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Keys to Success…
       Effective Leadership Tips
 Presented by Debra R. Leonard-Porch
                      2008-2009 Illinois Division President
       to the Chicago Lake Shore Chapter on May 28, 2009
Okay, Here’s How I See Leadership…
              “YES, we can! – President Barack Hussein Obama
 “Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right
               thing” – Warren Bennis, Ph.D., “On Becoming a Leader”

  “The real leader has no need to lead – he is content to point the way” – Henry Miller

“Faith is the first factor in a life devoted to service. Without it nothing is possible. With it,
                         nothing is impossible” – Mary McLeod Bethune

 “From everyone to whom much has been given, much will be required; and from the
   one to whom much has been entrusted, even more will be demanded” – Luke 12:48

  “Leadership is understanding people and involving them to help you do a job. That
     takes all of the characteristics, like integrity, dedication of purpose, selflessness,
   knowledge, skill, implacability, as well as determination not to accept failure”
                                          – Adm. Arleigh A. Burke
Good Leaders are MADE not born…

• It is often said that good leaders are born, but I
  disagree, if you have the desire and willpower, I believe
  that you can become an effective leader

• Good leaders develop through a never-ending process
  of:
        Self-study
        Education
        Training
        Experience
Good Leaders are MADE not born…

• To inspire others to higher levels of teamwork, there are
  certain things you must BE, KNOW and DO

   – These do not come naturally, but are acquired through:
        Continual work
        Study


   – Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve
     their leadership skills
        They are not resting on their laurels
        Or reliving their past successes
Notable Leadership Quotes –

  “Leadership consists not in degrees of technique but in traits of
     character; it requires moral rather than athletic or intellectual
      effort, and it imposes on both leader and follower alike the
               burden of self-restraint” – Lewis H. Lapham

“The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to
                     say thank you” – Max DePree

“There is no such thing as a perfect leader in the past or present,
               in China or elsewhere. If there is one, he is only
   pretending, like a pig inserting scallions into its nose in an effort
                to look like an elephant” – Liu Shao ch’i
Notable Leadership Quotes –

“Excellence is not an accomplishment. It is a spirit, a never-ending
                    process” – Lawrence M. Miller

“I start with the premise that the function of leadership is to
          produce more leaders, not more followers” – Ralph Nader

“You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in
    which you really stop to look fear in the face. You must do the
         thing you think you cannot do” – Eleanor Roosevelt
Definition of LEADERSHIP
• It is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish
  an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it
  more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by
  applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values,
  ethics, character, knowledge and skills
     Although your position as a leader gives you the authority to accomplish
      certain tasks and objectives in an organization, this “power” does not
      make you a leader, it simply makes you the boss
     Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high
      goals, rather than simply bossing people around

    “Leadership should be born out of the understanding of the needs of those who would be
                                affected by it” – Marian Anderson
Words that Effective Leaders Regularly Say …

• The MOST important words are:
    “I admit I made a mistake…”
    “You did a good/great job…”
    “What is your opinion?…”
    “If you please…”
    “Thank you,…”
    “WE”

• The LEAST important word is: I
Theories on How People Become Leaders…

•   TRAIT THEORY – some personality traits may lead people naturally into
    leadership roles

•   GREAT EVENTS THEORY – a crisis or important event may cause a person
    to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in
    an ordinary person

•   TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY – people can choose to
    become leaders – people can learn leadership skills

          “The only real training for leadership is leadership” – Antony Jay
How You Earn Respect As a Leader…

• When a person is deciding if they respect you as a leader, they
  do not think about your attributes, they observe what you DO, so
  they can know who you really ARE

    – They will then use their observations to tell if you are an honorable and
      trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good

    – Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their team members
      only obey them, not follow them. They will succeed in many areas
      because they present a good image to others at the expense of their team
      members

    “Leadership has a harder job to do than just choose sides. It must bring
                         sides together” – Rev. Jesse L. Jackson, Jr.
The Basis of Good Leadership Is…
• Honorable character and selfless service to your organization.
    – This can mean late nights, early mornings, having to work on weekends,
      uncomfortable situations and decisions, and sacrifices of your personal
      time and space

    – In your team members eyes, your leadership is everything you do that
      effects the organization’s objectives and their well-being

    – Respected leaders concentrate on what they are (be) for example, beliefs
      and character, what they know, for example, job, tasks and human
      nature, and what they do, for example implementing, motivating and
      providing direction

     “The task of the leader is to get his people from where they are to where they
                             have not been” – Henry Kissinger
What Makes a Person Want to Follow a Leader?
•   People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of
    direction

•   To earn and keep respect a leader must be ethical, fair, even-handed, honest,
    and impartial at all times with no perceived, known or acknowledged favorites

•   A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future (so
    read, review, do your homework and be prepared to answer and ask the hard
    questions)

•   Your thoughts must be always be focused on the well-being of the ENTIRE
    organization, not an individual or specific group within the organization

•   They do not attempt to “poison the well (or team)” with their personal
    grievances, opinions, hidden agendas, dislikes or jealousies

“The quality of a leader is reflected in the standards they set for themselves”
                                    – Ray Kroc, Founder of McDonalds
You Must Be Able to Communicate A Vision
• You must be perceived as trustworthy and be able to intelligently
  communicate a vision of where your organization needs to go.
  According to a study by the Hay Group (a global management
  consultant firm) there are 75 key components of employee (in this
  case member) satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004) they found that:
    – Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor
      of satisfaction in an organization

    – Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to
      winning organizational trust and confidence:
         Helping to understand the organizations overall business strategy
         Helping to understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives
         Sharing information on both how the organization is doing and how we are doing
          – relative to strategic business objectives
Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do
                              Be
• According to the U.S. Army (1973) there are eleven principles to
  help you be, know and do:
    –   Know yourself and seek self-improvement – in order to know
        yourself, you have to understand your be, know and do, attributes. In
        seeking self-improvement, it means continually strengthening your
        attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes,
        reflection, interacting with others, and having credible and reliable
        mentors with no hidden agendas

    –   Be technically proficient – as a leader, you must know your entire job,
        not just the parts you are comfortable with or like and have a solid
        familiarity with your team members tasks (read your resource manual,
        familiarize yourself with your Chapter/Division/International Bylaws and
        Standing Rules, review Roberts Rules of Order or other parliamentary
        procedure guidelines, have a list of “go-to” numbers for IAAP HQ,
        mentors, etc.)
Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do
                              Be
   –   Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions –
       search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when
       things go wrong, and they always will sooner or later – do not blame
       others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action and move on to the
       next challenge

   –   Make sound and timely decisions – use good problem solving,
       decision making and planning tools (when you have a meeting prepare
       in advance, distribute an agenda and other materials PRIOR to the
       meeting for review and bring copies of materials to the meeting)

   –   Set the example – be a good role model for your team members and
       organization. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but
       also see. We must not only talk the talk, but walk the walk

       “We must become the change we want to see” – Mahatma Ghandi
Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do
                              Be
  –      Know your people and look out for their well-being – know human
         nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your members (names of
         children, spouses, favorite charities/organizations/causes, company
         names, spell names correctly, send PERSONAL handwritten notes and
         cards – ALWAYS go that extra step, don’t be afraid to apologize)

  –      Keep your members informed – know how to communicate not only with
         your team members but all of your members – know their favorite ways of
         communicating: telephone/U.S. mail/texting/IM/Twitter/Facebook/
         LinkedIn, E-mail address preference, etc.

  –      Develop a sense of responsibility in your team members – help to
         develop good character traits that will help them carry out their
         professional and association responsibilities. Ensure that they are held
         accountable to not only you, but the entire membership – be a role model

      “Uncertainty will always be part of the taking charge process” – Harold Geneen
Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do
                              Be
   –   Ensure that assigned tasks are understood, supervised and
       accomplished – continual effective communication is key (along with
       your accepting responsibility and being held accountable)

   –   Train as a team – although many so called leaders call their
       chapters/divisions teams, they are not really teams…they are just a
       group of people doing their assigned jobs. Avoid that by doing team
       building exercises, looking at your organization as a small business
       where everyone is a stakeholder and has responsibility. Learn new and
       refresh old skills together as a group – handle large projects together by
       each taking on a certain amount of the responsibility

   –   Use the full capabilities of your organization – by developing a true
       team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization to it’s fullest
       capability
Factors of Leadership

There are four major factors of leadership:

•   Follower – different people require different styles of leadership (e.g., a new
    member requires more supervision than an experienced member, and a
    member lacking motivation will require a different approach than a highly
    motivated member)

•   Leader – you must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you
    know, and what you can do. It is the followers, not the leader who determines
    if a leader is successful, if they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader,
    then they will be uninspired

     – To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself that you are
       worthy of being followed
Factors of Leadership

•   Communication – you lead through two-way communication, much of which
    is non-verbal. For instance, you “set the example,” that communicates to your
    members that you would not ask them to do anything that you would not be
    willing to do

     – What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between
       you and your members

•   Situation – all are different – what you do in one situation will not always work
    in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action
    and the leadership style needed for each situation
Leadership Framework

•   BE a professional (be loyal to the ENTIRE organization, perform selfless
    service, take personal responsibility)

•   BE a professional who possess good character traits (honesty, competence,
    candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination)

•   KNOW the four factors of leadership – follower, leader, communication,
    situation

•   KNOW yourself (strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge and
    skills)

•   KNOW human nature (human needs, emotions and how people respond to
    stress
Leadership Framework

•   KNOW your job (be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks)

•   KNOW your organization (where to go for help, its climate and culture, who
    the unofficial leaders are)

•   DO provide clear direction (goal setting, problem solving, decision making,
    planning). Strategic planning, succession planning, chapter goals to increase
    membership, etc.)

•   DO implement (clear communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating

•   DO motivate (develop morale and esprit de corps in the Chapter/Division,
    train, coach and counsel
Leadership Goals, Values and Concepts

• Every organization has a particular work environment which
  dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to
  problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage
  of past leaders and its present leaders

• Leaders exert influence on the environment by three types of
  actions:
     Goals and performance standards they establish
     Values they establish for the organization
     Business and people concepts they establish
Leadership Goals, Values and Concepts
•   Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals
    across the entire spectrum (strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings
    and presentations, productivity, quality and reliability)

•   Values reflect the concern the organization has for its members, vendors and
    surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will
    be conducted

•   Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the
    methods and processes for conducting business

•   These goals, values and concepts make up the organization’s “personality” or
    how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This
    personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards and rites that take place
Roles and Relationships
•   Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about
    behavior of any position. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that
    may or may not be fully spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior
    including prestige and a sense of accomplishment or challenge

•   Relationships are determined by a role’s tasks. While some tasks are
    performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others. The tasks
    will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with, how often and
    towards what end. Normally the greater the interaction, the greater the liking.
    This is turn, leads to more frequent interaction. It is hard to like someone
    whom we have had no contact with, and we tend to seek out those we like.
    People tend to do what they are rewarded for, and friendship is a powerful
    reward
Culture and Climate

• There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization

• Each organization has its own distinctive culture – it is a combination of the
  founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history and size

• This results in rites: the routines, rituals, and the dreaded, “the way we’ve
  always done things.” These rites impact individual behavior in a good (or bad or
  appropriate/inappropriate) way on what it takes to be in good standing (the
  norm) of a particular group and directs the appropriate (inappropriate) behavior
  of members of the group
Culture and Climate

• The climate is the “feel” of the organization, the individual and
  share perceptions and attitudes of the organization’s members.

    – While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a
      result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions and
      customs

    – Climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership
          It represents the beliefs about the “feel of the organization” by its members
          This individual perception of the “feel of the organization” comes from what
           the people believe about the activities that occur in organization and if they
           are inappropriate they should be changed
Culture and Climate

• Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and
  management style of the leader, based on the values, attributes,
  skills and actions, as well as the priorities of the leader

    – Compared to the “ethical climate” – the “feel of the organization” about the
      activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the environment
      that constitute ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about
      whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we
      ought to behave (appropriately or inappropriately). The behavior (or
      character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the
      climate
Culture and Climate
• On the other hand, culture is a long-term complex phenomenon
    It represents the shared expectations (appropriate or not) and self-image of
     the organization. The mature values that create “tradition” or the “way we’ve
     always done things here.”
    Things are done differently in every organization (but should always be done
     correctly and appropriately following the guidelines set up by IAAP HQ)
    The collective vision and common folklore that define the organization
     should be a reflection of the entire organization as a whole
    Individual leaders cannot easily create or change culture because culture
     (appropriate or not) is a part of the organization.
    Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the
     actions and thought processes of the leader.
    But everything you do as a leader, will affect the climate of the
     organization
Leadership Models

• Leadership Models help us to understand what makes leaders
  act the way they do.

• The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed
  in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different
  approach or behavior to be taken.

• Two different leadership models will be briefly discussed:
     The Four Framework Approach
     The Managerial Grid
Leadership Model/Four Framework Approach
•   Boulman and Deal (1991) suggests that leaders display leadership behaviors in
    one of four frameworks, the style of which can either be effective or ineffective
    depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations –

     – Structural in an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect
       whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective
       leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is
       details. Structural Leaders are focused on structure, strategy, environment,
       implementation, experimentation and adaptation.

     – Human Resource in an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst
       and servant whose leadership style is support, advocation, and
       empowerment, while in an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a
       pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource
       Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and
       accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share
       information, and move decision making down into the organization
Leadership Model/Four Framework Approach
  – Political in an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate,
    whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective
    leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is
    manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can
    get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build
    linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation
    and coercion only if necessary

  – Symbolic in an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet,
    whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership
    situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke
    and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theatre to
    play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to
    capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible
    interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision
Leadership Model/Four Framework Approach
•   This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories
    and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it
    would not be

•   Any of these approached alone would be inadequate, thus we should strive to
    be conscious of all four approaches and not just rely on one or two

      For example during a major organization change, a structural leadership style may
       be more effective than a visionary leadership style; while during a period when
       strong growth is needed, the visionary approach may be better

      We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred
       approach. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the
       limitations of our favoring just one approach
Leadership Model/Managerial Grid

•   The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (1985) uses two axes: concern for
    people on the vertical axis and concern for task on the horizontal axis (with
    both axes having a range of 0 to 9) to help us understand what makes leaders
    act the way they do

•   The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior style
    has the attraction of simplicity

•   Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axes, but by going to
    the extremes, (e.g., people who scored on the far end of both of the 0 to 9
    scales) the study came up with four different types of leaders
Leadership Model/Managerial Grid

   – Authoritarian Leaders (high on tasks and low on relationships) are very
     much tasked oriented and are hard on workers (autocratic). There is little
     or not allowance for collaboration or cooperation. They are very strong on
     schedules, they expect people to do what they are told without question or
     debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to
     blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to
     prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent, so it is difficult
     to contribute or develop

   – Team Leaders (high on tasks and high on relationships) lead by positive
     example and tries to foster a team environment where all team members
     can reach their highest potential, both as team members and personally
     as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as
     possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the
     members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive
     teams
Leadership Model/Managerial Grid

   – Country Club Leaders (low on tasks and high on relationships) uses
     reward power to maintain discipline and encourage the team to
     accomplish its goals. They are almost incapable of employing more
     punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear
     that using such power could jeopardize relationships with the other team
     members

   – Impoverished Leaders (low on tasks and low on relationships) use a
     “delegate and disappear” management style. They are not committed to
     either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their
     team to do whatever it wishes and prefers to detach themselves from the
     team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power
     struggles.
Leadership Model/Managerial Grid

•   The most desirable place for a leader to be at most times would be the Team
    Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situations
    might call for one of the other three to be used at times

      For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your team to gain self-
       reliance. Be an Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated
       worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it, you will know at
       what points along the axes you need to be in order to achieve the desired result

     “Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed
                                 until it is faced” – James Baldwin
The Process of Great Leadership
•   Kouzes & Posner, 1987 suggests that the road to great leadership has five key steps
    that are common to all successful leaders:

      Challenge the process – First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the
       most

      Inspire a shared vision – Next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your
       members

      Enable others to act – Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem(s)

      Model the way – When the process gets tough, get YOUR hands dirty. A boss tells others
       what to do, a leader shows that it can be done

      Encourage the heart – Share the glory with your members’ hearts, while keeping the pains
       within your own
Always Remember…
•   Remember that your “leader” is human and has feelings, too! Never forget that
    they could also be having a bad day, personal problems and are working and
    volunteering just like you. They should always be held responsible and
    accountable since they are in a position of authority and leadership, but…
•   Remember that YOUR words can hurt, so be sensitive when you write e-
    mails, don’t jump to conclusions – the tone of your e-mail or voice mail can
    cause unnecessary friction or conflict…
•   Remember that you might be in your leader’s place one day – so pause for a
    moment and then put yourself in their shoes for a moment and consider how
    you really want to be perceived (judgmental, self-righteous, condescending,
    sarcastic, etc.) and then treat others as you wish to be treated…
•   FINALLY, please always remember that there is no such thing as perfection,
    and that no one is perfect – even if we would like to think otherwise!

“In matters of style, swim with the current; in matters of principle, stand like a rock”
                                       – President Thomas Jefferson
YOU, Can Become a Mentor…
YOU
• You can remember how it was when you first began your
  leadership journey, so be sure to offer a helping hand by:
       Accepting the role as mentor
       Treating the role of mentor as an IMPORTANT responsibility
       Being patient, generous with your time and always treat your mentee with respect
       Providing honest answers
       Admitting if you don’t know the answer – you are your mentee’s role model
       Encouraging your mentee to stretch beyond any of their preconceived limitations
       Helping your mentee realize their own self-worth and strengths
       Challenging your mentee to continue to learn and grow
       When the time is right – let go, stop hovering, do not micro-manage!
       Fostering and keeping the vision alive of your mentee excelling in all aspects of life
       Truly enjoy seeing your mentee reach their success – and telling them so, OFTEN!
References
•   Bass, Bernard (1989) Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research. (New York: Free
    Press

•   Bass, Bernard (1990) From the transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the vision.
    Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 18, Issue 3, Winter, 1990, 19-31

•   Blake, Robert R. and Mouton, Janse S. (1985). The Managerial Grid III: The Key to Leadership Excellence.
    Houston: Gulf Publishing Co.

•   Bolman L. and Deal, T (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

•   Kouzes, James M. and Posner, Barry Z. (1987). The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

•   Lamb L.F., McKee, K.B. (2004). Applied Public Relations: Cases in Stakeholder Management. Mahwah, New
    Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Routledge U.S. Army Handbook (1973). Military Leadership.

•   Concepts of Leadership, http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html

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Keys To Success Effective Leadership

  • 1. Keys to Success… Effective Leadership Tips Presented by Debra R. Leonard-Porch 2008-2009 Illinois Division President to the Chicago Lake Shore Chapter on May 28, 2009
  • 2. Okay, Here’s How I See Leadership… “YES, we can! – President Barack Hussein Obama “Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing” – Warren Bennis, Ph.D., “On Becoming a Leader” “The real leader has no need to lead – he is content to point the way” – Henry Miller “Faith is the first factor in a life devoted to service. Without it nothing is possible. With it, nothing is impossible” – Mary McLeod Bethune “From everyone to whom much has been given, much will be required; and from the one to whom much has been entrusted, even more will be demanded” – Luke 12:48 “Leadership is understanding people and involving them to help you do a job. That takes all of the characteristics, like integrity, dedication of purpose, selflessness, knowledge, skill, implacability, as well as determination not to accept failure” – Adm. Arleigh A. Burke
  • 3. Good Leaders are MADE not born… • It is often said that good leaders are born, but I disagree, if you have the desire and willpower, I believe that you can become an effective leader • Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of:  Self-study  Education  Training  Experience
  • 4. Good Leaders are MADE not born… • To inspire others to higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must BE, KNOW and DO – These do not come naturally, but are acquired through:  Continual work  Study – Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills  They are not resting on their laurels  Or reliving their past successes
  • 5. Notable Leadership Quotes – “Leadership consists not in degrees of technique but in traits of character; it requires moral rather than athletic or intellectual effort, and it imposes on both leader and follower alike the burden of self-restraint” – Lewis H. Lapham “The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to say thank you” – Max DePree “There is no such thing as a perfect leader in the past or present, in China or elsewhere. If there is one, he is only pretending, like a pig inserting scallions into its nose in an effort to look like an elephant” – Liu Shao ch’i
  • 6. Notable Leadership Quotes – “Excellence is not an accomplishment. It is a spirit, a never-ending process” – Lawrence M. Miller “I start with the premise that the function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers” – Ralph Nader “You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You must do the thing you think you cannot do” – Eleanor Roosevelt
  • 7. Definition of LEADERSHIP • It is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge and skills  Although your position as a leader gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in an organization, this “power” does not make you a leader, it simply makes you the boss  Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around “Leadership should be born out of the understanding of the needs of those who would be affected by it” – Marian Anderson
  • 8. Words that Effective Leaders Regularly Say … • The MOST important words are:  “I admit I made a mistake…”  “You did a good/great job…”  “What is your opinion?…”  “If you please…”  “Thank you,…”  “WE” • The LEAST important word is: I
  • 9. Theories on How People Become Leaders… • TRAIT THEORY – some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles • GREAT EVENTS THEORY – a crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY – people can choose to become leaders – people can learn leadership skills “The only real training for leadership is leadership” – Antony Jay
  • 10. How You Earn Respect As a Leader… • When a person is deciding if they respect you as a leader, they do not think about your attributes, they observe what you DO, so they can know who you really ARE – They will then use their observations to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good – Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their team members only obey them, not follow them. They will succeed in many areas because they present a good image to others at the expense of their team members “Leadership has a harder job to do than just choose sides. It must bring sides together” – Rev. Jesse L. Jackson, Jr.
  • 11. The Basis of Good Leadership Is… • Honorable character and selfless service to your organization. – This can mean late nights, early mornings, having to work on weekends, uncomfortable situations and decisions, and sacrifices of your personal time and space – In your team members eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization’s objectives and their well-being – Respected leaders concentrate on what they are (be) for example, beliefs and character, what they know, for example, job, tasks and human nature, and what they do, for example implementing, motivating and providing direction “The task of the leader is to get his people from where they are to where they have not been” – Henry Kissinger
  • 12. What Makes a Person Want to Follow a Leader? • People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction • To earn and keep respect a leader must be ethical, fair, even-handed, honest, and impartial at all times with no perceived, known or acknowledged favorites • A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future (so read, review, do your homework and be prepared to answer and ask the hard questions) • Your thoughts must be always be focused on the well-being of the ENTIRE organization, not an individual or specific group within the organization • They do not attempt to “poison the well (or team)” with their personal grievances, opinions, hidden agendas, dislikes or jealousies “The quality of a leader is reflected in the standards they set for themselves” – Ray Kroc, Founder of McDonalds
  • 13. You Must Be Able to Communicate A Vision • You must be perceived as trustworthy and be able to intelligently communicate a vision of where your organization needs to go. According to a study by the Hay Group (a global management consultant firm) there are 75 key components of employee (in this case member) satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004) they found that: – Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of satisfaction in an organization – Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:  Helping to understand the organizations overall business strategy  Helping to understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives  Sharing information on both how the organization is doing and how we are doing – relative to strategic business objectives
  • 14. Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do Be • According to the U.S. Army (1973) there are eleven principles to help you be, know and do: – Know yourself and seek self-improvement – in order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know and do, attributes. In seeking self-improvement, it means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, interacting with others, and having credible and reliable mentors with no hidden agendas – Be technically proficient – as a leader, you must know your entire job, not just the parts you are comfortable with or like and have a solid familiarity with your team members tasks (read your resource manual, familiarize yourself with your Chapter/Division/International Bylaws and Standing Rules, review Roberts Rules of Order or other parliamentary procedure guidelines, have a list of “go-to” numbers for IAAP HQ, mentors, etc.)
  • 15. Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do Be – Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions – search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, and they always will sooner or later – do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action and move on to the next challenge – Make sound and timely decisions – use good problem solving, decision making and planning tools (when you have a meeting prepare in advance, distribute an agenda and other materials PRIOR to the meeting for review and bring copies of materials to the meeting) – Set the example – be a good role model for your team members and organization. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must not only talk the talk, but walk the walk “We must become the change we want to see” – Mahatma Ghandi
  • 16. Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do Be – Know your people and look out for their well-being – know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your members (names of children, spouses, favorite charities/organizations/causes, company names, spell names correctly, send PERSONAL handwritten notes and cards – ALWAYS go that extra step, don’t be afraid to apologize) – Keep your members informed – know how to communicate not only with your team members but all of your members – know their favorite ways of communicating: telephone/U.S. mail/texting/IM/Twitter/Facebook/ LinkedIn, E-mail address preference, etc. – Develop a sense of responsibility in your team members – help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional and association responsibilities. Ensure that they are held accountable to not only you, but the entire membership – be a role model “Uncertainty will always be part of the taking charge process” – Harold Geneen
  • 17. Principles of Leadership: The Be, Know and Do Be – Ensure that assigned tasks are understood, supervised and accomplished – continual effective communication is key (along with your accepting responsibility and being held accountable) – Train as a team – although many so called leaders call their chapters/divisions teams, they are not really teams…they are just a group of people doing their assigned jobs. Avoid that by doing team building exercises, looking at your organization as a small business where everyone is a stakeholder and has responsibility. Learn new and refresh old skills together as a group – handle large projects together by each taking on a certain amount of the responsibility – Use the full capabilities of your organization – by developing a true team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization to it’s fullest capability
  • 18. Factors of Leadership There are four major factors of leadership: • Follower – different people require different styles of leadership (e.g., a new member requires more supervision than an experienced member, and a member lacking motivation will require a different approach than a highly motivated member) • Leader – you must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. It is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is successful, if they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired – To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself that you are worthy of being followed
  • 19. Factors of Leadership • Communication – you lead through two-way communication, much of which is non-verbal. For instance, you “set the example,” that communicates to your members that you would not ask them to do anything that you would not be willing to do – What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your members • Situation – all are different – what you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation
  • 20. Leadership Framework • BE a professional (be loyal to the ENTIRE organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility) • BE a professional who possess good character traits (honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination) • KNOW the four factors of leadership – follower, leader, communication, situation • KNOW yourself (strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge and skills) • KNOW human nature (human needs, emotions and how people respond to stress
  • 21. Leadership Framework • KNOW your job (be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks) • KNOW your organization (where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are) • DO provide clear direction (goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning). Strategic planning, succession planning, chapter goals to increase membership, etc.) • DO implement (clear communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating • DO motivate (develop morale and esprit de corps in the Chapter/Division, train, coach and counsel
  • 22. Leadership Goals, Values and Concepts • Every organization has a particular work environment which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders • Leaders exert influence on the environment by three types of actions:  Goals and performance standards they establish  Values they establish for the organization  Business and people concepts they establish
  • 23. Leadership Goals, Values and Concepts • Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum (strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality and reliability) • Values reflect the concern the organization has for its members, vendors and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted • Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business • These goals, values and concepts make up the organization’s “personality” or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards and rites that take place
  • 24. Roles and Relationships • Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any position. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be fully spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior including prestige and a sense of accomplishment or challenge • Relationships are determined by a role’s tasks. While some tasks are performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with, how often and towards what end. Normally the greater the interaction, the greater the liking. This is turn, leads to more frequent interaction. It is hard to like someone whom we have had no contact with, and we tend to seek out those we like. People tend to do what they are rewarded for, and friendship is a powerful reward
  • 25. Culture and Climate • There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization • Each organization has its own distinctive culture – it is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history and size • This results in rites: the routines, rituals, and the dreaded, “the way we’ve always done things.” These rites impact individual behavior in a good (or bad or appropriate/inappropriate) way on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) of a particular group and directs the appropriate (inappropriate) behavior of members of the group
  • 26. Culture and Climate • The climate is the “feel” of the organization, the individual and share perceptions and attitudes of the organization’s members. – While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions and customs – Climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership  It represents the beliefs about the “feel of the organization” by its members  This individual perception of the “feel of the organization” comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in organization and if they are inappropriate they should be changed
  • 27. Culture and Climate • Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, based on the values, attributes, skills and actions, as well as the priorities of the leader – Compared to the “ethical climate” – the “feel of the organization” about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the environment that constitute ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave (appropriately or inappropriately). The behavior (or character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate
  • 28. Culture and Climate • On the other hand, culture is a long-term complex phenomenon  It represents the shared expectations (appropriate or not) and self-image of the organization. The mature values that create “tradition” or the “way we’ve always done things here.”  Things are done differently in every organization (but should always be done correctly and appropriately following the guidelines set up by IAAP HQ)  The collective vision and common folklore that define the organization should be a reflection of the entire organization as a whole  Individual leaders cannot easily create or change culture because culture (appropriate or not) is a part of the organization.  Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader.  But everything you do as a leader, will affect the climate of the organization
  • 29. Leadership Models • Leadership Models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. • The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. • Two different leadership models will be briefly discussed:  The Four Framework Approach  The Managerial Grid
  • 30. Leadership Model/Four Framework Approach • Boulman and Deal (1991) suggests that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four frameworks, the style of which can either be effective or ineffective depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations – – Structural in an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders are focused on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation and adaptation. – Human Resource in an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocation, and empowerment, while in an ineffective leadership situation the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization
  • 31. Leadership Model/Four Framework Approach – Political in an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary – Symbolic in an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theatre to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision
  • 32. Leadership Model/Four Framework Approach • This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be • Any of these approached alone would be inadequate, thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches and not just rely on one or two  For example during a major organization change, a structural leadership style may be more effective than a visionary leadership style; while during a period when strong growth is needed, the visionary approach may be better  We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of our favoring just one approach
  • 33. Leadership Model/Managerial Grid • The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (1985) uses two axes: concern for people on the vertical axis and concern for task on the horizontal axis (with both axes having a range of 0 to 9) to help us understand what makes leaders act the way they do • The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior style has the attraction of simplicity • Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axes, but by going to the extremes, (e.g., people who scored on the far end of both of the 0 to 9 scales) the study came up with four different types of leaders
  • 34. Leadership Model/Managerial Grid – Authoritarian Leaders (high on tasks and low on relationships) are very much tasked oriented and are hard on workers (autocratic). There is little or not allowance for collaboration or cooperation. They are very strong on schedules, they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent, so it is difficult to contribute or develop – Team Leaders (high on tasks and high on relationships) lead by positive example and tries to foster a team environment where all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and personally as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams
  • 35. Leadership Model/Managerial Grid – Country Club Leaders (low on tasks and high on relationships) uses reward power to maintain discipline and encourage the team to accomplish its goals. They are almost incapable of employing more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such power could jeopardize relationships with the other team members – Impoverished Leaders (low on tasks and low on relationships) use a “delegate and disappear” management style. They are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefers to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles.
  • 36. Leadership Model/Managerial Grid • The most desirable place for a leader to be at most times would be the Team Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times  For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your team to gain self- reliance. Be an Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it, you will know at what points along the axes you need to be in order to achieve the desired result “Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced” – James Baldwin
  • 37. The Process of Great Leadership • Kouzes & Posner, 1987 suggests that the road to great leadership has five key steps that are common to all successful leaders:  Challenge the process – First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most  Inspire a shared vision – Next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your members  Enable others to act – Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem(s)  Model the way – When the process gets tough, get YOUR hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do, a leader shows that it can be done  Encourage the heart – Share the glory with your members’ hearts, while keeping the pains within your own
  • 38. Always Remember… • Remember that your “leader” is human and has feelings, too! Never forget that they could also be having a bad day, personal problems and are working and volunteering just like you. They should always be held responsible and accountable since they are in a position of authority and leadership, but… • Remember that YOUR words can hurt, so be sensitive when you write e- mails, don’t jump to conclusions – the tone of your e-mail or voice mail can cause unnecessary friction or conflict… • Remember that you might be in your leader’s place one day – so pause for a moment and then put yourself in their shoes for a moment and consider how you really want to be perceived (judgmental, self-righteous, condescending, sarcastic, etc.) and then treat others as you wish to be treated… • FINALLY, please always remember that there is no such thing as perfection, and that no one is perfect – even if we would like to think otherwise! “In matters of style, swim with the current; in matters of principle, stand like a rock” – President Thomas Jefferson
  • 39. YOU, Can Become a Mentor… YOU • You can remember how it was when you first began your leadership journey, so be sure to offer a helping hand by:  Accepting the role as mentor  Treating the role of mentor as an IMPORTANT responsibility  Being patient, generous with your time and always treat your mentee with respect  Providing honest answers  Admitting if you don’t know the answer – you are your mentee’s role model  Encouraging your mentee to stretch beyond any of their preconceived limitations  Helping your mentee realize their own self-worth and strengths  Challenging your mentee to continue to learn and grow  When the time is right – let go, stop hovering, do not micro-manage!  Fostering and keeping the vision alive of your mentee excelling in all aspects of life  Truly enjoy seeing your mentee reach their success – and telling them so, OFTEN!
  • 40. References • Bass, Bernard (1989) Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research. (New York: Free Press • Bass, Bernard (1990) From the transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 18, Issue 3, Winter, 1990, 19-31 • Blake, Robert R. and Mouton, Janse S. (1985). The Managerial Grid III: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co. • Bolman L. and Deal, T (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass • Kouzes, James M. and Posner, Barry Z. (1987). The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass • Lamb L.F., McKee, K.B. (2004). Applied Public Relations: Cases in Stakeholder Management. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Routledge U.S. Army Handbook (1973). Military Leadership. • Concepts of Leadership, http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html