers with fairness,especially by providing honest frequent ,and accurate information are seen as more effective.
  • 46. Trust and Leadership “Trust is a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically.” Trust is the psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out. Trust is the primary attribute associated with leadership.